The problem of the sense of politics is a philosophical problem. All philosophical problems are always urgent, as they are hard to solve. In spite of that, it’s always possible to make an attempt.
This work is an attempt to comprehend internal forces, which drive politics, filling it with sense. It’s impossible for politics not to have the point. According to Dante, everything getting objective reality intends some action. Actions in politics are aims and objectives.
To define actions in politics we decided to turn to the help of great thinkers, such as Plato, Dante Alighieri, Jean Jacques Roussea, Friedrich Nietzsche.
We are going to proceed from the assumption that no thought is false. Any idea from its origin goes through a number of conditions, which can’t be false per se. If we begin to deny the idea, we inevitable come to deny the above conditions under which the thought emerged. Consequently, in the research we intend to start from the principle of the relative truth in each philosophical idea, as the idea can be applied to a particular sphere of existence.
If each philosophical idea is valid in application to a definite aspect of the world, then they may be united, drawing up a new concept of the world. As we advocate an integral view on existence, the method of research is synthesis, from which a new understanding of politics is born.
One of the basic notions in the research is the notion of a philosopher’s idea. Under idea in this research we understand the discovery of new senses or new understanding of things. In this text the synonym of the idea is the thought.
The notion of politics and related to it notions will be defined in the process of investigation. At the end of the research it will be given the synthetic definition of politics.
The sequence of chapters reflects the additional to synthesis method of research. This is a dialectical method. It means the step-by-step development of our understanding of politics. We will draw up our interpretations of philosophical works in such consistency that one idea of one philosopher causes another idea of the other philosopher.
So we consider the works of philosophers in the following order: “The Will to Power”, Friedrich Nietzsche; “The Republic”, Plato; “The social contract or principles of political right”, Jean Jacques Rousseau; “The Monarchy”, Dante Alighieri.
Nietzsche’s philosophy of politics
To begin research it’s necessary to liberate out thinking. We should renounce from politics and take the side of an alien observer. The nihilistic philosophy of Nietzsche helps us to conduct such experiment.
Nietzsche puts the questions: morality, religion, philosophy – how much these spheres of human existence are connected with vital reality? Whether there was alienation of these forms of human activity from natural laws of life? (“Nature has been ill-judged to the extent to which one has brought into honor the antinaturalness of a God”. “The vestiges of debasement of nature through moral transcendence”.) Answering those questions, Nietzsche revised all human values.
Nietzsche does not write about politics directly. That’s why nothing remains, as to deduce his ideas and to apply them to politics. All of his radical ideas are directed by stream of natural harmony, so due to this turn to the new objective reality we can deduce a new turn in politics.
So, what is a new understanding of politics? First, it is politics emancipated from adhesive and limiting forms, such as morality and religion. Secondly, this is pure politics, but is enriched with all natural colors. Thirdly, a new view at individual and his significance is opened in this natural world of politics. The last position is most important. A turn in understanding of politics originates exactly from cardinal revaluation of human essence. The main point here is that Nietzsche closely connects the essence of a person and of politics. Instinctive human life itself sets an orientation to the vector of politics.
Politics is a mirror in which natural strive of people for life and happiness is reflected, and the people are acting due to the main impulse – will to power. Morality and Christian values are the most powerful manifestations of will to power by enslaving huge masses. The power of ones turns into the misery of others.
 Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power / Translation by W. Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale. – New York, 1968. P. 141.
 Ibidem. P. 168.