Practical Mannual. Instructional Technology for College Teachers

by Dr Rajesh Kadam (Author) Godawari Pawar (Author) Dr. Sunil Umate (Author)

Textbook 2015 107 Pages

Instructor Plans: Agriculture / Forestry / Gardening



















Teachers engaged in higher education in general and those in agricultural universities in particular have to shoulder multifarious responsibilities as research, extension and management in addition to teaching. This results into diversifying their attention and energy refraining them from fully focussing on teaching. Secondly, college teachers in general rely on their knowledge of subject matter of their field of specialization alone for effective teaching. It is so because of giving blind eye to pedagogical methods and their importance in making teaching effective. The fact ‘how’ something is said is equally important as ‘what’ is said, is ignored.

Ideally the whole process of education needs to be geared round the learners. However, it is a general experience that teachers dominate the scene. Instead of resorting to one-way communication like deaf talking to dumb, the teacher should initiate the participatory learning. The teachers differ widely in performing their role. A common teacher narrates. Good teacher explains. Best teacher analyses and the outstanding teacher motivates. What is taught is not as important as that of developing capacity among learners to learn on their own. Ignoring these pedagogical principles results into poor quality of teaching - learning process. The teacher should bear in mind that classroom is a battlefield for him and if he is defeated here on the field, he is defeated in his life career.

Therefore, for avoiding the defeat of a teacher such training as this one on instructional technology are of immense importance. We have taken a care to cover all possible aspects of instruction including the commitment of teacher. Eight training programmes including this one have been conducted by this department on instructional technology, a few of which have been organized exclusively with our own faculty as resource persons. We hope this will also be of great utility to our newly recruited trainee teachers along with training manual.

Dr. Rajesh Kadam

Mrs. Godawari Pawar

Dr. Sunil Umate


Education is the process of imparting or acquiring knowledge and habits through instructions or study. Agriculture is a component of education, which envisages various disciplines viz. Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Science, Forestry & Fisheries, Home Science, Agricultural Technology, Education Technology, Social Sciences, Engineering, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Instrumentation, Environmental Science, Agricultural Business Management, etc. Therefore, it is aptly called as education for agriculture.

Agriculture forms strong base of food security, provides productive employment to large section of people and contributes major share of our GDP. Food is most powerful weapon over the globe. Obviously, food and nutritional security decides economical status of the country.

Going back, thrust on agricultural education was laid in 1891. Subsequently, agricultural colleges were established at Lyalpur, Nagpur, Pune, Coimbatore and Kanpur during 1906-07. With the establishment of ICAR, IARI and first agricultural university at Pantnagar; the agricultural education received due importance and status drawing support from various committees.

The education system basically takes advantage of learner, subject matter, teacher (could be mother, father, family members, friend) who provides opportunity to experience an innovation at home, class rooms and society.

Formal education comprises teaching – learning process aided by teacher, student, curriculum, teaching aids and physical facilities; evaluation system through examination and grading and co-curricular activities like games and sports and scientific societies and club.

Retrospecting development of agricultural education in the state, famine experienced in 1879 laid to the development of agriculture. The agricultural education then spread state wide across Pune, Mumbai, Nagpur, Akola, Parbhani, Amravati, Dhule and Dapoli. Later, the hubs of agricultural education were established at MPKV, Rahuri; PDKV, Akola; MKV, Parbhani and BSKKV, Dapoli. For coordination of these farm universities MCAER was established at Pune in 1983.

At present, there are 45 SAUs including veterinary sciences, 4 deemed universities, 1 central agricultural university in India which include 4 SAUs in Maharashtra catering to agricultural education in the State. In view of India’s food policy and thrust on agriculture, privatization of education for agriculture ushered in with agriculture and allied colleges, agricultural schools, polytechnics, etc. Some of them need financial support, some warrants upgradation and some require closure.

Our national food security should ensure physical, economic and social access to balanced diet, safe drinking water, sanitation, environmental hygiene, primary health care and education to lead healthy and productive life. The food should be procured from environmentally benign production technologies that conserve natural base of crops, animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries.

In India, food shortage was experienced during 1960-70s. With the introduction of hybrid and improved varieties, there was a quantum jump in food grain production leading to first green revolution. Later, attempts made to achieve white revolution with hybrid cows, yellow revolution with oil seeds and rainbow revolution with fruits and vegetables were spectacular. Now, we need second green revolution by 2010 with the use of transgenic plants and cereals.

We have on record interdisciplinary breakthroughs to cite – dolly, banana with hepatitis B vaccine, potatoes with E.coli vaccine, oral cancer vaccine, cultivation of primordial human cell from fertilized human egg, cure for inherited diseases, etc. Super human being will be the major contribution of next millennium.

We need to concentrate on Biotechnology, Information Technology, Postharvest Technology, Agricultural Business Management, Integrated Pest Management, Water Management, Nutrient Management, Basic Sciences including Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology, Statistics, Mathematics, Plant Physiology, Environmental Science and others.

What we achieve through education for agriculture – We prepare graduates for productive employment, higher education, dissemination of technologies and for taking agriculture as profession. For achieving these objectives, reorientation of agricultural education in context of productivity, sustainability, quality, conservation, IPR and environment; is necessary.

What we expect is value added product (learner) embedding therein knowledge and skill pertaining to research, education, extension, public service and industrial fields.

In order to improve agricultural education due importance should be given to recruitment of competent faculty and its upgradation, revision of curriculum and its delivery, infrastructure and good governance.

To deliver goods, the university should have freedom in terms of what to teach, whom to teach and who should teach. As quoted by Elbert Hubbard, there is an imperative need of producing extra ordinary and dedicated teachers to bring about radical change in the students and the society as a whole. An average person with average talent, ambition and education can outstrip genius in the society, provided he has clear focused goals. That comes only from devotion, dedication and discipline.

To sum up, agricultural education can best be managed with administrative and academic reforms, strong commitment to society, devolution of power and least political intervention. The education for agriculture should receive top priority in future to put India on sound pedestal.


Simulation is relatively a new approach introduced in the field of education. It is widely used in military, business and medical education.

Meaning of Simulation:

A contrived experience so planned to give the effect of real experience is simulation. Simulation is the process of designing a model of a real or imagined system and conducting experiments with that model.

The presentation is made as near as possible to the real situation, event or object. e.g: A mini working model of an aeroplane is used in training pilots ( and practice the manipulation of aircraft). Another example is micro teaching wherein student trainees actually teach a very small group in laboratory setting. School days celebrated in schools and children playing assuming role of mother, father, children are very good examples of simulation.

Purpose of using simulation approach:

1. Motivation of learners
2. Considering complex problems
3. Understanding ones role in the proper perspective
4. Understanding another persons role from his point of view .
5. Modification of student behavior.
6. Helping students to assume new roles in future


1. Simulation approach encourages students to express and participate in situations that are close to reality.
2. Possibility of injury or risk to the individual(s) involved in the activity is removed e.g.: Dissection of dead bodies by students
3. Enables students to understand process in miniature form
4. Students gets an understanding of other’s is feelings and ways of thinking
5. It very often results in behavioral modification

Methods of Simulation:

There are two ways to create simulation and enactment of students in the situation

1. Simulation games
2. Role playing

Simulation Games:

Opportunities are given to try out certain situation by playing a game with set of players.

Rules are framed for a game and followed

Period of time to keep and actions to be taken are defined

Individual players strive to attain specific goals of the game.

Players are required to take critical decisions by using rationale.

There is difference between games and role play. Games are played to win but role playing need not be for winning. Role playing is used for understanding of issues and processes.

Role Playing:

Role playing is a laboratory method of instruction. It involves dramatization of a situation by two or more students under the direction of a teacher with the sole purpose of understanding the feelings, actions and behaviour of others, especially in a problem situation. It is a simple informal drama without having a predetermined text.


1. The dramatization of a problem or situation in the general area of human relation is called as role playing.
2. Role playing may be defined as an educational ( or therapeutic ) technique in which some problem involving human interactions ( real or imaginary) is presented and then spontaneously acted out. The enactment is usually followed by a discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why, and if necessary, how the problem could be better handled in future – Wallace Wohlking.


“Role- fitting” and “role-taking” are other terms for role playing. It is an effective means often used in college classes. For providing spontaneous unrehearsed life-like representations of experiences for example, the adolescent boy who has problem of adjustment at home with his parents and sister, could role play, taking the role of father. students give support by taking up the role of mother, sister, etc.

This is also used in practicing managerial (or team) skills in doing and implementing.

Purpose of role playing:

1. Illustrate aspects of interpersonal problems.
2. Promote understanding of view points and feelings of others.
3. Development insight into personal attitudes, values and behaviour
4. Enable to understand psychological and social problems.

Steps in Organizing Role Playing:

1. Selection of an appropriate problem situation
2. Selecting students for role playing
3. Allotting of roles to the students
4. Teacher’s orientation about this approach – Describe the characters to be involved and the specific aspects of the presentation.
5. Giving time to the participants for preparation
6. Actual role playing
7. Peer group members comments on the role play and
8. Teacher’s remarks and summing up

As the role play is going on, the other students observe as a group Role play is allowed to proceed without interruption for probably not more than 4-6 minutes. Discussion after role play starts with asking the participants themselves to evaluate their own execution of their respective roles. The discussion may also involve the other class members.

Types of Role Play:

A. Spontaneous Role Playing
B. Structured Role Playing

Structured role plays are often used in management training.

Types of Structured Role Play:

1. Single Role Plays:

Two or more participants play assigned roles in front of other participants. This form of role pay is mostly used. It is used to show how certain problems can be dealt. This requires trust among participants and even negative feedback is discussed in open climate.

2. Multiple Role Plays:

All participants are players. The main group is divided into three or four sub-group. Each player of sub-group is given a written role ( or an assignment as observer), and then all participants play their roles at the same time. The main advantage is that it demonstrates the broad variety of conclusions and decisions that may be reached by many individuals, all-starting with the same point.

3. Role Rotation:

In outward appearance role rotation is similar to the single role play. The only difference is that in this type the same individual rotates his role in the same situation. The role rotation is done in sequence until all the roles are played by the participant role players.

Phases in Role Play:

1. The warm-up phase:

The objective of the warm-up is to activate participants to take part in a constructive manner in the role play experiences. This is being done by the instructor by delivering a brief lecture on the key points related to the role playing case.

2. The Enactment:

The participants who have volunteered or have been selected to play the roles are sent out and told to read their role briefing sheets. Then engage in role playing. The role playing should be allowed to proceed without disturbance for 5 to 7 minutes. The instructor and other participants observe the role play keenly.

3. Post Enactment Discussion:

The issues and problems that develop during the enactment should be brought out. It is desirable that the participant who had most difficult role to comment on his own performance. Then other role players are requested to comment on their own roles, then the other participants ( non- role players) are asked to offer their comments and lastly the instructor gives his expert comments.


A lamp cannot light another lamp

unless itself is also burning

A teacher cannot truely teach

unless the teacher is also learning

- Rabindranath Tagore

Classroom is the Sine-quo-non of any formal education though we are much talking of distance education, self-learning, field practical and so on. Lecture is the major method used for classroom instructions. In spite of its limitation, the lecture has remained and will remain to be the most popular method of teaching.

Lecture is a formal discourse wherein a learned person exposes complexities of a topic or a subject and explains it to motivated audience.

Main concern of a teacher (Sudarsanam R, 1979):

A teacher should communicate to help the learner

1. ‘Understand’ subject matter (concepts, process, procedures, facts, principles, relations etc. )
2. ‘Internalize’ subject matter
3. ‘Use’ it in real life situations
4. ‘Develop the subject’ further

So as to attain the above objectives of teaching / learning the teacher should structure a communication event in following manner ( five acts).

1. Lead: Motivate learners to listen, identify problem and to perceive the value of the message.
2. Development: Recall the already possessed knowledge, identify gaps in knowledge and create need to fill the gaps.
3. Content: Present new knowledge in a way which will help learner understand it easily and get all uncertainties ( ambiguities, doubts, and confusions etc. ) clarified.
4. Reinforcement: Provide associational links which may help in anchoring the
5. knowledge in the memory tracts of the learner and in eliminating any
6. confusion that may arise out of pro-active or retro-active thinking.
7. Closure: Summarize value of the particular learning event or subject matter taught.

Strengths of Lecture Method:

1. Students teacher ratio can be large
2. Flexible method adaptable to wide range of subject matter.
3. Can be adjusted to achievement level of students
4. Can be used within given time limit
5. Can be adjusted to available apparatus and equipments
6. Teacher can get direct reinforcement / feedback from students
7. Students attention and interest can be captured by teacher’s wit and humour, non-verbal communication like gestures, postures and movements, enthusiasm
8. Closed controlled environment of classroom may avoid interruption shifting of attention of learners.
9. It gives students the group feeling, social reinforcement and emotional security
10. It is cheaper method

Weaknesses of Lecture Method:

Lecture in its pure form has following weaknesses

1. Teacher centered method
2. Inadequate to motivate learners
3. Passive learners
4. No guarantee of learning
5. High degree of teachers competence required
6. Inadequate scope for practice / experience
7. Employs dominantly ear as sense organ
8. Learnt material is easily forgotten

Steps in Planning and delivering a lecture:

By and large four steps are involved in planning and presentation of a lecture in classroom as

1. Preparation of lecture
2. Presentation
3. Application
4. Testing or evaluating

Preparation of lecture:

Spell out purpose (s) of lecture in clear terms

Collect adequate material from various sources

Subject matter should be updated by adding information from journals, periodicals and newspapers.

Add apt illustrations

Prepare lesson plan

Organize material in following manner

Make three parts – Introduction , body and summary

Known to unknown

Simple to complex

Make marking in script for showing transpierces, visuals

Prepare brief on cards or piece of paper for referring in class

Read material thoroughly and prepare well

Ensure that all teaching aids are ready

2. Presentation:

The major steps a college teacher should take are:

a. Warming up step
b. Presentation step

a. Warming up step:

Opening topic

Catching attention and creating interest

Illustrate stories

Related incidents happened recently

Newspaper items of relevance

Visual Presentation

Highlights of previous lecture

Recall certain knowledge on which new learning should be based

Realize the value of topic

b. Presentation steps:

During the lecture there must be variation in the style of presentation such as-

Vice Modulation:

Be conscious of voice and its impact on audience

Low voice is not welcome, so too shouting at a high pitch. Have pleasant voice

Emphasize points with louding voice

Change in speed of delivery

Pausing to emphasize a statement or name

Combining the auditory with visual presentation

Support talk with gesture, posture, movement of hands

Look at eyes of students

Convey encouragement or reinforcement responses by nodding or by smile

Ask questions and get responses. Encourage students participation

Present subject matter step by step in logical manner

Match methods with subject taught

Give emphasis on important parts

Keep audience alive

Follow good mannerism like saluting, thanking students.

Be moderately good dressed and pleasant looking

Wipeout the matter on black-board before leaving class.

Avoid this:

1. Do not walk up and down the available space in front of class or platform
2. Do not show back so far as possible to learners
3. Spend minimum time in writing on black board.
4. Do not continue talking while writing on black board
5. Do not talk in same high pitch
6. Do not get drawn into own ideas and keep control on yourself
7. Do not introduce wrong ideas in answering a question. Be honest to admit that you do not know an idea or concept.
8. Do not talk to window or roof
9. Don’t be authoritative, Be friendly with students
10. Retrain from giving notes or dictating subject matter
11. Avoid compulsive habits like playing with button, ring, pen, repeating some words very often.
12. Do not stand between visuals and learners

3. Application Step:

Application step whether to be followed or not depends on nature of subject matter taught and availability of time. This step needs to be followed necessarily in practical classes.

In this step the learner is given an opportunity to perform the operation, solve the assigned problem carryout the practical etc. The instructor should watch the activities of learners, correct their errors, and help them over difficult points. He the should identify fast and slow learners and gear his assignment to strengthen the practice further.

4. Testing Evaluating Step:

It could be done in one of the following manners:

1. Evaluation of learners by teacher: At the time of application step, the instructor may checkup and determines whether students can carry through on their own and make use of new learning without help of instructor.
2. Evaluation by colleague: Colleague of the teacher attends and assesses the lecture with the help of a check list or proforma
3. Teacher’s Self Evaluation: This is a sort of introspection that one has to do.
4. Questionnaire method: Students should be allowed to fill in questionnaire anonymously. This method cannot be used to evaluate each lecture but is used at the beginning or at the middle of the course. The analysis could indicate the students opinion on aspects such as: Level of understanding clarity of language, aptness of examples cited, speed of talking, audibility, type of difficulties in comprehending new ideas and concepts.

Modified forms of Lecture:

1. Illustrated lectures: Projected and non-projected material is used.
2. Lecture – cum - Demonstration: A lecturer can combine demonstration with his lectures, comprehend the lecture more effectively.
3. Lecture – cum - buzz sessions: About 10-15 minutes before the lecture is over, the class can be divided into small groups of five to ten students for discussion on a topic. The leader of each group presents the conclusions and solutions emerged out of the discussion to the whole group.
4. Lectures interposed with questions: The purpose of asking questions to students can be any one or more like: to motivate students, to stimulate thought process, clarify and expand concepts, to give specific direction to thinking, or to assess students progress. It is better to ask a question first to whole class and a particular student is called to reply so that whole class is activated.

Making Lecture Effective:

Thus Effective Lecture is one which:

1. Relates new ideas with old ones
2. Catches and holds attention of students throughout
3. Emphasizes value of the subject matter and motivate learners
4. Generate interest
5. Helps internalize subject matter taught
6. Enables learners to recall and apply the knowledge and skill in real life situation
7. Develops subject matter further
8. Leads to satisfaction of learners

Principles to be applied for effective Instructions:

Learning by doing and seeing is believing

Practice strengthens learning

Active involvement increases learners receptivity

Need is motivating factor

Reward is effective than punishment

If one hears, he forgets If one observes, he remembers for some time. If one performs, he remembers for even

If student has not learnt, teacher has not taught.



Learning is getting knowledge or skills.

Learning can be defined as process of gaining knowledge.

It can be a long process, e.g. life long learning, learning is individual (self- learning), that means each person has it’s own methods and styles to learn.


Teaching is a process of passing knowledge; it might include guiding as well as a rule. Teaching means giving knowledge.

When speaking about teaching, we usually mean more than one person involved. We need one party to teach and one party to be taught.


1. “As long as I live, so long do I learn.” Shri Ramkrishna.
2. Learning is the “process by which an individual, through one’s own efforts and abilities changes the behaviour.” Leagans (1961)
3. “Learning is the process which brings about changes in the individuals way of responding as a result of contact with aspects of the environment.” Ruch (1970)
4. Learning is defined as “any relatively permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of practice and experience.” Morgan and kng (1978)
5. Learning as live process by which the individual acquires various habits, knowledge’s and attitudes that are necessary to meet the demands of life inn generally. Boaz (1984)
6. Learning is the process by which on activity originates or is changed through training procedures as is distinguished from changes by factors and attributable to training” Hilgard
7. Learning can also be defined as it is a process of progressive behavior adaptation

What is learning Experience ?

It is the mental and/or physical reaction one makes through seeing, hearing or doing the things to be learned, through which one gains meanings and understandings of the material to be learned.

An Effective learning situation

An effective learning situation is one in which all the essential elements for promoting learning i.e. learners, teachers, subject matter, teaching materials and physical facilities, relevant to a particular situation are present in dynamic relationship with one another.

Criteria for effective learning

1. Learning should be purposeful
2. Learning should involve appropriate activity by the learners that engages a maximum number of senses.
3. Learning must be challenging and satisfying
4. Learning must result in functional understanding

Laws of learning:

a. Law of Readiness: It refers to the physical or psychological (mental) preparedness of a person to do a job or to attend to a stimulus. If one is prepared to learn or acquire something he welcomes it and gets a satisfying feeling while doing it. Conversely, if one is not ready to receive a stimulus, he regrets it and demonstrates dissatisfaction while making a response. Thus, in the opinion of Thorndike, readiness for doing a work makes learning smooth, pleasant and economical.

b. Law of Exercise: It is the principle of repetition or the frequency principle. Repetition, increases the strength of response and lack of repetition weakens it. Hence, law of exercise is based on the principle “Practice makes one perfect” A person who has repeated a poem several times will remember it than one who has not.

c. Law of Effect: It follows from Low of Exercise. Law effect refers to some kind to reward or reinforcement. It stresses the role of motivation in learning. It is the cornerstone, the cardinal principle of Thorndike’s theory of learning. This law is responsible for the selection of some goal and rejection of others. Law of effect in Thorndke’s opinion refers to strengthening and weak-ening of connections as a result of its consequences.

d. Law of Belongingness: It states that the effect is stronger, if it belongs to the stimulus response connection.

Principles of learning

A. Principle of Association: - Learning is a growth like and continuous. The kind of learning that takes place is the results of the kind of experiences we have. Experiences that occur together tend to recur together. Previous learning always sets the stage for subsequent learning.

B. Principle of Clarity: - Learning is purposeful. Learning varies directly with the meaningfulness of the material presented. Learning is increased when the learner sees the end sought by the practice.

C. Principle of Self-activity: - Learning results through self activity. It is an active process on the part of the learner. Teachers can only set up the learning situation and stimulate a person to learn. The door to learning is “locked on the inside” and unless the learner opens the door himself, learning cannot take place.

D. Principle of Readiness and Principle of Rewards: - Learning must be challenging and satisfying. Readiness does not connote mere desire to learn; it includes social and intellectual maturity as well. The more fully a person is in readiness to act in a certain way the more satisfying it will be for him. Consequently, learning depends primarily upon satisfaction of wants or needs, in other words, upon success. Rewards maintain and strengthen the learning process.

E. Principle of Practice:-Learning must result in functional understanding. Memorization alone is temporary unless reviewed or put to use in a practical situation. The oftener a situation evokes or leads to a certain response, the stronger becomes the tendency for it to do so in future. Practice leads to perfection (not mere countless repetitions).

F. Principle of Disassociation: - Learning is affected by emotions. The intensity of emotional feeling affects learning differently in different individuals; The most effective way of eliminating an undesirable response is to set up a desirable substitute, which must be made more satisfying than the original (undesirable) reaction.

G. Principle of Timing: - Learning takes place more readily when the facts or skills are given at the time or just before the time they are to be used in a serviceable way.

H. Principle of Environment: - Learning is affected by the physical and social environment.

Edgevr Dale’s cone of Experience, as modified by Sheal (1989) provides a linkage between learning, activity and participant involvement.

Concept of Teaching

Teaching :- (Leagans 1961) Teaching is the “ Process of arranging situations in which important things to be learned are called to the attention of the learners, their interest developed, desire aroused, and action promoted.

1. Teaching is directing the learning process, the process by which one through his own activity becomes changed in behaviour. (Hammonds, 1950).
2. Is communication between two or more persons who influence each other by their ideas and learn something in the process of interaction.
3. It is the process in which learner, teacher, curriculum and other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goal.

Functions of Teaching:

1. Explaining, informing: - The good teacher is expected to be well informed in areas in which he teaches. He is expected to be able to communicate information needed for background, enrichment and motivation and on many occasions to explain relationship to children. He should permit the students to practice the knowledge and skills they acquire in the class.
2. Initiating, Directing and Administering: - From morning till evening, the teacher faces and handles many problems which require the instinctive, direction and administrative abilities. The teacher as the leader of the team should be able to initiate activities and get them organized.
3. Unifying the group: - In the beginning of the session, a teacher is confronted with a number of children who are not unified. As they live together, they become a unified group. An important task of the teacher is that of developing a group with a group spirit, identification with common purposes and some common concerns.
4. Giving Security: - There are children who feel a sense of loneliness, isolation, rejection and economic insecurity. The teacher should identify the needs of such children and when they need protection, he should protect them.
5. Clarifying Attitudes, Beliefs and problems: - It is a fact that many of our children are utterly confused by social influences surrounding them. The teacher gives the children opportunities to compare, observe, classify, interpret and puts them in a position to analyze, criticize and summaries.
6. Diagnosing learning problems: - There are children in every class who do not make expected progress in their studies, growth and dev elopement. The teacher must diagnose the learning problems of individual students and should suggest the possible course of action.
7. Making curriculum material: - The curriculum in India is mostly framed at the state level for the entire state without making provision for local variation. The teacher should modify the curriculum in accordance with the needs of group and the local community.
8. Evaluating, Recording and Reporting: - The teacher has to evaluate the progress of the class as a whole and individual student by means of tests and periodical examinations. He has to report the progress to the principal and parents.
9. Enriching community activity: - A school is said to be the miniature form of the society the teacher should remain in close contact with the community in which he serves. Harmonious relationships get school and community is a continuing and essential part of school life. Continuous efforts should be made to enrich the community life function of teaching.
10. Arranging and Organizing Class Room: - It is an important responsibility of a teacher to make the class room a beautiful place for learning. Physical facilities should be appropriately provided in the room. Arrangement should be flexible to change it to suit the different occasions.
11. Participating in School Activities :- The teacher should participate in other school activities in addition to his routine teaching assignment. These may include excursions, picnics and organizing some show etc. His participation in these activities is regarded as one of the important functions of teaching.
12. Participating in Professional Life :- Every teacher is expected to enter wholly into professional life and to make his contribution to the improvement of the profession. He is expected to belong to professional Societies, attend conferences and keep up – to – date in his subject.

Steps in Teaching

1. Step 1: Getting the attention of the learner :

The first task of the teacher is to direct the attention of the individual to the new or better idea. Until the individual’s attention has been focused upon the change that is considered desirable, there is no recognition of a problem to be solved or a want to be satisfied. Attention is the starting point to the arousing of interest.

2. Step 2: Stimulating the learner’s interest

Once attention has been captured, it becomes possible for the teacher to appeal to the basic needs or urges of the individual and arouse his interest in further consideration of the idea.

3. Step 3: Arousing the learner’s desire for information

The teacher is concerned with the continued stimulation of the learner’s interest in the new idea or better practice until that interest becomes a desire or motivating force, sufficiently strong to complection.

4. Step 4: Convincing the learner that he should act

Action follows when desire, conviction and the prospect of satisfaction, make it easier for the person to act than not to act.

5. Step 5: Getting action by the learner

Unless conviction is converted into action, the teaching effort is fruitless. It is the job of the teacher to make it easy for the learner to act. Blocks and annoyances that might prevent action should be anticipated by the teacher and appropriate steps taken to remove them.

6. Step 6: Making certain that the learner obtains satisfaction from his action

The end product of the teaching effort is the satisfaction that comes to the learner as the result of solving a problem, meeting a need, acquiring a new skill or some other change in behaviours. Follow-up by the teacher helps the learner to evaluate the progress made strengthens satisfaction, minimizes the annoyances and builds the learner confidence in his ability to continue the action with increasing satisfaction.


1. Learning experiences contribute towards the achievement of the objectives.
2. Learning experiences provides continuity and sequential development of an individual.
3. Learning occurs only through self activity.
4. Teachers gives effort to enrich the community in the society
5. Teaching makes an individual self dependent, self confident and make them strong physically and mentally.


Teaching methods may be defined as the devices used to create situations in which communication can take place between the instructor and learner.

Functions of extension methods

1. To provide communication so that the learner may see, hear and do the things to be learnt.
2. To provide stimulation that causes the desired mental and/or physical action on the part of the learner.
3. In brief, to take the learner through one or more steps of the teaching, learning process i.e. attention, interest, desired, conviction, action and satisfaction.

Classification of extension methods

According to use:

1. Individual contacts
a. Farm and home visit
b. Office calls
c. Telephone calls
d. Personal letters
2. Group contacts
a. Result demonstration
b. Method demonstration
c. Conferences and discussion meetings
d. Tours
e. Schools
f. Miscellaneous meetings
3. Mass contacts
a. Bulletins
b. Leaflets
c. News stories
d. Circular letters
e. Radio
f. Television
g. Exhibits
h. Posters

According to form:

1. Written: Bulletins, leaflets, news articles, personal letters, circular letters.
2. Spoken: General and special meetings at all kinds, farm and home visits, office calls, telephone calls, radio.
3. Visual / objective: Result emonstrations, exhibits, posters, motion pictures, charts, slides and other visual aids.
4. Spoken / visual: Method demonstration meetings, meetings involving motion pictures, charts and other visual aids, television.



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Title: Practical Mannual. Instructional Technology for College Teachers