River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh, India. River Hindon originates in the lower Himalayas in Saharanpur district (UP, Uttar Pradesh) and flows 260 km through six districts including Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Baghpat, Ghaziabad and Gautambudh Nagar until its confluence with the Yamuna. The main sources, which create pollution in the river, include municipal wastes of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Ghaziabad districts and industrial effluents of sugar, pulp and paper distilleries and other miscellaneous industries through tributaries as well as direct outfalls. In non-monsoon months the river is completely dry from its origin up to Saharanpur town. The main water quality parameters that have been used to assess the quality of Hindon River are pH, BOD, COD, DO, TDS, TSS Electrical Conductivity, Total Hardness, Nitrate, Phosphates, Chlorides, Sulphates and Faecal Coliform. These data are obtained by collecting water and wastewater samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons during month of January and April 2013 and are converted with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index to achieve at a single value defining the water quality at selected locations. The result shows that the water quality of river is not good.
Keywords: River Hindon, lower Himalayas, tributaries, water quality parameters, Water Quality Index.
Our country is rich in terms of water prosperity as of rivers. There are fourteen main river basins in the country, which take up 83 percent of total drainage basins, giving 85 percent of the total surface flow and address eighty percent of the country's population. Of which in the western district of Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), mainly Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut and Ghaziabad, large amount of water resources are present which are being used for irrigation, fishing, or to produce fish seeds and fingerlings. These water resources are used for the disposal of industrial wastes of different industries. The main water resources of this region are river Kali, Krishni, Ganga, Yamuna and Hindon with their respective tributaries and canals. The Hindon River, historically known as the Harnandi River, has been a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of Western Uttar Pradesh. The studies on Hindon River reported that the river is highly polluted due to the numerous municipal and industrial effluents. The quality of the river water is not suitable for propagation of fish culture and related aquatic life, due to bioaccumulation and concentration of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) in aquatic flora and fauna along with the impact of physio-chemical conditions in the river. The important characteristics associated with the pollution of the river is the depletion of oxygen over a stretch of about 25 km. Water quality in river has biggest threat to human health troubles, such as cancer, inadequate uptake of nutrients and trace-metals, cerebrovascular, kidney disease and diabetes. A number of studies regarding pollution aspects of river Hindon and its tributaries have been carried out by different workers Verma et al., 1980 Singhal et al. 1987, Seth 1991, Kumar et al. 1993, Lokesh 1996, Jain et al. 2001.
The conservation plan for 140 km stretch of Hindon River from Purka Tanka village (Saharanpur) to Atali village (Muzaffarnagar) has already been made last year. Study area for present work covers the stretch of 100 km from Atali village to Habiatpur Village (Mohan Nagar) in Ghaziabad as shown in Fig. 1
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Figure 1: Sampling locations in the study stretch of Hindon River (Source: own figure)
WATER QUALITY SAMPLING
Table 1: List of drains from where samples were collected (Source: own data)
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Figure 2: Hindon River Stretch included in Study (Source: Ali and Jain 1998)
SEWAGE SAMPLE AND TESTING TECHNIQUES
Water sampling and preservation
Samples were collected as per (APHA 2005) and sample testing was done in AHEC, IITR. In brief each sample represent a composite sample made by mixing water samples from one-third, one-half and two-third width of a river along a transect. Samples were collected from 15-30 cm of water surface using standard water sampler (Hydro bias Germany), which were then kept in large airtight plastic ice-cold containers at 40C and were transported to laboratory within 8 hours of their collection. Sample for metal analysis and for physiochemical analysis were kept in different bottles with specific preservative. D.O, pH and conductance were measured at the site with portable meter. The physiochemical analyses were done as per the standard methods (APHA 2005). For each period, three replicates of the water samples were collected and the average of three samples for each parameter to be studied was considered as one reading. Velocity is measured at the site with the help velocity reader. Discharge of the river was calculated by area velocity method as per IS 1192-1981 manual.
Table 2: Analytical techniques used (source: own data)
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Type of sample
The samples can be of following types:
1. Grab- Each sample shows the quality of the water at the time of sampling only and the sampling time should not exceed more than 15 minutes. Grab sampling is done when the parameter tested deteriorates quickly such as batch discharge, constant waste stream characteristics, volatile organic compounds and phenols.
2. Composite- These samples are individually taken and poured in the same collection bottle. Two methods of collecting these types of samples are-
a) Time paced is when we collect samples at set increments of time.
b) Flow paced samples are those which are taken when a calculated volume of water flows through the sensor of a flow meter. This method gives the most representative sample.
3. Grab Composite- It is useful for parameters such as total oil and grease in sewer system in a 24-hour period. Samples are grabbed individually in the field and then composited in the lab for examination.
4. Discrete Sampling- This method is used to determine the characteristics of the wastewater flow at particular time of a day e.g. parameters such as for high or low flow events or high or low pH. Samples are taken in separate bottles at that time of the event and each sample is analyzed.
5. Integrated sample - It is a mixture of different grab samples which were collected concurrently at different locations across the width or at different depths of the river.
For the present study, Grab samples were collected.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The following tables and graphs shows the result obtained during lab analysis of the water sample collected from selected sites. Table 3-4 and5-6 shows the physiochemical analysis of water samples of drains and river respectively and table 7-8 and 9-10 shows the heavy metal analysis of sample of drains and river respectively. Graphs 3-16 shows the longitudinal variation of parameters analyzed.
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- Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee – IIT ROORKEE
- conservation hindon river muzaffarnagar ghaziabad saurabh mishra samarth sharma prabhakar shukla mukesh kumar singhal alternate hydro energy center indian institute technology roorkee india