Creativity among Adolescents
A case study of 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib district in relation to locale and sex
Master's Thesis 2013 55 Pages
1.1 Meaning of Creativity
1.3 Need of the Study
1.4 Statement of the Problem
1.5 Operational Definition of the Study
1.6 Objectives of the Study
1.7 Hypotheses of the Study
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
1.9 Organization of the Chapter
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Studies in Abroad
2.2 Studies in India
III METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Sample of The Study
3.3 Tools used
3.4 Collection of Data
3.5 Statistical Techniques
IV. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
5.4 Significance of the Study
5.5 Statement of the Study
5.6 Objectives of the Study
5.7 Hypotheses of the Study
5.8 Design of the Study
5.9 Tools used
5.10 Statistical Techniques used
5.11 Delimitation of the Study
5.13 Educational Implication
5.14 Suggestions for further Study
LIST OF TABLES
4.1 Shows mean scores of creativity of 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.t- ratio of total creativity among urban and rural
4.2 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.t- ratio of total creativity among urban male and
4.3 urban female 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District. t- ratio of total creativity among rural male and
4.4 rural female 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District. t- ratio of total creativity among urban male and
4.5 rural male 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District. t- ratio of total creativity among urban female and
4.6 rural female 10th class adolescents of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
LIST OF GRAPHS
4.1 Mean scores of creativity of urban adolescents and rural adolescents of 10th class of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
4.2 Mean scores of creativity of urban male and urban female adolescents of 10th class of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
4.3 Mean scores of creativity by among rural male and rural female adolescents of 10th class of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
4.4 Mean scores of creativity among urban male and rural male adolescents of 10th class of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
4.5 Mean scores of creativity among urban female and rural female adolescents of 10th class of Sri Muktsar Sahib District.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
“Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which all enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities.”
Education is the process of human enlighten and empowerment for the achievement of a better and higher quality of life and it plays a paramount and significant role in building up the society. In the modern age, a society cannot achieve the aims of economic growth and development without education and talent their citizens. So education is the key of national prosperity and welfare. In the development of a country, education plays a vital role. Education is most important component of human resources. Therefore, society must utilize the individual talent in the proper way. As we want maximum benefit through minimum resources, so we should make our effort for maximum achievement of our youth and trained them in such a way that they must utilize the available resources. A sound and effective system of education result in the enfoldment of learner’s potentialities, enlargement to their competencies, interests, attitudes and values.
Imagination is necessary to generate creative actions. Creativity is defined as the ability to produce something new system of ideas or material things.
It may also include an addition to or perfection of an existing paradigm. Many thinkers are of the opinion that creativity is not that which can be acquired either one has it or does not. Swami Vivekananda has said, “Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man.”
Creative behavior consists in any activity by which man imposes a new order upon his environment. It is an organization activity and the original act by which that organization is first conceived and given objective expression.
Creative talents contribute to advancement in the fields of art, literature, science, business, teaching and other spheres of human activity and are responsible for propounding new ideas and bringing about social and culture changes. Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincon, Homi Bhabha, Newton, Shakespeare, Leonardo da vinci were some of the creative individuals who left their mark in their chosen fields. Though they were undoubtedly gifted with creative abilities, the role of environment in terms of education, training and opportunities in their development cannot be ignored.
Good education, proper care and provision of opportunities for creative expression inspire, stimulate and sharpen the creative mind and it is in this sphere, that parents, society and teachers make a significant contribution. They are required to help the children in nourishing and utilizing their creative abilities to the utmost. The educational process, therefore, should be aimed developing creative abilities among children.
Creativity is a cognitive variable and has been defined as an ability to bring something new into existence, Guiford (1956) speaks of creativity as a form of intelligence. He has isolated a number of special abilities that are related to the creative process. Most of these abilities- flexibilities, originality and fluency with words, associations and ideas- are associated with divergent thinking.
A proper under stander of the relationship between creativity and sex, creativity and locale is necessary in order to assist in developing methods of identifying and fostering creative thinking abilities of students over emphasis or misplaced emphasis on sex-roles, however, does exist its role on the creativity of both sexes (Torrance, 1969) such knowledge is very much helpful both to the counselors and educators. It is this aspect of sex and locale relationship with creativity that has undertaken in the present study.
Creativity is an asset to human beings which distinguish it from the rest of the flora and fauna organizers. Creativity is, undoubtedly, the most unique among all the abilities. In the past creativity was attributed as ‘Spark of Genius’, ‘revetaties’ but presently it is attributed to psychic functioning of human being.
Creativity means the production of novel, ideas, theories and objects either in disciplines of science and art which are accepted by competent experts as original and valuable. In educational research, the word creativity which is few years old has shifted its source from divine to psychic functioning to human beings, of course, human being all endowed with unique power of all their powers. A person is considered creative if he solves a problem which is new to him. The production of something new is included in almost all the definitions of creativity. Creativity is something which takes into account its relationship with external and internal environment of an individual. Good education, proper care and provision of the opportunities for creative expression inspire, stimulate and sharpen the creative mind, therefore, educational process should be aimed to develop creative abilities among children, the parents, society, and teachers also come into the picture. They are required to help the children in nourishing and utilizing their creative abilities to the maximum degree. Therefore educational process should be aimed to develop creative abilities among children.
Creative thinking has important basis in the world of imagination. It is problem oriented, but the problem is not dealt with in a routine manner. Creative thinking results into novel outcomes. It appears to be a product not only in intelligence but also of flexibility independence and training.
1.1 MEANING OF CREATIVITY
Creativity is an asset to human beings which distinguish it from the rest of the flora and fauna organizers. Creativity is, underdoubtedly, the most unique among all the abilities, in the past creativity was attributed as ‘Spark of Genius; or ’revetaties’. But, presently it is attributed to psychic functioning of human being.
Creativity is the capacity or ability of an individual to create, discover or produce a new or novel idea or object, including the rearrangement or reshaping of what is already known to him which proves to be a unique personal experience.
In the creative process there are always two different (but interrelated) dimensions or level of dynamic with which one can create.
The first dimension is the conceptual “Content” which the medium describes. The creative person depicts changes, manipulates and express somehow the ideas of the content.
In the 21st century, the ability to think creativity is the necessary for all human beings in order to live successfully in this universe. Among all the potentials that man has been endowed with, creativity. It is highly valued human quality, with its influence on the quality of life.
Creativity is an outcome of the inner state of the creator. It is the potential which influences human behavior in scientific, technical and artistic fields. The new advancement in the means of travel, communication, production, art and literature are the result of relatively few creativity people.
Creativity is one of the highest gifts that nature has bestowed on mass. The present stage of culture, scientific and industrial development that man has attained in largely to be attributed to this gift of creativity. The human world has progresses only with creative abilities in now. These abilities should be identified and developed systematically, and used for the progress of mankind. The development of a society critically depends upon the creativity of the people. Therefore creativity has becomes a chief psycho-social motive of the twentieth century. Creativity enhances the capacity to make changes in the surroundings. In fact it is creativity which has helped society in its evaluation from the animal life to the present development. The total change in a society depends on the cumulative creating capacity of its people to effect such a change. As education is a major agent to bring change in society, there is an urgent need to focus on the role of creativity in educational system, so that people can develop creative skills. Creations means an act of process of creating something new brought into the world. Creativity is seeing something in a new relationship. It is one’s abilities or skill expressed in a new combination creative persons or creators are less in inhibited, less constrained, less bound and less uncultured. They freely express their natural potentialities without inhibition. They also develop a sense of privilege in the community to act freely. In every creative activity much of our imagination and images are put into action. The mental images one makes in case of a creation involve many things. Creativity includes flexibility, divergent thought, originality and the ability to organize perceptions and emotions. The unfolding of creativity affects all our development areas: spatial, mathematical, and logical. The disposition of creative applications inherent in all human being. It is the environment which supports or represses the opportunity for creative development. Creativity needs to be nurtured throughout our lives to stay active and vital. Home and social environment are most important variables that influence child development in general and growth of creativity in particular.
Creativity is an outcomes of the inner state of the creator. It is the potential which influences human behavior in scientific, technical and artistic field. The advancements in the means of travel, communication the results of relatively few creative people.
Creativity is a potentiality which influences human activity in almost all spheres of life. It has been recognized as precious sources of emergence, development and survival of man’s culture through ages. Most of the changes and advancement in society as well as in other fields tell us nothing but the story of man’s endeavor to create. Man’s creative potentialities are really unfathomable. Hence, the society needs creative, individuals who can venture into the unknown.
What is necessary today is to bring about the optimize development of the whole individual. To realize this aim, we will have to teach the child to think creativity about the yet to be discovered. This concept has entered into the researcher’s parlance only recently.
Generally, creativity is understand in four types of approaches i.e. understanding in terms of process, understanding in terms of product, understanding in terms of mental ability and understand in terms of characteristics of a person.
Creativity is a simple word but has complex magnifications. In 1953 Morgan collected 25 definitions of creativity and since then many more have been constructed by intellectuals. This is indicative how wide is the concept of the creativity.
The process of any nation depend to a great extent upon the development of people in respect of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Among these the development of cognitive domain contributes maximum to social, political and economic development. It implies that developments of higher mental abilities are pre-requisites to nation’s development. Since creativity is higher mental ability, its contribution to development of various field cannot be under minded.
DEFINITIONS OF CREATIVITY
Paplia and olds (1987), “Creativity is the ability to see things in a new and unusual light, to see problems that no one else may even realize exist, and then to come up with new, unusual, and different solutions.”
Simonton (2000), “Explained creativity as the function of cognitive process involved in the creative act.”
Das Gupta (2004), tried to find the answer to a question in the study “Is creativity Darwinian process?” He had challenged Darwinian perspective on creativity according to which creativity is evolutionary in nature.
Lubart (2004), “Drawing on a multivariate approach to creativity suggested that creativity is partly a generalized ability, partly a set of domain specific abilities, and partly a set of task specific abilities. Creative thinking is even called as Reflective thinking.”
Robert E. Franken (2010), “Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.”
Dr. Betty Edwards (2010), “Creativity is the ability to find new solutions to a problem or new modes of expression; thus it brings into existence something new to the individual and to the culture.”
TYPES OF CREATIVITY
Creativity is an ability to develop something new and original in the form of product, concept of ideas. According to Tayor (1956), there are five types of creative dispositions on the basis of psychological process.
1. Expressive Creativity: - Independence Expression where skills, originality and quality of the product are unimportant, e.g. the spontaneous drawing of Children.
2. Productive Creativity:- Artistic or scientific products where there is tendency to restrict and control free play and develop technique for producing finished products.
3. Inventive Creativity:- Inventors, explorers and discovers, where ingenuity is displayed with material, methods and techniques.
4. Innovative Creativity:- This operates in the improvement through modification involving anceptualisation of skills.
5. Emergenerative Creativity:- This results in higher generative insights.
NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CREATITY
The nature and characteristics of creativity can be summed up. Torrance, conducted a survey on the characteristics of creative children with the help of a set of two items. He found that experts selected the following characteristics of creative child:-
- The creative child can take independent judgment in crucial matters.
- The creative child is independent in thinking about the problem of various types.
- The creative child develops intuition in his problems.
- The creative child has risk taking capacity.
- Creativity is a natural endowment.
- The creative child shows strong conviction in his beliefs and values. He can go beyond socially conformist behavior.
- Creativity involves divergent thinking.
- Academic achievement and creativity are not necessarily correlated.
- Creativity can be viewed both as a product and as a process.
- Creativity is independent of drug or drinks.
- Although difficult, creativity can be measured.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CREATIVITY OF INDIVIDUALS
There are same which mention below:-
- They are generally imaginative type.
- They are mostly introverts than extroverts.
- They have originality of thought and expressions.
- They are generally of above average intelligent.
- They are constructive.
- They have high aesthetic sense.
- They posses high degree of concentration.
- They do not like mixing with other people.
- They are courageous in convictions.
- They are willing to take risk.
- They have foresightedness and they are visionaries.
- They have strong desire to explore and create.
Adolescence is transition period between childhood and adulthood. This is stage revolutionary period of growing up. During which child is developed into man and woman. As adolescent being to take responsibility for their own health education and promotion of preventive health care is very important.
The word adolescents come from the latin word ‘Adolescence’ meaning ‘to grow to maturity’. Maturity involves not only physical but also mental growth. Mentally mature individual is one whose intelligence has reached its maximum growth.
G. Stenley Hall, one of the principal founders of development psychology in the United States, called adolescence a time of “Storm and Stress” during which the individual was thrown about by opposites such as action versus inaction, excitement versus calm, elation versus depression, self-confidence versus doubts about self-esteem, and the need for authority versus the need to rebel against authority. Although some recent studies have suggested that adolescence is not necessarily a time of storm and stress and that there are many exceptions to the rule, Hall’s way of looking at adolescence has prevailed. On the whole, it is through of as a period of unusual emotional turbulence.
Period of adolescence is the most crucial period in the life of human beings adolescence is the time when the surge of life reaches its highest peak. The adolescence is eager to interact with new experiences to find new relationships to combine recourses of inner ability. The adolescence tries to have freedom to think and set his over goals and discover means to enjoy. Although he is not fully mature to shoulder the responsibilities of life, he enjoys life in youthful dreams love and power become a strong motivating force on life. Adolescence lives in a lush season and it falls between the spring time and the summer of life. Adolescence is a time when boys and girls feel the joy and pride of growing up. This joy is felt from within and without. However there are many restraints that keep him under control. These controls come from home as well as society. Adolescence is a time also of great tension. It is necessary for the young person to behave in a right manner and establish himself and obey the rules at home and outside. No matter how much help adolescence is given, he is still dependent on others. The adolescence’s task in not simply one of developing his own individual but one of developing his potentialities. He reaches his limits and tries to explore his role in the world in which he lives.
According to Bigge and Hunt’s, “The one word which host characteristics of adolescence is change. The change is physiological aspects.”
According to Jersild states, “Adolescence is that span of year during which boys and girls move from childhood to adulthood, mentally, emotional, socially and physically.”
According to Stanley Hall, “Adolescences is the age of great ideas and beginning of theories as well as time of simple adaptation of reality.”
In fact, it remains true the incident of this period greatly effect whole personality of individual. That’s why it has been called the most crucial period.
Adolescence is a process, rather than a period achieving the desired growth, attitudes, beliefs and methods for effective participation in society as an emerging adult. The way in which adolescences develop and exercise their personal efficacy during this transitional period can play a key role in setting the course their life paths take. Adolescences have to manage major biological, educational, and social role transitions concurrently (Bandura 2006). The transitions to middle-level schools involves a major environmental change that taxes personal efficacy. However, in our country adolescence is not seen as a distinct stage and hence the needs of the adolescence are not given much importance over and above their childhood needs. But it is empirically well- established that adolescence marks an important time in the process of human development, the passage between childhood and adulthood (NASW 2003).
When an individual is in the phase of adolescence, his creativity, quest for self identify and personality is being molded by various surrounding factors. Creativity is a critical aspect of a person’s life starting from embryonic existence onward through adulthood.
METHODS OF SHARPENING CREATIVE POTENTIAL
TORRANCE (1962) complied the following suggestions with teachers for sharpening creative potential among the students:
1. The teachers should value creative thinking and their creative approach of the students should be snubbed for solution of a particular problem.
2. The teacher should help the children in becoming more sensitive to the environmental stimuli so that they think of new creative ideas.
3. The teacher should encourage manipulation of objects and ideas.
4. The knowledge of scientific method should be imported to the students to test each idea systematically, which come in mind of the student.
5. The teacher should develop the tolerance of new ideas given by the students and should not be stickled to old and stereotype solution of a problem.
6. The teacher should avoid compelled method for solution to any problem. The students should be given time to think about the solution of problem themselves.
7. The teacher should develop a creative classroom atmosphere and not a fearful atmosphere.
8. The students should be taught not to sacrifice their creative potential at any cost.
9. The information regarding creative process should be imported to the students according to their age level.
10. The students should be taught to value his creative idea and also of the fellow scholars.
11. The teacher should encourage and evaluate self initiated learning and should not discourage my novel ideas.
12. The teacher should create “Thorns in thiftesh” making children awake of problem and deficiencies of a topic.
13. The teacher should create climate and necessities for creative thinking among the students.
14. The resources should be made available to the students for working out ideas.
15. The teacher should emphasize or divergent thinking by encouraging the habit of working out the full implication of ideas.
16. The teacher should develop in himself and also among the students the skills of constructive criticism.
17. The teacher should encourage acquisition of knowledge in variety of fields.
18. The teacher should try to develop adventurous spirit in the students.
MEASUREMENT OF CREATIVITY
Through measurement of creativity is difficulty, it is not impossible different techniques are now available to have a fair measurement of creativity tests, by studying the innovative works (Products) and by studying the traits of creativity through different inventories and psychological tests.
An extensive study has been done in university of California by Makinnon to study the traits of creativity people in various fields. A study of these traits, would help the teacher at least to identify the creative students in his class.
We can identity the creative children on the basis of the following:-
1. Score of creativity test.
2. Scores on test of social attitudes.
3. Scores on an indigence test.
4. Objectives observation of children during different curricular and co-curricular activities.
5. A study of the leisure time pursuits.
6. On the basis of creativity contribution in the form of creative writing (Poetry, Drama, Music, Painting, Fine Arts and Creative expressions etc.). The different tools of measuring creativity is given below:
A. Questionnaire:- A test in form a questionnaire can be administered too assess different creativity traits.
B. Interview:- We can identity certain creativity traits and certain important aspects of creativity behavior by conducting interview.
C. Observation: - By observation a person at work , at play, the hobbies that the peruse, the novel and the intelligent ways that he employs for doing certain things, by observing the activities and the way in which he performs those activities by assessing the products we can assess his creative the observe must be trained in the techniques of observation and must be able to draw correct infechees.
D. Mental Text: - The mental test give us some idea about the mental abilities, but not creativity. At most, these tests can be given only a general indication of creativity. By measuring intelligence, scholastic aptitude, etc. And by applying factor analysis and other statistical techniques interface can be drawn about the creativity of the individual.
E. Inventories: - By administering personality inventories some traits of creativity can be inferred from tests. First of all attritest on inventories can be administered to get some idea about the interest of the test.
F. Projective Techniques:- Projection means projecting our feeling to a stimulus situation. Whatever we do, see or ways of thinking into it. An individual through his interpretation of the media that is presented to him in the form of picture, inkblock, word assemblies etc. Word association test, sentence completion test and other tests are usually employed to study the inner aspects of personality projective tests help us to identify certain traits of his creative individual.
G. Stimulation Test: - Stimulation means providing stimulation to an objects, an idea or a feeling and getting back his reaction and responses. Given a paragraph, the individual may be asked to give a little, given a few incidents or hints the subject may be asked to construct a stay given situation the subject may be asked as to what he would do in such a situation etc. A questionnaire can be constructed with various stimulation and form the reactions shown by the individual the creative capacity of the individual is measured.