Soil carbon sequestration potential of different forest types of aric Kutch, Gujarat with special emphasis on climate change
Soil carbon sequestration
Scientific Study 2014 62 Pages
2 .Review of literature
3 .Methods and Materials
6 .Summary & Conclusion
- To study the physico-chemical characteristics of soil.
- To estimate the soil carbon pool.
- To conserve soil organic carbon pool in forest area to miti- gate the climate change.
- To select a proper plant for the plantation.
The Gujarat state encompasses an arid area of 62,180 Km2 of which 73% is falling under kachchh district. Kachchh is the second largest district in India covering an area of 45, 612 sq.km. And is part of the Kathiawar Peninsula occupying the northwestern part of Gujarat. Kutch is a land of deserts, dry salty alluvial mudflats, extensive grasslands and great stretches of water in the 'dhands' left by the monsoons. The district receives an annual rainfall of 348 mm and is highly irregular in nature.
The Greater and Little Rann of Kutch has finally got the much-awaited status of bios- phere reserve. The Central government's decision to grant this is a step towards projecting Kutch as an international nature destination .The Gujarat government has set up two committees for the management of Kutch Biosphere Reserve (KBR), according to officials. Forest department offi- cials said biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are interna- tionally recognized within the framework of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme. The reserves focus is on conserving biological diversity, research, monitoring and providing sus- tainable development models. The KBR proposal will now be sent to UNESCO for recognition. The ministry of environment and forests will provide funds not only for conservation of land- scape and biological diversity, but also to preserve cultural heritage, education and information exchange. Biosphere reserves are protected under Wildlife Protection Act, Indian Forest Act and Forest Conservation Act.
Flora: The Rann of Kutch is full of dry thorny scrub, and the main vegetation of the sanctuary includes many species of grasses. These grasses are fodder the wild Asses.
Location of Kutch
The Great Rann of Kutch, along with the Little Rann of Kutch and the Banni grasslands on its southern edge, is situated in the district of Kutch and comprises some 30,000 square kilo- meters (10,000 sq mi) between the Gulf of Kutch and the mouth of the Indus River in southern Pakistan. The marsh can be accessed from the village of Kharaghoda in Surendranagar District. In India's summer monsoon, the flat desert of salty clay and mudflats, which average 15 meters
above sea level, fill with standing waters. The greatest extent between the Gulf of Kutch on the west and the Gulf of Cambay on the east get united during the monsoon. The area was a vast shallow of the Arabian Sea until continuing geological uplift closed off the connection with the sea, creating a vast lake that was still navigable during the time of Alexander the Great. The Ghaggar River, which presently empties into the desert of northern Rajasthan, formerly emptied into the Rann of Kutch, but the lower reaches of the river dried up as its upstream tributaries were captured by the Indus and Ganges thousands of years ago. Traces of the delta and its distri- butary channels on the northern boundary of the Rann of Kutch were documented by the Geolog- ical Survey of India in 2000. The Luni River, which originates in Rajasthan, drains into the desert in the northeast corner of the Rann. Other rivers feeding into the marsh include the Rupen from the east and the West Banas River from the northeast. There are sandy islets of thorny scrub, forming a wildlife sanctuary and a breeding ground for some of the largest flocks of great- er and lesser flamingos. Wildlife, including the Indian wild ass, shelter on islands of higher ground, called bets, during the flooding.
Climate of Kutch
This is one of the hottest areas of India - with summer temperatures averaging 44 °C (111
°F) and peaking at 50 °C (122 °F). Winter temperatures reduce dramatically and can go below 0
°C (32 °F).
Flora and Fauna
The plant life of the marsh consists of grasses such as apluda and cenchrus species along with dry thorny shrubs. In winter, Great Rann of Kutch is a breeding ground for flamingos and pelicans. It is the only place in India where flamingos come to breed and is home to 13 species of lark. The Little Rann of Kutch is famous for the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, home of the world's last population of Indian wild ass (equus hemionus khur or khar). Other mammals of the area include the Indian wolf (canis indica), desert fox (Vulpes vulpes pusilla), golden jackal (canis aureus), chinkara (gazella bennettii), nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus), and the near threatened blackbuck (antilope cervicapra). The marshes are also a resting site for migratory birds, and are home to over 200 species of bird including the threatened Lesser Florican (eupodotis indica) and houbara bustard (chlamydotis undulata).
Types of analyses are done on soil sample in the laboratory
- Physical and chemical properties:
- Bulk density, water content, and coarse fragment content
- pH (water and 0.01 M CaCl2)
- Total carbon
- Total organic carbon
- Total inorganic carbon (carbonates)
- Exchangeable cations (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Mn)
- Extractable sulfur and trace metals (Sr, Ba, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb)
- Extractable phosphorus (Bray method for pH < 6 soils, Olsen method for pH less than 6 soils)
Forest floor and litter sample are analyzed for:
- Bulk density and water content
- Total carbon
- Total nitrogen
The primary use of the soil quality indicator is to provide baseline information about the status of forest soil so that changes in soil quality can be monitored over time. Spatial and tem- poral trend in the number and distribution of plot with accelerated erosion, compaction, change in soil organic matter content, and nutrient or other chemical limitation are evaluated by region or forest type. Results from the trend analysis are then combined with other FIA indicators to evaluate site productivity and forest health.
Soil chemical and bulk density date can be combined to develop indices of plant nutrient availability in different systems. These baseline data may provide additional insight into forest health problems.
To understand the environment, it is important to understand how organisms and their Surroundings interact. Since all organisms use energy, we need to understand how energy can be used and transferred. Because all organisms are made of substances, it is equally important that we understand how chemicals are used and transported through an ecosystem. This Exercise will help contribute to our understanding of the movements of compounds in Ecosystems. The trans- port and transformation of substances in the environment are known collectively as biogeochem- ical cycles. These global cycles involve the circulation of elements and nutrients. That sustains both the biological and physical aspects of the environment. For example, all known Organisms on this planet depend on water to sustain them. They are constantly cycling water, consuming it on a regular basis either by itself or with nutrients, while expelling water (with Waste products) at the same time. Besides being critical for the biosphere, water is also an extremely important part of the physical environment.
When water vapor condenses to form Clouds, more of the Sun's rays are reflected back into the atmosphere, usually cooling the Climate. Conversely, water vapor is also an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, trapping heat in the infrared part of the spectrum in the lower atmosphere. Water is also involved in other biogeochemical cycles. The hydrologic cycle inter- sects with almost every other element cycles, as well as some of the geological cycles such as the sedimentary cycle.
Carbon sequestration is 'The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir .' When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as carbon dioxide removal, which is a form of reengineering. The term carbon sequestration may also be used to refer to the process of carbon capture and storage, where CO2 is removed from flue gas- es, such as on power stations, before being stored in underground reservoirs. The term may also refer to natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks. Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are re- leased by burning fossil fuels.
Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical processes. Some anthropogenic sequestration techniques exploit these natural processes. While some use entirely artificial processes. CO2 may be captured as a pure by-product in processes related to petroleum refining or from flue gases from power generation. CO2 sequestra- tion includes the storage part of carbon capture and storage, which refers to large-scale, perma- nent artificial capture and sequestration of industrially produced CO2 using subsurface saline aquifers, reservoirs, ocean water, aging oil fields, or other carbon sinks. Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the cotermin- ous USA currently store 700 million tons of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 million/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges from 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in Jersey City, NJ. Regions with the greatest proportion of urban land are the Northeast (8.5%) and the southeast (7.1%).
Urban forests in the north central, northeast, south central and southeast regions of the USA store and sequester the most carbon, with average carbon storage per hectare greatest in southeast, north central, northeast and Pacific northwest regions, respectively. The national aver- age urban forest carbon storage density is 25.1 tC/ha, compared with 53.5 tC/ha in forest stands.
These data can be used to help assess the actual and potential role of urban forests in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas. (David J. Nowak, Daniel E. Crane, 2001).
Carbon Sequestering in Trees
Carbon Reservoirs: In burning fossil fuels as an energy source, we are taking stored carbon and putting it back into the atmosphere at a rate that is greater than it is being taken out. This causes means that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing, and will contin- ue to do so until the difference in these two rates disappears. One way to bring this about would be to greatly curtail the rate at which burn fossil fuels. Many people do not like this idea, as it would mean a great change in our lifestyle. Another proposed method would be to speed up the rate at which Carbon is removed from the atmosphere. One way of doing this would be to plant more trees. During photosynthesis, trees convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar molecules and Oxygen through a series of oxidation and reduction reactions. The overall equation for the Photosynthetic process may be expressed as:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Some of this sugar is stored, while most of it gets used by the tree for other purposes such as Energy and structure. For instance, a great deal of the sugar is linked together to form cellu- lose which provides the structure for the tree. If we look at this sugar from a mass standpoint, we see that a large fraction of it is due to the Carbon. The fact that carbon has an atomic mass of 12, hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1, and Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16 means that 72/180 = 40% of the mass of the sugar molecule comes from carbon. Taking into account the other types of molecules that are found in a tree (Proteins, lipids, etc.), we find that about 45% of the dry mass (not including the water) of a tree comes from carbon. In other words, a 100 kilogram log of a tree that has been completely dried contains about 45 kilograms of stored carbon.
While each kilogram of dried tree is storing .45 kilograms of carbon, it is removing more than a Kilogram of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This is because each carbon dioxide molecule contains two oxygen atoms. Using the data from above, this means that each carbon dioxide molecule has an atomic mass of 12 + 2(16) = 44, of which only 12 are due to the carbon. Therefore, for each atom of carbon stored in a tree, 44 atomic mass units of carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. This means that each kilogram of dried tree corresponds to (1 kg of dried tree) x (.45 kg of C/1 kg of dried tree) x (44 amu of CO2/12 AMU of C) = 1.65 kg of CO2. This large of an amount gives the idea of using trees to remove carbon from the atmos- phere a lot of validity. However, it should also be pointed out that this equation works in reverse. When a tree is burned or allowed to decay completely, the carbon in the tree is put back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
Worldwide, we are actually losing forest, and this relationship shows why we should be concerned. In this activity, we are going to estimate how much carbon is sequestered in an acre of forestland. In order to do this, all that we need to know, given the information above, is how much dried wood is in an acre of forest.
Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO s -e)
Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 -e) provide a universal standard of measurement against which the impacts of releasing (or avoiding the release of or actively sequestering) different greenhouse gases can be evaluated. Every greenhouse gas has a Global Warming Potential (GWP), a measurement of the impact that particular gas has on 'radiative forcing'; that is, the ad- ditional heat/energy which is retained in the Earth's atmosphere system through the addition of this gas to the atmosphere. The GWP of a given gas describes its effect on climate change rela- tive to a similar amount of carbon dioxide. As the base unit, carbon dioxide is 1.0. This allows the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol to be converted to the common unit of CO 2 -e. (Source: http://www.ieta.org/ www.industry.nsw.gov.au January 2010, prime fact 981)
In this and other activities, we are going to study how carbon cycles through our ecosys- tem and how mankind affects this cycle. It is important that we understand how carbon cycles through the ecosystem for two reasons. The first of these reasons is that all organic material con- tains Carbon. From the smallest vitamin molecule all the way up to the long polymer chains of Proteins and DNA, carbon provides the basis of all organic compounds. The second reason why we need to understand the carbon cycle is because of its effect on the Physical environment. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, is released as a waste product of Oxidation. This means that it is released during the combustion of fossil fuels, as well as the Respiration of organisms. As we will see later, this can have a tremendous effect on our climate, since carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Carbon has two phases in the carbon cycle: gaseous and solid. Its gaseous phase is mostly in the form of carbon dioxide, but it can also be found in compounds like methane and carbon Monoxide. Carbon dioxide can be taken out of the atmosphere by photosynthesis in plants, which convert the carbon into a solid form (sugars) that can be stored or put back into the air? During respiration. It can also be removed from the atmosphere by being absorbed by water, where it becomes available to water plants for photosynthesis as well as being available to form Compounds such as calcium carbonate (chalk) or to be put back into the atmosphere when the water gets warmer.
As we can see, the carbon cycle has reservoirs where it is stored as a solid. The diagram below shows some of these. In a cycle that has reached equilibrium, the rate at which carbon is removed from storage is equal to the amount that is being taken out of the atmosphere. The rea- son why many people are concerned about the carbon cycle is because mankind's Intervention has caused this system to go grossly out of equilibrium.
By burning fossil fuels, Mankind has upset the balance of the cycle and greatly increased the rate at which carbon is returning to the gaseous phase. Is this a problem? In order to under- stand why it might be a Problem, we need to understand more about the properties of carbon dioxide.
The Greenhouse Effect
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is in part re- sponsible for the earth’s relatively stable climate. It is a ‘greenhouse’ gas because it traps heat near the earth’s surface, contributing to observed and predicted global warming. Human activi- ties, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil and destruction of natural forests, are greatly increasing the level of CO2 in the atmosphere. Concentrations have risen from about 284 parts per million in 1832 to about 387 ppm in March 2009 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon dioxide). Mean temperature increases between 1° and 6°C have been projected over the next 70 years. Methane and nitrous oxide, produced by agricultural activity and biological processes, are other greenhouse gases with much greater warming impacts per tone than CO2. In 2006, Austral- ia’s net greenhouse gas emissions totaled 576 million tones CO2-e (Garnaut Climate Change Review 2008 at: www.garnautreview.org.au/chp7.htm).
illustration not visible in this excerpt
The effect of infrared re-radiation being absorbed in the Atmosphere is called the "Greenhouse Effect" since it mimics what happens in a real greenhouse.
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If the Greenhouse Effect proceeds as predicted, Australia is likely to experience more ex- treme weather patterns with higher average temperatures, more and longer heat waves, and re- duced rainfall in many parts, especially the south and west of NSW.
Natural and planted forests act as ‘sinks’ for absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. In- creasing the area of forests and tree plantations is one method we have available to ‘offset’ emis- sions of CO2. (www.industry.NSW.GOV.AU, January 2010, Prime fact 981).
There, the aviation is trapped by glass window panes, which are optically opaque in the infrared region of the spectrum. Since the infrared radiation does not pass through the glass, it remains in the greenhouse and keeps the inside temperature warmer than the outside temperature e an effect keeps the inside of your car warm even on a old sunny day). The science behind this effect in the atmosphere is fairly well understood. Certain gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane, are able to absorb infrared radiation very well. The Earth re-radiates ab- sorbed sunlight back into outer space mostly in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spec- trum. When these gases are present in the atmosphere, they will absorb this energy before it gets back into space, and thereby heat the atmosphere.
For example, Venus has an atmosphere that contains almost a million times the concen- tration of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) as our atmosphere. If Venus were to have no atmos- phere, its average temperature would be about 230 K (-45o F); because of this carbon dioxide Concentration (plus a small amount of other greenhouse gases), it has a temperature of 740 K (About 900oF). A similar, but smaller, effect is seen on Mars and other planets that contain Greenhouse gases. Without the greenhouse gases that we have on Earth, it is estimated that our average daily temperature would be about -10o F, instead of the 60 of that it is. While water va- por has the greatest contribution to atmospheric heating due to the greenhouse Effect here on Earth, most of the attention in this area lately has been focused on carbon Dioxide. The reason for this is that the levels of carbon dioxide have increased from about 292 ppm (parts per mil- lion) to over 360 PPM over the last 100 years. This increase in concentrations has corresponded to the same time period over which we have seen the Average tropospheric temperature increase about 1o C. The correlation between these two Events, plus our knowledge of how greenhouse gases work, has led many to hypothesize that The Earth will continue to get warmer as we re- lease more and more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
About Climate change
The average temperature in many regions has been increasing in recent decades. The global average surface temperature has increased by 0.6º - 0.2ºC over the last century. Globally, 1998 was the warmest year and the 1990s the warmest decade on record. Many countries have experienced increases in rainfall, particularly in the countries situated in the mid- to high- lati- tudes.In some regions, such as part of Asia and Africa, the frequency and intensity of droughts have been observed to increase in recent decades. Episodes of El Niño, which creates great storms, have been more frequent, persistence and intense since the mid-1970s compared with the previous 100 years. All these are signs that the Earth is ailing. Its climate is changing, making it more difficult for mankind to survive. The Earth is losing its equilibrium due to the imbalances created by human activities.
Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Concern about the possible impacts of green house gases on global climate rose through the 1980s ,and in the autumn of 1987 the UNGA discussed a report prepared by Brundtland Commission (WECED) , which looked ,among other things ,at global climate change induced by human activates in 1988,the WMO and the UNEP established the IPCC .the IPCC involves col- laboration between 100s of specialists from around the world ,and it focuses on the likely hood and probable nature of induces climate change ,based largely on forecasts from general circula- tion model. The IPCC assessment reports on climate change were published in 1990, 1995 and
2001. The IPCC has 3 working groups dedicated to different aspects of climate change. WORKING GROUP: I the science of climate change
WORKING GROUP: II the impacts, adaptation, vulnerability
WORKING GROUP: III mitigation of climate change
Under the climate change convention agreed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, industria- lized countries agreed to stabilize their emissions of CO2 at 1990 levels by the year 2000. But by 1996, most of these countries had accepted the scientific case for significant reduction in their emissions and promised to set reduction targets by the end of 1992. It then becomes very obvious that most countries would not be able to meet the 2000 target, and many countries abandoned the 1992 agreements. President Clinton postponed the stabilization of US emissions to 2012 and ruled out real cuts before 2017. The European Union called for a 15 % cut by all industrialize countries by 2010.
In December 1997, scientists and diplomats from 160 countries gathered in Kyoto, Japan, for the UN Climate Convention. The aim was to find acceptable ways forward. Many countries, including the United States, demanded ‘flexibility measures’, which would allow them to bank, borrow or trade spare emission ‘permissions’. It was also argued that flexibility would allow countries to emit more greenhouse gases if they planted more trees (which act as CO2 sinks) or could demonstrate that they had educed pollution in other countries (a procedure known as ‘joint implementation’).The European negotiators were against flexibility measures and wanted to im- plement its targets collectively. The Kyoto Conference eventually settled for targets rather than cuts, and it adopted flexibility measures.
Trading of rights to emit greenhouse gases is a controversial theme, but one taken se- riously under the Kyoto Protocol. Under current plans, developing countries would receive fixed targets above their current emission levels to allow for economic growth. Rich countries could by this excess capacity, and thus avoid need to reduce their own output. Critics of the trading ap- proach argue that it could well serve to increase overall emissions of greenhouse gases. Because growing vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide, the Kyoto Protocol allows Annex I countries with large areas of growing forests to issue Removal Units to recognize the sequestration of carbon. The additional units make it easier for them to achieve their target emission levels.
Some countries seek to trade emission rights in carbon emission markets, purchasing the unused carbon emission allowances of other countries. If overall limits on greenhouse gas emis- sion are put into place, cap and trade market mechanisms are purported to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions. There is as yet no carbon audit regime for all such markets globally, and none is specified in the Kyoto Protocol. National carbon emissions are self-declared.
In the Clean Development Mechanism, only afforestation and reforestation are eligible to produce certified emission reductions (CERs) in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Proto- col (2008–2012). Also, agricultural carbon sequestration is not possible yet.
A number of key issues surround the process and outcome of the Kyoto meeting:
- Global negotiations on climate control will never be easy, but they must be under taken and within a unified frame work committed to seeking effective solutions.
- It must be understood that the main objective of the Kyoto Protocol – stabilizing global climate at ‘non – dangerous levels’- is a long term objective that will inevitably take some time to achieve.
- Given the history of global green house gas emissions and the inertia of climate systems, we are already committed to further global warming.
Vegetation of Tapkeshwari Hill Ranges
Vegetation is mainly xerophytes with the ground cover predominated by ephemerals whose active growth is triggered by monsoon rains. 253 flowering plant species have been listed, out of which the number of species of trees was 18. Large areas have been colonized by the non- indigenous Prosopis juliflora , locally known as 'gando baawal' (mad weed) for its almost manic ability to spread, the species is now used to make charcoal. Prosopis juliflora was introduced by the Forest Department to prevent salinity ingress from the Rann. The plant proved disastrous, as it gradually began replacing indigenous grasses and vegetation. Bets and fringe area support a variety of indigenous plants like Suaeda spp., Salvadora persica , Capparis decidua, Capparis deciduas, Calotropis procera, Tamarix sp., Aeluropus lagopoides, Cressa cretica, Sporobolus spp. and Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica and Acacia Senegal.
The data collected show that majority of the preparations (drug materials) in the area are drawn from a single plant; mixture are used rarely. They belong to Fourteen species (37.84%) of the medi- cinal plants were shrubs, followed by 10 (27.3%) herb and tree. The most frequently used parts were the leaves (21, 33.87%), followed by stem (10, 16.13%) and root (10, 16.13%). The data was represented in table: 1, which included the botanical name, local name, part used medicinal used, family and habit.
1) Abutilon indicum (L.) Sw. subsp. Indicum
Family- Malvaceae Local Name: Nani Khapat, Bhonykhanski Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leave paste used to cure ulcer, used as tropical applicants on swelling, used on overhead to cure headache, boiling water of young leaves used to cure diabetes, seed powder boiled with oil and two to three drops per day used to cure earache problem, leaves paste with cow milk used to cure toothache, entire plant sap with milk and sugar used to cure hyper urea
2) Asparagus racemosus Wild . Var. javanicus (Kunth) Baker
Family- Liliaceae Local Name: Satvari Habit: Sarmentose Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Green twigs are used to cure stomach ache, dysentery and cooling, crushed roots are tied on the body for any kind of swelling in human beings, paste of the fascicu- late root is applied externally in snakebite, root also used to cure urinary disorders, discharges of blood in urine, and to treat headache due to sunstroke.
3) Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del .
Family- Balanitaceae Local Name: Ingorio, Hingoriyo Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Fruit pulp is taken once a day for a month to cure tuberculosis.
4) Bauhinia racemosa Lam.
Family- Caesalpiniaceae Local Name: Kasotri, Asotri, Apto Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves and young twigs are boiled and eaten as vegetable, seeds and bark extract used as insecticide
5) Boerhavia diffusa L .
Family- Nyctaginaceae Local Name: Satodi Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Root paste used to cure boils and to cure dropsy and fistula, root juice used for healing wounds.
6) Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br .
Family- Asclepiadaceae Local Name: Nano Akado Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Powder of roots and flowers used to cure rheumatoid arthritis and paste used to cure leucoderma, powder of leaves and flowers used to cure dysentery, boiling water of roots mixed with wheat flour, butter and sugar used to cure gastric troubles
7) Capparis cartilaginea Decne.
Family- Capparidaceae Local Name: Parvati Rai, Parvatai Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Root barks used to cure dropsy and fistula, leaves and fruits used against to cure cough and cold, sap of plant used against to cure ulcers, earache, gastric troubles, petals of flower or buds used to cure toothache.
8) Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew.
Family- Capparaceae Local Name: Kerdo, Kera Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Fruits prickles used as tonic strengthen, and used to cure gastric trouble, green stem paste used to cure boils, root barks used to cure cough and cold.
9) Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Family- Sapindaceae Local Name: Trigharivel, Valfofti Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves paste used to cure filariasis, leaves paste boiling in oil used to cure sty, leaves juice used to cure earache
10) Cassia auriculata L.
Family- Caesalpiniaceae Local Name: Avar Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves used as tannins and are crushed well and applied on head in case of common cold, leaves paste applies externally on hooves and infusion of leaves given in- ternally to treat foot-and-mouth disease leaves and jiggery is given to cure tympani ties.
11) Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Soland.
Family- Cucurbitaceae Local Name: Truja Val, Tru Val, Tru Deda Habit: Climber
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Roots and fruits powder used to cure gastric troubles, roots and fruits powder with sugar used to cure jaundice, boiling water of fruit powder inhaler to cure toothache
12) Clerodendrum phlomidis L.
Family- Verbenaceae Local Name: Tankaro, Arani Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves sap used with sugar powder to cure boils and swelling, flowers powder used to cure cough and cold
13) Commicarpus verticillatus (Poir.) Standl.
Family- Nyctaginaceae Local Name: Dhokariyar Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Root paste used to cure boils and to cure dropsy and fistula and used on topological applicant against swelling, root paste and entire plant sap used to cure in poisonous stings
14) Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari
Family- Burseraceae Local Name: Gugar Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Stem gum applied with milk to cure of dysentery, diabetes, arthritis, topological applicants and applied individually to cure in skin diseases, blood purification and hy- pothermia; especially useful in nervous diseases, gum resin of C. wightii has been traditionally
used in Kachchh for reducing body weight
15) Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) W. & A.
Family- Mimosaceae Local Name: Kini Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Stem bark powdered is used in urinary complaints, leaves paste or sap used to cure boils
16) Enicostema axillare (Lamk.) Roynal
Family- Gentianaceae Local Name: Mamecho Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Plant powder used against to cure diabetes, cough and cold; used with piper to cure fever and in indigestion problem, entire plant infusion is given to treat intestinal worms.
17) Euphorbia caducifolia Hains.
Family- Euphorbiaceae Local Name: Thuar, Thor Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Latex used on cure boil.
18) Fagonia schweienfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi
Family- Zygophyllaceae Local Name: Javaso, Dhamasha Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Boiling water of plant used to cure bile and used on topological appli- cants, leaves paste with boiled water used to cure diarrhea.
19) Ficus religiosa L.
Family- Moraceae Local Name: Piplo Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaf ash with 1 test spoon honey used in asthma
20) Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori
Family- Tiliaceae Local Name: Ser Gangani, Gangeti Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Fruit pulp used as topological applicants on swelling, boiling water of root bark powder used to cure dysentery
21) Helicteres isora L .
Family- Sterculiaceae Local Name: Maradsing, Ati, Aiti, Atai Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Stem fiber prepares rope and fruits in mustard oil as cure for body pain
22) Indigofera oblongifolia Forsk.
Family- Fabaceae Local Name: Zeel, Zeel Jo Zad Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Flower paste is used to cure stomach pain in children
23) Indoneesiella echioides (L.) Sreem
Family- Acanthaceae Local Name: Kariyatu Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Entire plant materials (powder or tablets form) used as in tonic and strengthens medicines, boiling water of entire plant used to cure flue fever, leaves and root used to cure dysentery, diarrhea and to cure gastric troubles
24) Lycium barbarum L.
Family- Solanaceae Local Name: Garothi, Gerati, Gerothi, Khareti Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Fruits powder used with cow milk for semen enrichment, leaves ash used to cure boils, leaves paste with coconut oil used to apply directly on skin diseases
25) Maerua oblongifolia (Foeak.) A. Rich.
Family- Capparidaceae Local Name: Pinjaro Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Stem paste used to apply on skin diseases, entire plant sap used in blood purification and used to enrich of semen, stem paste used to cure leucorrhea.
26) Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) D. Hou
Family- Celastreceae Local Name: Vingo, Vico Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Bark powder used with cow milk against weakness, leaves used against on bile control and to cure jaundice, young branches used as toothbrush
27) Moringa concanensis Nimmo
Family- Moringaceae Local Name: Kharo Saragvo, Sargvu Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Boiling water of bark mixed with oil used against to cure of rheumato- id arthritis, boiling water of leaves, barks and flowers used to cure gastric troubles.
28) Pentatropis spiralis (Forsk.) Decne
Family- Asclepiadaceae Local Name: Dhodhiyal, Dhodheji Val Habit: Climber
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Root powder used to cure local fever during the summer season and to cure dysentery as well as against indigestion.
29) Premna resinosa Schau
Family- Verbenaceae Local Name: Kundher, Kindhor Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Young leave’s sap with honey used to cure bronchitis, stem paste used as topological applicants to cure swelling and used to cure body pain
30) Prosopis juliflora (Swarts) DC.
Family- Mimosaceae Local Name: Gando Baval Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Immature leaf used in boil
31) Rivea hypocrateriformis Choisy
Family- Convolvulaceae Local Name: Fang val Habit: Climber
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves used as vegetables to purify blood, boiling water of entire plant used to cure misconception in cattle
32) Salvadora oleoides Decne
Family- Salvadoraceae Local Name: Mithi Jar, Piludi Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Leaves sap used to cure bronchitis, leaves paste used as topological applicants to cure swelling, fruits used to cure bile
33) Salvadora persica L.
Family- Salvadoraceae Local Name: Khari Jar, Pilvo, Piludi Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Powder of young branches and leaves with honey used to cure bronchi- tis, fresh powder of root bark used to cure arthritis, young roots used as toothbrush to cure too- thache, boiling water of young branches and leaves used to cure seasonal cough and cold
34) Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt
Family- Asclepiadaceae Local Name: Som, Sandhiaval Habit: Shrub
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Decoction of plant used to cure asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough and fever, boiling water used to cure swelling
35) Sterculia urens Roxb.
Family- Sterculiaceae Local Name: Kadai, Kadio, Kadayo Habit: Tree
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Bark sap with piper used to cure bronchitis and Paste of stem and leaves used for topological applicants
36) Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.
Family- Fabaceae Local Name: Jathi madh Habit: Herb
Usage in Ethnomedicine: Underground stem used to cure bronchitis
Enhancing Carbon Removal
All crops absorb CO2 during growth and release it after harvest. The goal of agricultural car- bon removal is to use the crop and its relation to the carbon cycle to permanently sequester car- bon within the soil. This is done by selecting farming methods that return biomass to the soil and enhance the conditions in which the carbon within the plants will be reduced to its elemental na- ture and stored in a stable state. Methods for accomplishing this include:
- Use cover crops such as grasses and weeds as temporary cover between planting seasons
- Concentrate livestock in small paddocks for days at a time so they graze lightly but even- ly. This encourages roots to grow deeper into the soil. Stock also till the soil with their hooves, grinding old grass and manures into the soil.
- Cover bare paddocks with hay or dead vegetation. This protects soil from the sun and al- lows the soil to hold more water and be more attractive to carbon-capturing microbes.
- Restore degraded land, which slows carbon release while returning the land to agriculture or other use.
Storage in terrestrial and marine environments
Soils represent a short to long-term carbon storage medium, and contain more carbon than all terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere combined. Plant litter and other biomass accumulate as organic matter in soils, and is degraded by chemical weathering and biological degradation. More recalcitrant organic carbon polymers such as cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, aliphatic compounds, waxes and terpenoids are collectively retained as humus. Organic matter tends to accumulate in litter and soils of colder regions such as the boreal forests of North America and the Taiga of Russia. Leaf litter and humus are rapidly oxidized and poorly retained in sub- tropical and tropical climate conditions due to high temperatures and extensive leaching by rain- fall. Areas where shifting cultivation or slash and burn agriculture are practiced are generally on- ly fertile for 2–3 years before they are abandoned. These tropical jungles are similar to coral reefs in that they are highly efficient at conserving and circulating necessary nutrients, which ex- plains their lushness in a nutrients. Much organic carbon retained in many agricultural areas worldwide has been severely depleted due to intensive farming practices.
Grasslands contribute to soil organic matter, stored mainly in their extensive fibrous root mats. Due in part to the climactic conditions of these regions (e.g. cooler temperatures and semi- arid to arid conditions), these soils can accumulate significant quantities of organic matter. This can vary based on rainfall, the length of the winter season, and the frequency of naturally occur- ring lightning-induced grass-fires. While these fires release carbon dioxide, they improve the quality of the grasslands overall, in turn increasing the amount of carbon retained in the retained humic material. They also deposit carbon directly to the soil in the form of char that does not significantly degrade back to carbon dioxide.
Forest fires release absorbed carbon back into the atmosphere, as doe’s deforestation due to rapidly increased oxidation of soil organic matter.
Organic matter in peat bogs undergoes slow anaerobic decomposition below the surface. This process is slow enough that in many cases the bog grows rapidly and fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released. Over time, the peat grows deeper. Peat bogs inter approximately one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils.
Under some conditions, forests and peat bogs may become sources of CO2, such as when a forest is flooded by the construction of a hydroelectric dam. Unless the forests and peat are har- vested before flooding, the rotting vegetation is a source of CO2 and methane comparable in magnitude to the amount of carbon released by a fossil-fuel powered plant of equivalent power.
Although a high amount of litter fall and root biomass can be produced in every line of trees, the contribution of hedgerows or windbreaks in the build-up of soil C may not be very significant at a field level because of the relatively small proportion of land covered by the trees. Rao et al. (1998) suggested that the effect of boundary plantings is limited to 10m on both sides of the tree lines. If this analysis is applied here, a 50% increase in the C stocks around a 100m tree line would only translate into a 10% C increase per hectare. However, boundary plantings can contri- bute to the improvement of the soil conditions and indirectly enhance carbon sequestration by improving crop productivity and reducing erosion-induced soil losses.
Current agricultural practices lead to carbon loss from soils. It has been suggested that im- proved farming practices could return the soils to being a carbon sink. Present worldwide prac- tices of overgrazing are substantially reducing many grasslands performance as carbon sinks. The Rodale Institute says that Regenerative agriculture, if practiced on the planet’s 3.5 billion tillable acres, could sequester up to 40% of current CO2 emissions. They claim that agricultural carbon sequestration has the potential to mitigate global warming. When using biologically based regenerative practices, this dramatic benefit can be accomplished with no decrease in yields or farmer profits. Organically managed soils can convert carbon dioxide from a green- house gas into a food-producing asset.
In 2006, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion were estimated at nearly 6.5 billion tons. If a 2,000 (lb/ac)/year sequestration rate was achieved on all 434,000,000 acres (1,760,000 km2) of cropland in the United States, nearly 1.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide would be sequestered per year, mitigating close to one quarter of the country's total fossil fuel emis- sions.