1. Please explain the following terms by also clarifying their independence: attraction, destination, activity.
- Play a vital part in encouraging visitors to a region (because of interaction with other tourism parts)
- Without attractions there would be a limited need for other tourism services;
- Some argue that tourism would not exist, if it were not for attractions.
- = “A designated permanent resource which is controlled and managed for the enjoyment, amusement, entertainment, and education of the visiting public.
- What is attraction?
- Natural Environment;
- Man made attractions (Tourist/ Non-tourist purpose)
- Special Events
- Visitor attractions vs. Tourist attractions:
- often called visitor attractions rather than tourist attractions
- usually day visitors rather than staying visitors
- visitors come from same region (surrounding area)
- definition: tourist!
- Attractions vs. Destinations
- Destinations are larger areas that include (a number of individual attractions / together with the support services required by tourists)
- The existence of a major attraction tends to stimulate development of a destination
- Attractions, support services and facilities
- Many attractions are increasingly developing services such as catering and accommodation on site to increase their income source
- Some support services and facilities are attractions in their own right e.g. restaurants
- Orient Express (sell experience)
- Concorde (sell experience)
- Disneyland Resort Paris
- Glacier Express
- Resort complexes (such as Disneyland Paris, Center Parks ...) blurring the distinction between attractions and destinations and attractions and support services
- Attractions vs. activities:
- As far as activities are concerned, attractions are a resource that provide the raw material on which the activity depends.
- Boat cruise on Sydney Harbour
- Scuba Diving on Great Barrier Reef
- Skiing at Falls Creek
- Rock climbing in Grampians National Park
2. Please explain Swarbrooke’s model for destination development.
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As we saw in the previous chapter, popular attractions tend to grow into destinations and services such as hotels, restaurants and shops gather around the attraction to meet the needs of visitors. It could be said that attractions are the original grain of sand around which the destination ‘pearl’ grows. Most of the world’s largest and most successful destinations developed from one major attraction. Thus Luxor’s fame is based on its pyramids, Canterbury on its cathedral, Orlando on Disney World, and Oberammergau on its passion plays. The marketing of these destinations tends to focus on these attractions so that they are often the symbol of the destination in the minds of tourists. While some destinations remain based on a single attraction, such as Lourdes with its shrine, most develop new attractions to satisfy visitor demand and lengthen their stay. This latter pattern is perhaps best illustrated through Figure 2.1, although it must be observed that not all destinations pass through all these stages. This is obviously an idealized model that presupposes a Greenfield site with no existing development. In reality, most attractions are located within villages, towns or cities, with established services and infrastructure geared to the needs of residents. Clearly, the model relates to physical attractions rather than events and festivals. In due course, and in line with product life cycle theory, it may be that destinations may reach a fifth stage where some of the original attractions go into decline and the pattern of support services changes accordingly. Perhaps this phenomenon is already being seen in some British seaside resorts where entertainment facilities and other traditional attractions are closing and hotels are being converted into nursing homes. Until recently, there was in most destinations a clear distinction between attractions and support services including accommodation, catering and retailing. Most of the attractions and services were in the hands of separate owners in both the public and private sectors. Furthermore, it was generally quite easy in the past to distinguish between attractions and destinations. However, there are now a number of examples in Europe, and even more outside Europe, of attractions in the ownership of a single organization which are, in effect, destinations. They combine entertainment and support services on one site, albeit a very large site covering many hectares. A prime example of this is Disneyland Paris; such attractions are arguably destinations in their own right. Tourists feel no need to leave the site at all during their stay as it escapable of accommodating all their needs. There are now many such ‘attractions’ around the world, particularly in the USA and the countries of the Pacific Rim.
- Embryonic destination :
- black dots: services
- Development single market destination:
- black dots: newer attractions designed to appeal to the same market
- Diversified destination
- black dots: new attractions designed to attract new markets to the destination
- Problem: get stuck with the existing image -> contradiction
3. Please give a brief overview on the concept of product life cycle.
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- At each step product and its market have different characteristics that require different strategic marketing responses
- The shape of the life cycle is not always the almost ‘5’-shaped curve; it may be bi-modal, namely with two peaks, or skewed, perhaps with growth not occurring until the last quarter of the timescale.
- Product life cycles can vary dramatically in their time span. Staple products in traditional markets may have a life cycle measured in decades while products in fashion-conscious markets may last only a few weeks.
- Many products never enter the growth stage. They are tested and fail and are therefore abandoned even though substantial investment may have been made in research and development.
- Decline is not inevitable. Many products will be relaunched before they enter the decline stage. There is no guarantee that relaunches will be successful, although some products can have a number of relaunches so that their life-cycle curve looks like a succession of waves.