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Second Language Acquisition. Lernzusammenfassung in Stichpunkten

Exam Revision 2014 6 Pages

English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies

Excerpt

Second Language Acquisition

Introducing SLA by Saville-Troike, M. (2006)

Chapter 1: Intro

- Informal and formal SL learning

- Differences + similarities of languages

- Linguistic competence (knowledge) + performance (production)

- Cognitive processes (psycholinguistics)

- Multidisciplinary approach

- Theories differ, contradict each other

- Learning conditions => social, cultural, economic factors

- Linguists: identity L1/L2

- Psycholing.: aptitude, personality, motivation, learning strategies

- Socioling.: social, economic, political differences

Chapter 2: Foundations

- English = most common L2

- Motivations for SLA

- Conquest
- Need for communication
- Immigration
- Religious reasons
- Education
- Social advancement
- Interest

- Hard to estimated number of multilinguals, interviews not reliable

- Question of proficiency

- Prestige and status of language (e.g. Haitian Creole vs. French)

- Simultaneous multilingualism = exposed to more than one language during early childhood

- middle of 20th century = learning by imitation (stimulus-response theory)

- language learning

- natural ability
- innate capacity
- children learn L1 at the same age
- master phon.+gramm. Operations by age 5/6
- create novel utterances, not mere repeating
- cut-off point

- social experience

- L1 input and interaction is needed

- Depend on cultural+social factors

- L1 vs. L2

- genetic predisposition also for L2?

- L1 = rapid, always successful

- theoretical assumptions: judge which L2 utterances are not possible

- L2 influenced by L1 prior knowledge => transfer/interference in all levels

- Resources such as world knowledge, skills of interaction

- Interlanguage as intermediate stage

- Input + interaction needed

- L2 = instruction and correction, aptitude + motivation => some learners are more successful than others

- Final state of L2 = never total native linguistic competence, proficiency varies

- Logical problem

- Chomsky => universal grammar

- Competence transcends input

- Frameworks for SLA

- Structuralism + Behaviorism => audiolingual method

- Linguistic

- Internal focus (competence): Chomsky, innate capacity
- External focus (use): functionalism

- Psychological

- Social

- Microsocial: immediate social contexts
- Macrosocial: broader contexts

Chapter 3: Linguistics

- Systematic: rules+principles

- Symbolic: agreement among speakers

- Social: communication

- Early Approaches

- Contrastive Approach

- Predicting + explaining learner problems
- Comparison L1-L2 => similarities and differences
- Pedagogical goal => increase efficiency of teaching
- Structure before meaning
- Stimulus-response-reinforcement (behaviorism)
- Transfer L1 à ß L2
- Cannot explain the logical problem, not validated

- Error Analysis

- Internal focus on learner’s creative ability
- Analysis of errors in L2
- Replaced CA by 1970s
- Focus shifted to underlying rules
- Shift to mentalism, innate capacity
- Separated pedagogical concerns

- Interlanguage

- Intermediate state
- Third language system
- Systematic, dynamic, variable, reduced system

- Morpheme Order Studies

- Natural order?
- Same elements are learned first in L1 and L2

- Monitor Model

- Language acquisition device/innate capacity
- Criticized because it is imprecise, not verifiable
- 5 hypotheses
- Acquisition (unconscious) vs. learning (conscious)
- Available only as a monitor
- Natural, predictable order
- Input needed, grammar automatically
- Affective filter

- Universal Grammar

- Principles and parameters => selecting

- Initial state in SLA

- Access to UG?

- Interlanguage

- Resetting parameters according to input
- Role of lexical acquisition

- Final state

- Access to UG
- Relationships L1-L2
- Quality of input
- Perceptiveness

- Functional approaches

- External focus

- Language as system of communication, not rules

- Systematic Linguistics

- Halliday, since 1950s
- Interrelated systems of choices

- Functional Typology

- Developmental stages of L2
- Markedness

- Function-to-form mapping

- Process of grammaticalization in L1 and L2

- Information organization

- Utterance structure: Nominal, infinite, finite
- Organizing principles
- Phrasal, semantic, pragmatic constraints

Chapter 4: Psychology

- Organization in the brain

- Bilingualism

- Coordinate
- Compound
- Subordinate

- L1+L2 stored in different areas of the brain, but both left hemisphere

- Learning process

- Information Processing

- Controlled à automatic

- Competition Model

- Adjusting internalized system

- Connectionist approach

- Connected units in the brain

- Differences

- Age

- Gender => ?

- Aptitude/talent

- Motivation

- Integrative: desire to learn, emotional factors are dominant
- Instrumental: practical value

- Cognitive style

- Preferred way of processing

- Personality

- Anxiety

- Extravert/introvert

- Learning strategies

- Cognitive – direct analysis

- Metacognitive – planning+monitoring

- Social - interaction

Chapter 5: Social contexts

- Communicative competence
- L1 = part of socialization
- Language policies
- Access to education
- Acquisition of dominant L2 => loss of L1

Understanding SLA by R. Ellis

Issues

- Research focus on grammar

- Contrastive Analysis

- Predict problems by comparison of L1 + L2
- But: many problems not a result of intereference

- Natural route

- Predictable sequence of acquisition
- L2 = L1 hypothesis (developmental-type errors)

- Learner language

- Errors = important source
- Not memorizing rules, construction of own rules
- Not systematic => variable rules (if…then)
- Varies according to situational context + linguistic context

- Individual differences

- Age, Aptitude, cognitive style, motivation, personality
- Fossilization: stop learning at a certain point

- Input

- Early studies => behaviorism, no active construction
- Chomsky => language acquisition device vs. linguistic environment
- Input as trigger or shape?

- Learner processes

- Learner strategies
- Universal grammar

- Formal instruction

The role of L1

- Replacing features of L1 that intrude L2 = restructuring process

- Never a peaceful co-existence

- But: interference not a major strategy

- Behaviorism

- Habits
- Errors

- Setting

- Classroom setting => higher interference because L1 is used

- Stage

- Elementary stage => interference
- Intermediate => overgeneralization

- Criticism of CA

- Doubts about capacity to predict errors => only small number of errors are due to interference
- Feasibility of comparing
- Relevance

- Disagreement about the role of L1

- Transfer/beavorism => SLA as habit-formation, errors = result of interference

- CA => general learning theory, importance of L1 questioned

- Re-examination

- Avoidance predicted

- Similarity

- Interference more likely when L1 and L2 are similar

- Multi-factor approach

- Sets of factors

- Universal, specific L1, specific L2

- L1 = resource of knowledge

- Most evident in phonology

Interlanguage

- L2 = L1 hypothesis

- High level of similarity
- But also differences: sentence patterns restricted in L2

- Acquisition device vs. creative construction

- Natural sequence of development, but order differs

- Errors = active contribution

Input + Interaction

- L2 data available + internal mechanisms for processing

- Behaviorism

- Learner = producing machine
- Linguistic environment is crucial

- Nativist account

- Learner = initiator
- Input as trigger

- Interactionist view

- Combination of both

Theories

- Acculturation (Brown, Schumann)

- Adaption to new culture
- Language = expression of culture
- Social and psychological distance between learner and language culture
- Nativization Model (Andersen)

- Accommodation Theory (Giles)

- Discourse Theory (Hatch, Halliday)

- Use => rules+structure

- Monitor Model (Krashen)

- Acquisition vs. learning
- Natural order
- Monitor (edit language performance)
- Input
- Affective filter
- Aptitude = learning vs. attitude = acquisition

- Variable Competence Model, Universal hypothesis, Neurofunctional theory

[...]

Details

Pages
6
Year
2014
ISBN (eBook)
9783656711476
ISBN (Book)
9783656712657
File size
462 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v277970
Institution / College
Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald – Anglistik
Grade
Tags
second language acquisition lernzusammenfassung stichpunkten

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Title: Second Language Acquisition. Lernzusammenfassung in Stichpunkten