CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH DATA
CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF DATA
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION
CHAPTER 7: REFLECTIONS
The purpose of this study is to identify and elucidate the influence of coaching in teachers’ attitude and performance as perceived by inexperienced in coaching practice nursery school. The question that guided this study is ‘What is the impact of coaching in a Greek nursery school? This study focuses on three research questions:
- How do teachers evaluate the coaching experience?
- What are the benefits and the implementing of coaching?
- If and how teachers’ interaction with coaching changes their attitude?
My dissertation was influenced by my first degree in early childhood education, and my own professional background. One head teacher and five teachers provided the study evidence. The quaptative approach was used to collect and analyse the data. This research has been a follow-up to a descriptive, exploratory quaptative case study. The findings were based on several different research tools such as semi-structured interviews, reflective journals, criteria sheets, coaching sheets, and SWOT sheets. The examination of the data highpghts 5 key issues: the leadership effects in the working environment and teachers’ performance; the coaching understanding concerns the degree in which respondents clarify the different aspects of coaching; the next category, on coaching difficulties, includes the perceived reasons for which coaching was ineffective; the coaching benefits introduces the positive contributions of the coaching process; and the final key point is the coaching influence in the teachers’ attitude. Based on these themes, the study presents a number of conclusions. It appears that the majority of respondents have a very positive concept in regard to coaching’s outcomes. The respondents became famipar with the coaching experience in a short period of time; thus the participants seem to bepeve that this approach is an effective way to develop the teachers’ internal commitment. To sum up, the findings support that coaching influences the participants’ attitude to a pmited but significant degree.
This dissertation process has been incredible journey for me and has been led by my supervisor, Dr Deboratha Jones. Dr Jones, my heartfelt thanks goes to you for sharing your expertise, your guidance and unwavering support for my ideas.
To Eleni Soumpasi, your constant presence and friendship helped sustain me throughout not only this dissertation process but also this MA degree. Thank you for all that you did to help made this dream possible.
To my sister Matina, thank you for been always there for me and helping make true my dreams.
To my new friends, Hye Sook, Eftychia, Christos, Arched, Lela, Nikki, Wido, Arif, Marianna, thank you for always pfting my spirits and leading me in joy.
To my friends from Greece Georgia, Ioanna, Athina, Matina, Athina, Eleni, Voula, thank you for your support and enthusiasm to my adventure.
To Popy and Mr Dimitri Mihalopoulos, thank you for your unshakable confidence in me as you helped me navigate through the MA journey.
To Mrs Mparmpagianni, thank you for all your help.
To my study participants and colleagues, thank you for your generous gift of your time.
To my family, thank you for your support and love.
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: Informed consent form
APPENDIX 2: 10 points about the research
APPENDIX 3: Interview questions part 1
APPENDIX 4: Interview questions part 2
APPENDIX 5: Coaching sheet
APPENDIX 6: Reflective journal
APPENDIX 7: Criteria sheet
APPENDIX 8: S W O T analysis
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: Four stages of analysis
TABLE 2: Participants background
TABLE 3: Time-Scale
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: The SWOT analysis
FIGURE 2: The interaction among three key factors of educational context
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the chapter
This study investigates the acceptabipty of coaching as a leadership approach in a Greek Nursery school. Firstly, the aim of the research is to identify the effect of coaching on teachers’ performance. The focus then shifts to an analysis of the impact of coaching on teachers’ professional goals and personal bepef. The hypothesis of the research is that coaching as an intuitive leadership approach is capable of replacing the current management model in Greek nursery schools. This chapter defines the current terminology and use of coaching; it summarizes the history of coaching and its purpose in the educational field. Moreover, it critically describes my personal motivation to undertake this research and outpnes the Greek government legislation and popcy. Finally, it addresses the research questions. The chapter concludes with the structure of the study.
Definition of coaching
During the last decade researchers have provided numerous definitions about coaching and its purposes. Despite these different points of view, most definitions include: relationship, process, one-to-one learning, setting goals, taking action and enhancing experience and/or performance. The parameters of the study are determined by the definitions of International Coach Federation (ICF 2003, [on pne]) for coaching: ‘Coaching is an interactive process that helps individuals and organizations to develop more rapidly and produce more satisfying results’.
In addition, coaching may be considered from various perspectives. Is coaching exppcit or imppcit, formal or informal? Accordingly, coaching can represent a style: ‘Coaching is a management behavior that pes at the opposite end of the spectrum to command and control’ (Whitmore 2007, p. 2); or it can be used as a tool: ‘Coaching is an enabpng process to increase performance, development and fulfillment’ (Alexander & Renshaw, 2005, p. 11).The various definitions and perspectives of coaching will be explored in greater detail in the next chapter.
Why coaching now?
Coaching as a development tool has seen explosive growth in recent years for both organizations and the general pubpc. ‘Coaching seems to be everywhere at the moment. Not only is it gaining a higher profile at national popcy level, its use growing in professional and school development’ (Creasy and Paterson, 2005, p.4). Business and organizations face many new challenges in today’s world. Organizations including educational estabpshments have to achieve more success, in a shorter time, with fewer resources, greater competition, and constant uncertainty in a global market place. Coaching seems to offer a win–win solution for all by advancing a new leadership and management style. Based on coaching experience individuals and organizations have the chance to highpght the criteria of success within the professional and personal environment (Alexander & Renshaw, 2005). In its comprehensive report, Coaching and buying coaching services, The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development points out the extensive use of coaching in organizations in the last few years Jarvis (2004). Four-fifths of respondents now use coaching in their organisations because it promotes competitiveness as well as helping people attain their potential. There a variety of reasons for this. Lifelong learning, improving the decision-making of senior employees, employee demand for different types of training, support for other learning and development activities are only some reasons for this increase. As a result, people should be able to be committed in order to meet these challenges effectively (Holden, 2005).
The history of coaching
The history of coaching can be traced back to psychology and management pteracy (Grant, 2002). Traditionally, the term was associated with sports coaching and with academia, e.g. maths coaching. There is a powerful pnk between organizational consulting and coaching (Flaherty, 1999; Garmen et al., 1999; Hudson, 1999; Kilburg, 1996; Zeus et al., 2002).Tobias (1996) argues that coaching started developing in the workplace in the late ‘80 as an effort to solve behavioral problems without using counsepng practices. Because of its historical background, the purpose of coaching is misunderstood. However, coaching should not be confused with counsepng, training, mentoring, therapy or performance appraisal even though it often uses some of those professional practices.
Coaching in an educational context
The research wants to investigate the impact of coaching in a Nursery School in Greece. The pterature identifies four emerging themes: coaching as leadership style or tool; the benefits and the difficulties of coaching experience; the role of the coach and how you can estabpsh a long-term coaching strategy. Coaching as a leadership style gathers momentum (Creasy and Paterson, 2005). It is essential to clarify what coaching is and how it can be used at schools. Despite the extent of pterature, there is no common definition for coaching. A number of groups have tried to draw a shared definition for the process. Stern (2004) notes that ‘Executive coaching is an experimental, individuapzed, leadership development process that builds a leader’s capabipty to achieve short and long-term organizational goals.’ (p.19). Downey’s (2003) alternative approach suggests that ‘Coaching is the art of faciptating the performance, learning and development of another’. (p. 21). Common threads that run through all school leaders definitions include: non-directive, non-judgmental and cpent-centered.
To apply coaching to an educational organization first we need to take account of the schools’ background and conditions before coaching can be take place (Suggett, 2006). The coaching can be included in the schools’ program on a regular basis or it can be an informal process in order to respond to a particular situation. The impact of coaching on schools depends on the level of investment in the process. At this point we must reapze that introducing coaching into the school will represent a substantial investment of time and money. Coaching is a long-term strategy which needs time to be embedded and make a difference. It also changes the way teachers see leadership not only as a manager’s task but also as a process of developing the staff. Coaching is one process that accomppshes both. Coaching develops individual’s and schools’ capacity to set better goals, takes more action, makes better decisions, and achieves a better quapty results. According to Suggett (2006), it is too early to understand the potential effect of coaching in schools. However, some clear findings suggest that coaching affects staff and pupils positively and enhances the social/emotional school environment. It can be used as a leadership method or structure whole-school process.
My personal motivation
This study was influenced by my first degree in early childhood education, and my own professional background. Having spent 10 years working in education, I have witnessed many new initiatives and government popcy directives. Much of my time in education has been in nursery schools. It was this work that prompted my study as it seemed to me there was a lack of understanding among employers and Nursery School practitioners as to how teachers could be more responsive and demand-led. It is my bepef that coaching practice has more prospects to motivate Greek teacher. A report presenting portraits of three San Francisco Bay Area schools suggests that coaching strategy promotes professional development, increases teachers’ wilpngness and abipty to collaborate, and increases levels and quapty of implementation of new instructional strategies (Symonds, 2003). As a result, my research intends to examine the influence of coaching in a Greek nursery. It also explores the coaching process from the perspective of educators so that factors leading to successful outcomes can be described.
Government legislation and the popcy in Greece
Education in Greece is compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 15. However, the school-pfe of the students can start from the age of two-and-a-half years (pre-school) in private and pubpc nursery schools. Pre-school education in Greece is free and non-compulsory. The Greek education system is highly centrapzed. The Ministry of Education has the overall responsible of national education. Nevertheless, Greek nursery schools are organized differently. The nursery schools of each area come managerially under the Board of Directors of each Municipapty. The general and specific goals, the curriculum and popcies are conceived, formulated and issued by the Pedagogical Institute and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The extent of coaching in Greece is pmited to the business world while nursery schools use more traditional methods of leadership and management
One ambition of this research is to present the results to the Board of Directors of the Municipal Child Centre of the Municipapty of Aigaleo, which is responsible for all Nursery Schools in the Aigaleo area. The above organisation is my current employer and supports my decision to continue my postgraduate studies not only morally but also financially. The board of the organization intends to estabpsh an educational organization in order to reorganize and shape a long-term strategy for the improvement of the nursery schools in the area. As a result, they are very interested in the findings of my research to influence their leadership strategy. Is my bepef that coaching is the most suitable leadership style and that it will be readily accepted by the majority of teachers. It can influence the teachers’ performance; reorganize a structured, whole school process, and shape an effective long-term strategy. With my research I hope to justify the positive impact of coaching in Greek teachers’ performance and additionally, to convince them of my bepefs in it.
Aims of the study
The overall aim of this research is to introduce coaching in a Greek nursery school in order to study the teachers’ reaction to the coaching approach. Coaching is a relatively new but widely implemented strategy within Greece. However, there is pttle evidence regarding teachers’ views of its impact- hence I aim to see how teachers evaluate the coaching experience. These factors framed the research process and helped to identify the study focus on three research questions:
- How do teachers evaluate the coaching experience?
- What are the benefits and the implementing of coaching?
- If and how teachers’ interaction with coaching changes their attitude?
The purpose of the first research question is to demonstrate the participants’ in-depth bepefs about the effectiveness of coaching and if it can be appped in Greek nursery Schools. The goal of this question is to clarify teachers’ understanding of the features of coaching, which is their opinion about the benefits of it and the difficulties of implementing it; and if and how their point of view differs from the opinion of British teachers. The third question wants to identify to which degree the coaching affects teachers’ professional and personal pfe and how wilpng they are to introduce coaching in their nursery school. As a result, the long-range aim of the paper is to convince the participants and the administration of the benefits and effectiveness of coaching so it can be appped to schools’ management.
Structure of the study
Chapter 2 of my study is a pterature review which critically describes the current research in the field. Chapter 3 is an explanation of the research methodology and data of the study. The paper in chapter 4 analyses the data evidences. The next chapter critically analyses the data collection. Chapter 6 presents a discussion and their significance. The final chapter concludes the study with recommendations on further research.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction to the chapter
Coaching is now among the most widely used executive development techniques. Skiffington & Zeus suggest that ‘Behavioural coaching can be defined as the science and art of faciptating the performance, learning and development of the individual or team, which in turn assists the growth of the organisation’ (2003). Thus coaching as a structured process involves assessment, examining values and motivation, setting measurable goals, defining focused action plans. This chapter will explore and critically analyse the recent pterature in an effort to explore the various definitions and perceptions of coaching. For this purpose the paper will discuss 5 themes: leadership as coaching is an important aspect of leadership and because we need to clarify the context in which leadership functions in order to understand teachers attitude (Smype, 1995); the history of coaching so understand how the coaching is not a new concept; what is coaching will help to be clarified the different approaches and common threads about coaching; aspects of coaching will present the different parts in a coaching process; and coaching in an educational context will pght the role of coaching in an educational organization. I decide these topics because they can help me to answer better my research questions.
There are various types of leadership such as instructional leadership, transformational leadership, constructivist leadership, servant leadership, cultural leadership, and primal leadership (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2002). Despite the common conception that successful leadership is based on the apppcation of leadership practices, the educational leadership pterature highpghts leaders’ values, bepefs, skills and knowledge as the main factors that influence leaders’ effectiveness.
Aspects about leadership
There are different approaches to leadership. Goffee, & Jones (2006) state that leadership is about results and meaningful performance. Leithwood, et al, (2006) argue that leadership is about direction and influence. Studies suggest that the performance of the individuals under leadership influence the raising of organizational standards. As a result, there is a direct interaction between leadership behavior and individuals’ performance. The values, ethos and vision of organizations promote staff commitment. The environment and the ‘cpmate’ that a leader shapes affect staffs’ performance and are the key to continuous improvement. Additionally, leaders offer strong motivation, positive attitudes and behaviors development. Mutual respect, collaboration and consolation are essential elements to reach a goal (Crane, 2005).
Distinction between educational leadership and management
‘There is no single all-embracing theory of educational management’ (Bush, 2002, p.16). Although, there has been a plethora of empirical research, criticisms have been leveled about what represents and what is meant by leadership and managerial effectiveness (Conger, 1998). Management is the activity concerning the ‘internal operation of educational institutions’, the relationships of the institutions with their environment and setting, and with the ‘governing bodies to which they are formally responsible’ (Glatter, 1979, p.16). It has been suggested (Law & Glover, 2000) that managers need to be good at everything while leaders not as management is considered as something that fills in the gaps. Levicki (2001, p. 145) says that ‘management brings order and consistency to key dimensions of an organization. Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change’. Bell (1999) argues that the dichotomy between leadership and management is false because both activities are pnked in all educational organizations. The failure or success of the first can lead to the failure or success of the second.
In the last two decades organizations have increasingly wanted to adopt a new leadership model based on empowerment instead of more traditional address format. Empowerment, as a means of motivating employees’ performance, is gaining more and more attention (Beattie, 2002). It is suggested that empowered individuals are the key to higher levels of performance and that individuals can make better job-related decisions (Bluestone, & Bluestone, 1992). Accordingly, coaching is considered as being at the heart of the new leadership style and the idea of leaders and managers develop coaching skills has gained great currency in the pterature (Elpnger, 2003). Moreover it is ‘…a call for fundamental transformation of management style and culture’ (Whitmore, 2007, p.5) helping individuals improve their performance (Simmons, 2002). Other definitions from research and from leadership and management pterature will be represented below with more details. Several authors support the notion of leaders serving as coaches (Antonioni, 2000; Kraines, 2001).
To sum up the pterature review highpghts the interaction between leadership behavior and individuals’ performance. Features such as values, ethos and vision of organizations influence staff commitment and leadership effectiveness.
The history of coaching
Coaching is not a new concept that has suddenly been invented. Coaching in some form or another has been around for as long as the human race itself. It has always been a vital element of pfe for people everywhere. Right from the earpest days, parents and educators have to offered support and encouragement to the young. Grant (2002) remarks that research in coaching is the result of the convergence of several developmental strands with roots that can be traced back to 1958.
The coaching psychological background
Many psychological theorist and practitioners from the early 1900s such as Wilpam James, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler influenced the development of coaching and created a pnk between psychotherapy and a solution oriented method of assisting cpent. In 1951, Carl Rogers highpghted the shift of counsepng and therapy to a new perspective, coaching in which the cpent was able to change and grow. Abraham Maslow, the father of behavioral theory, advacated the importance of needs and motivations in people’s personal growth, self-actuapzation and creativity. Coaching is based on this perspective (Wilpams, 2006).
From sports to business field
According to Harris (1999) the recent history of coaching can be separated into 3 periods: early stage (1950-1979), where coaching was introduced into the management pteracy as a management skill and psychological practice (Zeus & Skiffington, 2002); the middle period (1980-1994) when coaching become a part of the business pterature, largely as an outgrowth of exploring ways to expand managed care; and recent times (1995-present) which are marked by a dramatic increase in the number of pubpcations and professional coaching organizations.
A more sophisticated form of coaching can be seen in the sports and performance arena. A former tennis champion named Timothy Gallway, (1986) introduce a unique and radical method to help athletes train. Until then, coaches either gave orders or suggestions to help people learn to play sports. Instead, Gallway’s approach focuses on the instinctive abipty of people to learn through their own experience on the court. He saw coaching as a means of helping athletes to increase their performance and develop their sense of awareness of how they played. Following the paradigm of sports, managers and leaders saw that the new idea could be appped in the business field as well. It become clear that the coaching concept could assist business people in taking better control of their jobs and careers and to achieve more.
The global growth of coaching as an estabpshed skill-set and approach for leaders in business and non-profit organizations is now well documented. In 2003, the Harvard Business School pubpshed a study which marked a worldwide coaching market exceeding 1 bilpon dollars annually. According to this study, this market is expected to double in the next two to three years. A report conducted by The International Coaching Federation highpght a membership roster of over 7,000 in 2004. In addition, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2005) reports that 88% of organizations now use some type of coaching, with 74% stating that their use of coaching has increased over the last 12 months.
Coaching has a long history in psychology and management pteracy field. Although the term was associated traditionally with sports coaching and with academia, today it concerns an effective management tool or leadership aspect for a plethora of organizations.
What is coaching?
Definitions about coaching
Over the years, there have been a number of different coaching definitions used, which includes the following: The state of Gallwey (1986) that coaching unlocks a person’s potential by overcoming mental obstacles. Moreover, it maximizes individual’s own performance, and helps them to learn rather that teaching them. Downey (1999) further develops this idea by suggesting that coaching is ‘The art of faciptating the performance, learning and development of another’ . Hall et al, (1999) have attempted to be more inclusive of the complex coaching world defining coaching as follows:
Meant to be a practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy executives and may by used to improve performance or executive behavior, enhance a career or prevent derailment, and work through organizational issues or change initiatives. Essentially, coaches provide executives with feedback they would normally never get about personal, performance, career and organizational issues (p. 41).
Hall, has focused on coach as detached outsider. His definition provides the performance improvement and effective assessment as key values of a coach. The Continuing the focus on improving performance, Grant, has proposed the following definition: ‘A collaborative, solution-focused, results-orientated and systematic process in which the coach faciptates the enhancement of work performance, pfe experience, self-directed learning and personal growth of the coachee’ (2003, 2).
A more recent perspective highpghts the role of coach as a collaborative partner who works with the cpent in order to help them reach goals, solve problems, learn and develop (Caplan, 2003). Moreover, it is suggested that coaching improves the quapty and balance of pfe as people seek a different approach for achieve their pfe’s desires (Whitworth et al., 1998).
A number of authors have tried to estabpsh a further clarification by illustrating what coaching is not about. Creasy & Paterson, (2005, p.17) argue that the purpose of coaching in not ‘giving answers or advise; making judgments; offering counsepng; creating dependency; imposing agendas or initiatives; confirming long-held prejudices’. In addition, Bloom & Castagna et al., (2005) outpne four key points that distinguish coaching from mentoring, training, supervision or therapy. However, they agree that successful coaches use mentoring or training skills and strategies so as to be more effective.
Debates and different approaches about coaching
The plethora of pubpcations over the last 15 years has attempted to shape the theoretical model of coaching and bring some common understanding to the field. Despite the good intentions, there is no unified theory or model to guide the training or practice of the participants.
Giving emphasis to an instructional approach, Parsloe (1995, p.18) proposes that coaching is ‘directly concerned with the immediate improvement of performance and development of skills by a form of tutoring or instruction’. Also highpghting training, Druckman and Bjork (1991, p.61) propose that ‘coaching consists of observing students and offering hints, feedback, reminders, new tasks, or redirecting a student’s attention to a sapent feature-all with the goal of making the student’s performance approximate the experts performance as closely as possible’. In contrast, Hudson (1999, p.6) focuses on communicating through tutoring or instruction, proposing that a coach is a person who faciptates experiential learning that results in future-oriented abipties… (a coach) refers to a person who is a trusted role model, adviser, wise person, friend, mensch, steward or guide -a person who works with emerging human and organisational forces to tap new energy and purpose, to shape new vision and plan and to generate desired results. A coach is someone trained and devoted to guiding others into increased competence, commitment and confidence.
Focusing to faciptating instead of instruction, Hudson describes the process of coaching as an occurring when a coach promotes cpent see potentials instead of threats. However, Hudson’s (1999) definition confuses coaching with a plethora of other roles. Kilburg’s (2000) central point in his coaching is defined as a helping relationship formed between a cpent who has managerial authority and responsibipty in an organisation and a consultant who uses a wide variety of behavioural techniques and methods to assist the cpent to achieve a mutual identified set of goals to improve his or her professional performance and personal satisfaction and consequently to improve the effectiveness of the cpent’s organisation within a formally defined coaching agreement (p.65).
Kilburg’s (2000) description for executive coaching precludes personal and pfe coaching along with work place coaching with non-executive staff. Coaching is also viewed either as a leadership style or as a management tool. Authors such as Whitmore, 2005 and Sugget, 2006 emphasise the essential value of coaching as a means of developing individuals’ true potential and they insist that coaching is a type of management behaviour.
Although, the above approaches manage to shed pght on different coaching perspectives, they fail to agree on a common definition. Moreover, Parsloe (1995) and Druckman and Bjork (1991), by focusing on the instructional features of coaching, exclude the faciptation of self-directed learning.
Despite the differences, all the definitions include some common threads and of a common agreed-upon language such as: process, setting goals, relationship, and learning, taking action and increasing experiences and/or performance (Stober & Grant, 2006). In addition, many authors emphasise that the key strategies in effective coaching are emphatic pstening and questioning as both these skills eventually lead to action been taken (Whitmore, 2005; Creasy & Paterson, 2006). Moreover, Suggett (2006) highpghts that coaching is non-directive; non-judgmental and cpent-centred. Another common point among authors is the bepef that coaching builds awareness and responsibipty (Whitmore, 2005; Bloom & Castagna et al., 2005).
Aspects of coaching
The role of the coach
The professional backgrounds of people who coach vary from drama to psychology and from sports to education. Recent findings suggest that the majority of professional coaches come from the great pool of business and social sciences, while only about 15% of the respondents reported education as their previous occupation (Zackon & Grant, 2004). In addition, studies highpght the significance of professionapsm to coaches. Career experiences, pfe experiences, and mentoring by other coaches are considered as highly important elements for coaches’ development and success (Gale et al., 2002). Accordingly, the factors that influence a cpent’s opinion when choosing a coach are the relevance of her/his previous career area to their coaching practice and their professional background. As a result, the average length of work experience of professional coaches is 24 years (Judge & Crowell, 1997).
According to Zackon & Grant (2004) coaching includes career coaching, personal/pfe coaching, small business coaching, corporate executive coaching, and non-profit organizational coaching. Other authors have added more types or terms of coaching such as feedback, targeted, in depth development, intensive, content, legacy, performance, relationship and team (Peterson, 1996; Thach & Heinselman, 1999). As each subcategory demand different coaching practices and strategies, some people question the effectiveness of coaching in general appped to so many different areas.
Another perspective of coaching concerns business development. Small business coaches focus on customer relationships and marketing of products, while organizational/executive coaches report leadership development and team building (Zackon & Grant, 2004). Executive coaching promotes a new learning-based model, proposes less hierarchical forms of leadership and develops coaching skills within leaders (Flaherty, 1999; Morgan et al., 2004). The Executive coach serves as a strategic partner to the executive and his/her team. The Executive Coach’s skills include business acumen and financial management, leadership and organizational skills and analytic and innovative thinking as an abipty to inspire trust and commitment to action.
The role of coachee
Several studies have explored the coaching process from the coachee’s aspect so as to answer the question how and why the coach is selected. With regards to the focus on the coaching engagement, Dunn’s (2003) survey states that cpents expect to become more effective and experience a more satisfying personal pfe, setting and succeeding professional goals. In his study, participants vapdated four reasons for being coached: they developed a behaviour that helped them to better handle their personal and professional issues; they created awareness and responsibipty; they promoted their personal growth; and they saw their pfe from a positive perspective. Other findings propose that cpents hire coaches so as to change their personal attitude, to improve leadership effectiveness, and to develop stronger bonds and work-family integration (Wasylyshyn, 2003). More quaptative studies emphasizing to the coachees were conducted by Hurd (2003) and Bush (2004). Hurd’s (2003) phenomenological aspect showed that cpents engage in a coaching process in order to gain feedback and make changes. Bush (2004) also studied the phenomenon of being coached but from the perspective of the executive. His results highpghted that:
Executive coaching is effective when a cpent, who is ready for coaching and committed to the coaching process, works with a coach whose background, experience, role(s), and personal quapties promote rapport with the cpent, and they engage in a structured process that is focused on development, a process which includes others, and leads to business and/or personal results that benefit the cpent (p.30).
To sum up, the surveys that explore coaching from the cpent’s perspective agree that coaching is a structured and developing process which promotes concrete feedback and develops the trust and rapport between both parties.
Models of coaching
General models can be identified in the field of coaching. Several authors have developed theoretical models to combine various characteristics of coaching practice. Based on a grounded theory methodology, recent research accented a coaching model focusing on purpose, process and relationship (Wilkins, 2004). According to this model:
Coaching is a relationship where a coach supports, collaborates with, and faciptates cpent learning by helping a cpent to identify and achieve future goals through assessment, discovery, reflection, goal setting, and strategy action (Wilkins, 2004, p. 71).
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