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Performance Evaluation of Conservation Programmes for Lakes of the Nainital Region

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2014 14 Pages

Geography / Earth Science - Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Environmental Studies

Excerpt

Abstract:

The lakes of Nainital region are ecologically fragile, and due to rapid urbanization in the catchment, the lakes experience an increase in nutrient loading and rapid deterioration of water quality. The present work was done to assess the effectiveness of the conservation works done in the lakes of Nainital, Bhimtal, Sattal and Naukuchiatal. The various aspects that were kept in mind during the study were the water quality assessment, solid waste management practices, shoreline development, sewage works, public participation. Various physico- chemical parameters were determined during the water quality assessment like pH, temperature, DO, BOD,COD, turbidity, TDS, and metals namely Copper, Iron, Nitrate, and Chromium. These parameters were compared with the trends of the physico-chemical parameters in the recent years. A water quality index was prepared on the basis of these parameters to make an evaluation of the health of the lakes. Noteworthy improvement in the dissolved oxygen concentrations of the lakes were an evidence of the fact that significant work has been done regarding the conservation of the lakes. All the shortcomings and success regarding the conservation works done in the area have been studied and a performance evaluation chart was prepared on this basis. The results of the study suggested that effective works have been done in the area but this needs to be continued in the future too.

Key words:

Water quality, Nainital lake, Bhimtal lake, Sattal lake, Naukuchiatal lake, Performance evaluation

Introduction

A lake is just an added constituent of Earth's surface water. A lake is the place where surface-water runoff gets collected in a low mark, in relation to the neighboring countryside. It's not that the stream that structures lakes get fascinated, but that the stream inflowing a lake approaches faster than it can get away, either via seeping away in a river, discharge into the land, or by evaporation. Nearly every lake contains fresh water, but few, mostly those where stream cannot getaway through river, are saline lakes. Almost all the lakes hold a lot of water organisms, but not every aquatic life. The conservation programmes are being implemented on these lakes time to time. Such conservation programmes and their monitoring are necessary. The evaluation of various conservation measures are necessary to check quality of seriousness of the work done. Moreover, the general public is also conscious about conservation of the lake resources because they are affected most. Some NGOs and concerned people are making every effort for conservation. Considering alone, an attempt has been made to review on the performance evaluation of the conservation work going on/ carried out on the lakes in Nainital area.

STUDY AREA

Nainital is a glittering jewel in the Himalyan necklace, blessed with scenic natural spledour and varied natural resources . Dotted with lakes , Nainital has earned the epithet of ' Lake District ' of India . The most prominent of the lakes is Naini lake ringed by hills . Nainital has a varied topography . Some of the important places in the district are Nainital , Haldwani , Kaladhungi , Ramnagar , Bhowali , Ramgarh , Mukteshwar , Bhimtal , Sattal and Naukuchiatal . Nainital’s unending expense of scenic beauty is nothing short of a romance with awe-inspiring and pristine Mother nature.Nainital is a trendy hill location in Uttarakhand state and center of operations of Nainital district , located at an elevation of 2,084 metres (6,837 ft) beyond MSL. Bhimtal is a municipality and a nagar panchayat in Nainital district in Uttarakhand, located at an elevation of 1370 meters beyond sea level and is a 22 kilometres commencing Nainital. Bhimtal is a municipality and a nagar panchayat in Nainital district in Uttarakhand, located at an elevation of 1370 meters beyond sea level and is a 22 kilometres commencing Nainital. Naukuchiatal also called lake of nine corners’ is a self-effacing hilly location in Nainital district ,Uttarakhand. The lake is 175 feet in depth and is located at 1220 mts beyond mean sea level. Sattal / Sat Tal (English name "seven lakes") is an consistent assembly of seven freshwater lake located in Lower Himalayan Range close to Bhimtal, Nainital district , Uttarakhand.The location of the lakes has been shown in figure 1 and the morphometry and the longitudinal and latitudinal locations of the lakes have been given in table 1.

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Fig. 1: Location of Lakes (Source: Google Earth Image)

Table 1: Location and Morphometry of Lakes of Nainital

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Samples were collected as per (APHA,2005) and sample testing was done at the laboratory in the AHEC, IITR. In brief each sample was considered to be a composite representation of the whole lake taken from various sampling points selected according to their relevancy. Samples were collected from surface of the lakes using standard water sampler, which were then kept in large air-tight plastic air containers at 40C and were transported within 10 hours of their collection. Sample for metal analysis and for physico- chemical analysis were kept in different bottles with specific preservative(APHA,2005). Temperature was measured at the site with the help of thermometer. The whole study is divided into two stages. In the first stage sample were collected in the month of November and in the second stage sample are to be collected in the month of April. This was done to determine the water quality and the environmental conditions of the lake presently in comparison to the previous steps towards the lake conservation. The concentrations of nitrate, chromium, iron were measured by Hach make spectrophotometer. These equipments are preprogrammed and follow the methods of APHA (2005). The reagents for these experiments are supplied by the manufacturers themselves and are calibrated with equipment to display direct reading/ concentrations. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) was determined following APHA (2005). Water samples were incubated at 200 C for 5 days in a BOD incubator. Initial and final readings of DO were measured by a laboratory DO meter, attached with a BOD probe

WATER QUALITY SAMPLING

Water samples were collected from the study area. The sampling locations were selected on the basis of their proneness to pollution, approachability etc. On the basis of above criteria, sampling points were points were selected which is shown in table 2. To study the various effects on the lakes, water samples were collected from various points of the lakes were taken and analyzed. Samples need to be collected two times, once in November,2013 and secondly in April, 2014.

Table 2: Sampling Locations

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Details

Pages
14
Year
2014
ISBN (eBook)
9783656686095
ISBN (Book)
9783656686088
File size
708 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v275593
Institution / College
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Grade
Tags
performance evaluation conservation programmes lakes nainital region

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Title: Performance Evaluation of Conservation Programmes for Lakes of the Nainital Region