Human Resource Management. Managing Labor Inefficiency

Term Paper 2014 19 Pages

Leadership and Human Resource Management - Miscellaneous


Table of Contents

Course Objectivesh

Course Description

1. Introduction

2. Motivation in the organization

3. Defining conflict management
3.1 Organizational conflicts
3.2 Conflict resolution in an organization
3.3 Communal negotiations as a measure of solving organizational divergence
3.4 Conciliation mode of resolving conflicts

4. Organizational politics

5. Culture of an organizational

6. Managing change in an organization

7. Organizing phase in human resource management
7.1 Synchronization phase

8. Organizational structures
8.1 Informal structures
8.2 Network structures

9. Organizational jobs and structure of teams
9.1 Organizing teams
9.2 Job design
9.3 Work schedules

10. Aspects of discipline in the organization
10.1 Corrective actions in the organization.

11. Conclusion


Course Objectivesh

To analyze;

1. Quality management, and Career development
2. Job creation and Social change in human resource.

Course Description

The course aims at assessing social responsibilities of employees, employers’ roles, employee’s welfare, managerial discretion of an organization and employees engagements in action. Ethical requirements in the organization and considerations of quality human resource are important factors.

1. Introduction

Contemporary organizations are faced with many pressures from stakeholders and shareholders to develop human resources responsible for better running of organizational activities where performance reflects an output that demonstrates the degree to which organizations are committed to protecting and enhancing productive tools (Stephanie 2013 & Jin 2014). It is argued that organizational performance can be evaluated by a set of indicators such as higher attitude of performance, conflict management, developing organizational culture, illiteracy prevention and the aim of long term goals (Kelly 1992). However, this may be attained through the implementation of job design management system (JDMS) and encouraging interactions between human resource management (HRM) and manpower available in the organization (Workman 2012).

2. Motivation in the organization

According to Andrews (2008), the stimulus of working is enhanced through issuing rewards to better performing employees. Motivation as a process therefore consists of assessing the needs of employees which when met can make them more resourceful at work (Andrews 2008). Workman (2012) for instance, asserts that the drives in turn can help in achieving organizational goals based on the uplifted working spirit of employees (Andrews 2008). According to Jin (2014),

Training, appraisal, and rewards contribute to develop employees’ motivation to endorse the firm’s environmental concerns, enabling it to be more competitive and to reach environmental standards.

The content theories of work motivation aim at determining what motivates people at work and furthermore, these theories are concerned with identifying the needs and drives that people have and how these needs and drives are prioritized (Goldberg n.d, & Andrews 2008). Andrews (2008) for example, agrees that firms need a learning vision as a guideline for shaping their strategy and employees must be trained to understand the organization’s philosophy of higher education image.

3. Defining conflict management

Armstrong (1998) asserts that conflict management involves designing effective strategies to minimize the “dysfunctions of organizations” and enhance constructive management of factious groups for the purpose of effective organizational production. Common causes of conflict in organizations can be variedly classified but Nkomo (1988), assumes the most common causes as being Scarcity of resources that include finance, equipments and organizational facilities.

3.1 Organizational conflicts

Conflict may be defined as a process of social interaction involving struggles over claims to resources, power, status, beliefs, and other preferences in the organization (Bisno 1988), or conflict is the difference of discernment of people concerning values and preferences (Coser 1968 & Armstrong 1998). Subsequently, the aims of the parties in conflict may extend from simply attempting to gain acceptance of a preference, or securing a resource advantage to the extremes of injuring or eliminating their rivals (Bisno, 1988, & Coser, 1968). On the contrary, however, conflicts are inevitable among humans more especially when two or more social entities for instance individuals, groups and organizations come in contact with one another subjective to an issue that involves contest (Bisno 1988).

In the education organization, people experience different cultural backgrounds that make them view things differently for instance, the way they communicate, their ambitious motives, political perspectives and religious beliefs (Bisno 1988). These differences may contribute to conflicts and therefore driving the manager to ensure that the possibility of disintegrating the harmony of the organization is resolved (Coser 1968). Whenever people form groups, they tend to emphasize the things that make their group “better than” or “different from” other groups (Armstrong 1998). Mostly, these factions normally occur in the field of sports when employees encounter with their teammates for refreshment. However, if not well managed, this interaction can possibly turn into violence from differences because of personal attitudes, rivalry or ambitions of an organization (Bisno 1988). Nonetheless, leaders of organizations should be vigilant on how to manage the dynamics of a group in that specific organization that can result into organizational conflicts (Wang 2008).

3.2 Conflict resolution in an organization

In attempting to attain their objectives, the relationships of these organizations may become incompatible however, but such entities may become inconsistent when two or more of them desire similar resources that are in short supply or when they have partially exclusive behavioral preferences regarding their joint action or when they have different attitudes, values, belief, and skills (Bisno 1988).

3.3 Communal negotiations as a measure of solving organizational divergence

Employees and their employers usually have antagonistic issues and so it is of significant value for the organization to put mechanisms that can quickly check on any arising differences with effective and unbiased attitudes to one another for the purpose of identifying the source of the problem (Jin 2014). This is where expertise of manpower in conflict resolution is needed but if the organization realizes that it has no funding for hiring such experts, communal dialogue is important to outsource the ;problem. It means that every group involved in faction is represented with mandated people to get into the heart of the problem (Bisno 1988). Some of the organizations tend to regard withdrawal as a better remedy to the factious issue revolving around the organization. However, it is important to initiate democratic problem solving interactively for the intention of retrieving the harmony of the organization for example, “cooperation and agreement over rules and organizational procedures” (Coser 1968, Wang 2008, & Nkomo 1988).

3.4 Conciliation mode of resolving conflicts

Bisno (1968) refers to conciliation as the act of procuring good will or inducing a friendly feeling where by groups that are in conflict and are unsuccessful in reaching an agreement, can come together once again to attempt to settle their differences. On the other hand, Collum (2009) argues that this step is usually attempted before more serious actions of workers or exclusion of the management is taken. Similarly, any other organization for instance school, youth group or community organization could try conciliation as a first step in solving occasional conflicts (Workman 2012).

4. Organizational politics

Organizational politics can be described as self serving and manipulative behavior of individuals and groups to promote their self interests at the expense of others (Wang 2008). This may manifest through struggle for resource, competition for power and leadership and tactical influences executed by individuals to attain power, building personal status, controlling access to information and, not revealing real intends of building coalitions (Coser 1968, Bisno 1988 & Armstrong 1998).

Understanding of organizations’ political systems is absolutely essential for managers to maneuver the company towards the initiated goals (Lamond 2004, & Koontz 1955). Internally, employees will have an advantage of knowledge of general political conditions prevailing in the organization but managers must put efforts to learn and understand the existing organizational politics through keen observation and focused interaction of different groups of people (Wang 2008 & Stephanie 2013). Some of the indicators available for managers to apply in making assessment of the political climate is, general job satisfaction levels, responsiveness to innovative ideas, efficacy of decision making machinery and speed of implementation of decisions (Jin 2014). Nevertheless, the way of understanding from managers is the key of exploiting and overwhelming organizational politics and also the way of enhancing organizational credibility (Bisno 1988 & Dome’nec 2013).



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( Atlantic International University ) – SOCIAL AND HUMAN STUDIES
human resource management managing labor inefficiency



Title: Human Resource Management. Managing Labor Inefficiency