Arduino based RADAR System

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2014 8 Pages



Abstract — RADAR is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. Arduino is a single-board microcontroller to make using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. This project aims at making a RADAR that is efficient, cheaper and reflects all the possible techniques that a radar consists of.


RADAR is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. Radar systems come in a variety of sizes and have different performance specifications. Some radar systems are used for air-traffic control at airports and others are used for long range surveillance and early-warning systems. A radar system is the heart of a missile guidance system. Small portable radar systems that can be maintained and operated by one person are available as well as systems that occupy several large rooms.

Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and during the World War II. The term RADAR itself, not the actual development, was coined in 1940 by United States Navy as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging.

The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar, astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, antimissile systems; marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anti-collision systems; ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control systems; guided missile target locating systems; and ground- penetrating radar for geological observations. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.


A. “ The Idea ”

Army, Navy and the Air Force make use of this technology. The use of such technology has been seen recently in the self parking car systems launched by AUDI, FORD etc. And even the upcoming driverless cars by Google like Prius and Lexus.

This setup can be used in any systems the customer may want to use like in a car, a bicycle or anything else. The use of Arduino in this provides even more flexibility of usage of the above-said module according to the requirements.

The idea of making an RADAR came as a part of a study carried out on the working and mechanism of “Automobiles of Future”. Hence this time I was able to get a hold of one of the Arduino boards, Arduino UNO R3. So, knowing about the power and vast processing capabilities of the Arduino, I thought of making it big and a day to day application specific module that can be used and configured easily at any place and by anyone.

Moreover, in this fast moving world there is an immense need for the tools that can be used for the betterment of the mankind rather than devastating their lives.

Hence, from the idea of the self driving cars came the idea of self parking cars. The main problem of the people in the world is safety while driving. So, this gave up a solution to that by making use of this project to continuously scan the area for traffic, population etc. and as well as protection of the vehicles at the same time to prevent accidents or minor scratches to the vehicles.


A. Arduino UNO R3 or Above

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital Input /Output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16MHz ceramic resonator, USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

Changes in Uno R3:

1. Pin out: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the reset pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible with both the board that uses the AVR, which operates with 5v and with the Arduino due that operates with 3.3v.
2. Stronger RESET circuit.
3. ATmega16U2 replace the 8U2.

"Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see the index of Arduino Boards.

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Figure 1.1 Arduino Board



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B. ATmega328P

The ATmega328 is a single chip micro-controller created by Atmel and belongs to the mega AVR series. The high- performance Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32 KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1 KB EEPROM, 2 KB SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, serial programmable usart, a byte- oriented 2-wire serial interface, spi serial-port, a 6-channel 10 bit Analog to Digital converter (8- channels)in tqfp and qfn/mlf packages),programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator and five software selectable power saving modes. The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing power consumption and processing speed.

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Figure 1.2 ATmega328P

C. Crystal Oscillator

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits.

Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cell phones.

Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.

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Figure 1.3 Crystal Oscillator(16 MHz)

D. Servo Motor

A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.

Servomotors are not a different class of motor, on the basis of fundamental operating principle, but uses servomechanism to achieve closed loop control with a generic open loop motor.

Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

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arduino radar system




Title: Arduino based RADAR System