Effect of Foliar Spraying with Liquid Organic Fertilizer, some Micronutrients, and Gibberellins on Leaf Mineral Content, Fruit Set, Yield, and Fruit Quality of “Hollywood” Plum Trees
Research Paper (undergraduate) 2010 6 Pages
Effect of foliar spraying with liquid organic fertilizer, some micro- nutrients, and gibberellins on leaf mineral content, fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of “Hollywood” plum trees
Hassan, H.S.A.; S.M.A., Sarrwy; E.A.M., Mostafa
Pomology Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt
This investigation was carried out during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons on “Hollywood” plum trees, grown in loamy clay soil condition at Sendyon village, Kalubia governorate, Egypt; Aiming to study the effect of foliar sprays with Aminofert (20% Amino acids, 12% organic acids, and 3.6% chelated micro-elements), gibberellins, and a mixture of chelated (Fe, Zn, and Mn) alone or in combination (GA3 + Aminofert or GA3 + a mixture of chelated “Fe, Zn, and Mn”)on fruit set, yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral content. Treatments increased significantly fruit set, yield as weight; or number of fruits/tree, as well as, fruit characteristics (Firmness, TSS, Flesh thickness, and Acidity) were improved under all treatments as compared to the control. Gibberellins or Aminofert alone or in combination (GA3 + Aminofert or GA3 + a mixture of chelated “Fe, Zn, and Mn”) applied to foliage caused a pronounced increase in leaf N, and K content; while Leaf P content decreased in both experimental seasons. As for micro-nutrients concentration, the data indicated that the concentration of Fe, Zn, and Mn was icreased in all treatments comparing to the control. Application of Aminofert at 0.25% + GA3 at 20 ppm was more effective compared to other treatments in the two seasons.
Keywords : Liquid organic fertilizer, Micro-nutrients, Gibberellins, plum, fruit set, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral content
Plums (Prunus salicina) are occupying an importance share in the total fruit production of Egypt. The total area of plum in Egypt reached about 2960 Feddans - according to the census of Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (2005) - which produced 17148 tons with average yield of 5.79 tons / Fed.
Spraying of some nutrient elements (micro-nutrients), some growth regulators (GA3), or liquid organic fertilizer (Aminofert) in order to increase fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of “Hollywood” plum. Mode of action for micro-elements was explained by Larue and Johnson (1989). Iron (Fe) complexes with proteins to form important enzymes in the plant and is associated with chloroplasts, where it has some roles in the synthesizing chlorophyll. Zinc (Zn) has been identified as component of almost 60 enzymes, therefore, it has a role in many plant functions, and it has a role as an enzyme in producing the growth hormone IAA. Manganese (Mn) participates in several important processes including photosynthesis , and metabolism of both nitrogen and carbohydrate..
On the other hand, foliar fertilizers as chelate should be easily absorbed by the plants, rapidly transported, and shoud be easily release their ions to affect the plant Larue and Johnson (1989).
Amino acids have a chelating effect on micronutrients when applied together; the absorption and transportation of micronutrients inside the plant is easier, this effect is due to the chelating action, the effect of cell membrane permeability and low molecular weight Westwood (1993).
Foliar application seems to be effective in micro- nutrients deficiency symptoms El-Seginy et. al, (2003). Experiments showed an increase in fruit set and yield when gibberellic acid was applied to flower clusters Makarem & Mokhtar (1996), and El-Seginy & Khalil (2000). However, GA3 treatment leads to reduce in fruit drop and improving most fruit characteristics Mansour (1979), Helail (1986), and Rezk (1988) on pear trees.
Also, the effect of GA3 has at least three important actions, the first is intensify the ability of organ to be as a nutrient sink; secondly, increasing the synthesis of IAA in plant tissues; the third, it involves synthesis acceleration of hydrolytic enzymes in aleurone cells Addicott and Addicott (1982).
On the other hand, the effect of liquid organic fertilizer such as Aminofert was made for some purpose such as increasing fruit set, yield, and fruit quality; also, the harmful effect of using hormones can be avoided by using Aminofert. However, commercial application of liquid organic fertilizer at the orchard is still very limited El-Sayed (2005).
Accordingly, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of spray application of a mixture of chelated (Fe, Zn, and Mn), gibbrillic acid, and Easterna Aminofert Super (Amino acids 20% + organic acids 12% + chelated micro-elements, Fe, Zn, and B 3.6%) on fruit set, yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral content of “Hollywood” plum trees.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
This investigation was informed during 2007 and 2008 seasons on 15 years old trees of “Hollywood” plum cultivar grown in loamy clay soil at Sendyon village, Kalubia governorate, Egypt. Trees were cultivated at 5 X 5 m apart under basin irrigation system. Trees were healthy, similar in vigor and subjected to the same horticultural practices adapted in the region.
The selected trees were subjected to 6 treatments as follow:
1- Foliar sprays with tap water only (control).
2- Foliar sprays with mixture of chelated micro elements at 0.05%*.
3- Foliar sprays with GA3 at 20ppm. 4- Foliar sprays with Easterna Aminofert at 0.25%.**
5- Foliar sprays with mixture of micro elements at 0.05% + GA3 at 20ppm.
6- Foliar spray with Easterna Aminofert at 0.25% and GA3 at 20ppm.
* A mixture of chelated composition: Fe-EDTA (6%Fe), Zn-EDTA (14%Zn), and Mn-EDTA (12%Mn).
** Aminofert (liquid organic fertilizer) composition:
a- Amino acids: (Glycine, Glutamine, Systenine, Methionine, Aspartic acid, Gultamic acid, Valine, Lysine, Lecithin, Phynyl alanine) as 20 % of Aminofert composition.
b- Organic acids: (lactic, Citric, Aminobenzoic, Phosphoric, Acelic, Tartaric, Formic) as 12% of Aminofert composition.
c- Chelated microelements: (Fe 2%, Mn 0.5%, Zn 1%, and B 0.1%) as 3.6% of Aminofert composition.
Trees were sprayed with the above materials three times, at 70% full-bloom, after fruit set, and a month later. Foliar sprays were applied using a hand pressure sprayer. Triton-B emulsifier at a rate of 0.1% was used as a surfactant. Each tree received 5 liters of spraying solution; and two rows of trees were left surrounded each treatment as a guard border.
Treatments were replicated three times in a completely randomized block design. Each replicate consisted of three trees. The following parameters were determined in the two successive seasons:
Fruit Set: Two years old shoot was selected from each tree for recording data of total number of flowers at full-bloom in March and number of set fruits in April. These data were used in calculating the percentage of fruit set using the following equation:
Fruit set percentage
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Yield per tree and fruit quality: Fruits were harvested at maturity stage (the first week of June) from each tree of various replicates and yield was recorded as a number of fruits/tree and weight in Kilograms. Samples of 10 randomly mature fruits from each experimental unit were used for measuring various fruit quality attributes. Characters measured were fruit weight, size, polar and equatorial diameters, flesh thickness, fruit firmness using a pressure tester, TSS content using a hand refractometer, and Titratable acidity percent as malic acid, A.O.A.C (1990).
Leaf mineral content: Leaf samples were collected for chemical analysis in early August of both seasons. Each sample consisted of 30 leaves / tree. Leaves were washed several times with tap water, rinsed with distilled water, and then dried at 70 c until a constant weight, ground and digested according Chapman and Pratt (1978). Nitrogen was estimated by semi-micro kieldahl method of Plummer (1971). Phosphorus was determined by the method outlined by Jackson (1973). Potassium, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined using atomic absorption spectro photometer “Perkin Elmer 1100B” after samples digested according to Chapman and Pratt (1978).