TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYM AND ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF MAPS, TABLES AND CHARTS
A GLOSSARY OF HAUSA TERMS
CHAPTER ONE: EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF KATSINA BY THE 19TH CENTURY
1.1 Geographical Location
1.1.1 Climate and Rainfall
1.1.2 Land Uses
1.2 Early History of Katsina to the 19th Century with special emphasis on education
1.3 The Educational Development in the 19th century: Indigenous and Islamic Education
1.3.1 Indigenous Education
1.3.2 Islamic Education
1.4 Impact of Educational on the SocioEconomic and Political Development of Katsina
CHAPTER TWO: INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN EDUCATION AND THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN KATSINA, 1906 2010
2.1 Introduction of Western Education in Nigeria with special emphasis on Katsina
2.1.1 The Objectives of Education in Nigeria
2.1.2 Objectives of PrePrimary Education
2.1.3 Objectives of Primary Education
2.1.4 Objectives of Secondary Education
2.1.5 Objectives of Higher Education
2.2 History of Public Primary and Secondary Schools in Katsina
2.3 Administrative Structure of Public Schools
2.4 The Organizational Flow Chart
2.5 The Funding of Public Schools
2.6 The Problems Facing Public Schools
CHAPTER THREE: HISTORY OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN KATSINA, 1937 2010
3.1 Concept of Private School
3.1.1 Categories of Private
3.1.2 The Vision, Mission and Objectives of Private Schools
3.2 History of the Establishment, Growth and Development of Private Schools in Katsina
3.3 Reasons for the establishment of Private School in Katsina
3.4 Rules and Regulation/Guidelines Governing the Establishment of Private in Katsina State
3.5 The Administrative Structure of Private Schools in Katsina
3.6 The Organizational Flow Chart
3.7 The Funding of Private School
3.8 Contributions of Private Schools to Educational Development of Katsina
3.9 Problems/Challenges Facing Private Schools in Katsina
3.10 Exploitative Nature of Private Schools
CHAPTER FOUR: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PROPRIETORS OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS (NAPPS), 2000 2010
4.1 History of National Association of Proprietors of Private Schools in Katsina (NAPPS)
4.2 Aims and Objectives of NAPPS
4.4 Right and Obligation of Members
4.5 The Organization/Administrative Structure of NAPPS in Katsina
4.7 Roles/Achievement of NAPPS in Katsina
4.8 Problems/Challenges Faced by NAPPS in Katsina
CHAPTER FIVE: GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This research work is dedicated to God Almighty, the giver of knowledge, wisdom and understanding whom without His final approval the work would not have been possible. And to my beloved father Mr. Wycliff Clifford and my late mother Mrs. Rabi Wycliff Clifford who bear the burden of my stewardship and remain the pivot of inspiration in life and then to all lovers of education.
Praise be to God Almighty the King of Glory who is able to create, guided and assisted me throughout my studentship period in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and whom with His mercy, I was able to complete this important segment of my programme safely.
However, the whole degree programme owes it success to the financial contributions, academic insights, prayers, moral support and encouragement to a lot of personalities some of whom are mentioned below;
My warmest appreciation goes to my beloved parents (Mr. Wycliff Clifford and my late Mother Mrs. Rabi Wycliff Clifford) who sacrificed all they have for my successful completion of not only my NCE but also Degree Programme, and whom with their valuable advice and prayers the programme became a reality. Thanks for your affectionate care for me right from my childhood, your support cannot be forgotten. For you molded my life to what I am today. Thank you late mother, you will forever be in my heart; you died before the completion of this work. I am also very much grateful to God Almighty and our Lord Jesus Christ for blessing me with lovely and caring siblings Yakubu Clifford, Ibrahim Clifford, Mary Wycliff, Martha Wycliff, Amos Clifford, Joseph Clifford, Justina Clifford and Alex Clifford for all their patience, support and prayers in all ramifications. Then Mr. Ayuba Bello and Mrs. Regina Ayuba Bello who always stand for the family in all situations, only God can crown your efforts.
I also, sincerely wish to express my profound gratitude to my supervisor and caring mother indeed Hussaina Bakin-Kasuwa Ibrahim for sparing her time to supervise this project work, especially with her humble advice, corrections, tenaciousness, patience, simplicity and kindness as well as her incisive criticism of this work. All this were source of encouragement to me. In the same vein, I will seize this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to all staff of the History Department particularly Prof. Enoch Oyedele, Dr. John Ola Agi and Dr. Musa Adamu Mamman for their guidance, counseling and encouragement during the period of my stay in the University. Indeed, your effort will forever be remembered. I equally appreciate Dr. George Amale Kwanashie, Dr. M.A Gwadabe, Dr. Adamu Abdulkadir, Dr. I.S. Jimada, Prof. Mahmoud Hamman, Toure Kazah-Toure, Dr. Saleh Abubakar, Dr. Sule Mohammed, Mal. A.Z Ibrahim, Mal. A.M Safiyanu, Mal. A.M Nasiru, Mal. M.S Bashir and Mal. M.S Zubairu who have taught me one course of the other. Then Mal. Dahiru Rabe- my NCE Project Supervisor, Mal. Ya’u Lawal- Project Co-ordinator, Mal. Babangida Mohammed Faskari, Mal. Jamilu Shehu of Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina (UYMUK) and Mal. Kabir Mohammed Gundawa who were all my lecturers at Isa Kaita College of Education (IKCOE) Dutsinma.
Moreover, this acknowledgement could never be complete without mentioning the names of my friend and course mates Edward David, Habila Abarshi and Stephen Ibrahim Sule, whom I benefitted tremendously from their company. Most especially Luka Dan’azumi whom we went for the fieldwork together followed by Monday Usman and Thaddius David whose motorcycle we used for mobility. These also include Yusuf Maikarfi, Sylvanus Yamai Edward, Emmanuel Valentine, Samuel Nwosu, Adams Bako Obed, and Ferdinand Moughara, Mal. Samaila Murnai, Usman Barda, Saifullahi Amadu Yakubu Abubakar Ja’afar, Ekom Alexander, Esther Alexander and Nuhu John. I thank you all and may God bless, reward and see you through in your entire endeavour in life (Amen).
Lastly, I wish to acknowledge the immense contributions and support of Rev. I.G. Baba, Prof. Enoch and his wife Mrs. Rebecca Enoch Oyedele for being my discipler under the Chapel of Redemption, ABU Zaria. The family of Rev. Henry Kwarphery, Rev. M.S Buba, Pastor Onen Fidelis who greatly assisted me in the course of this work. Elder Zachariah Ishaya, Elder Aaron Kwarson, Miss Murna Malam, Elder Alexander Ekomogbu, Elder Ishaku Sunday, Mr. Josiah D. Dzarma, Mrs. Asa’u Nuradeen my late mother’s friend, Barr. and Mrs. Uyi Igunma of the Assemblies of God Church Katsina- who have always been there for me. Then Mr. Cephas Tan, Mal. Mudi Hassan, Dr. M.A Mamman and his wife Mrs. Rahila Musa Adamu Mamman. The entire members of Evangelical Church of Christ in Nigeria (ECCN) Katsina, Kilba and Adamawa Development Associations, Nigeria Fellowship of Evangelical Student (NIFES) and its Associates, as well as Josephine Burgess of World Bible School (WBS), staff of Katsina LEA, Ministry of Education, WAEC and NECO. The Proprietors of Private Schools especially Alhaji Tajudeen Babatunde Raji, Elder Christian Yakubu, Dr. Abdulkadir Rabiu Kurfi, Private Schools Directors, Principals, Headmasters and Headmistress, Teachers at the same time the Commissioners of Education, Ministry of Land and Survey, and their permanent secretaries for their maximum cooperation towards the success of this project.
In addition, worthy of commendations are Amos Hyammann Emmanuel (Mbuyazi), Moses Datoegoem, Dogara Yakubu who have been caring friends and supportive at the same time assisted me in typing this project work. It is only God, who can crown your effort. Thanks for always being there. Equally, I appreciate the company of Danladi Gwazah, Dakup Yoila Nenman (Morgan), Abel Ameh Innocent, Uncle Samuel Ajufo, Uncle Kwaghtamen Liambee Felix, Yaro Kwapendu Daudu, Moses Ngong, Celstine Agbu, Amina Danladi, Kusamat Sherifat Omolola, all History 400 level students and many people whom I could not mention their names. However, God knows you, and He will reward you and grant you success in life (Amen).
Education is the bedrock and key to any nation’s national development. However, with the general falling standard of education in Nigerian Public Primary and Secondary Schools, there has been the demand for more private schools to come in to compliment government efforts in the education sector through provision and delivering of high standard, quality and quantitative education. Therefore, this project work sets to analyze and explore the historical and educational reasons behind the establishment and growth private schools in Katsina State with particular reference to Katsina Metropolis and its environs, as the study is from 1980 – 2010. This is added to the fact that some proprietors of private schools have deviated from their traditional role and making money to the bedrock of establishing schools. Moreover, their proliferation has become a serious/great concern to all stakeholders. Thus, efficient method of research was applied to come up with a reliable result, in the form of conducting interviews with resource persons, as well as consulting newspapers, magazines, archival and government documents, internet among others. Thus, in the course of major finding, it was discovered that some of the people joining the business of private school believed money is bedrock. No wonder, the highest rate of examination malpractices, indiscipline and exploitation of teachers are recorded in private schools and this has crippled the role of education in national development. Consequently, all the necessary measures and proper solutions to all the stakeholders is provided in the recommendation section.
ACRONOMYS AND ABBREVIATIONS
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LIST OF MAPS, CHARTS AND TABLES
1. Map of Katsina Metropolis Showing Road Network
2. Map of Katsina Metropolis and its Environ
3. Map of Katsina State Showing old 7 Local Governments
4. Map of Katsina State Showing old 14 Local Governments
5. Map of Katsina State Showing old 26 Local Governments
6. Map of Katsina State Showing 34 Local Governments
TABLES AND CHARTS
Table 2.1: Katsina Local Government Education Authority list of public primary schools in Katsina, 1927-2007
Table 2.2: Katsina Zonal Inspectorate list of public secondary schools in Katsina, 1947 – 2010
Table 2.3: Katsina Zonal Inspectorate current list of public junior and senior secondary schools in Katsina
Table 2.4: Public primary school organization flow chart School Based Management Committee Chart)
Table 2.5: Public junior secondary school organizational flow chart
Table 2.6: Public senior secondary school organizational flow chart
Table 3.1: Summary table indicating the increase in number of private Schools
Table 3.1.1: A Chart showing the level of growth and development of private schools in Katsina
Table 3.1.2: List of Private (Primary and Secondary) Schools in Katsina
Table 3.2: Organizational flow chart of private schools in Katsina
Table 3.3: Organizational flow chart of private mission school in Katsina
Table 3.4: Organizational flow chart of private primary schools in Katsina
Table 3.5: Organizational flow charts table indicating salary scale of
Teachers in Private schools in katsina
A GLOSSARY OF HAUSA TERM s
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CHAPTER ONE EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF KATSINA BY THE 19TH CENTURY
Following the emergence of Katsina Kingdom in the 15th century, the capital was noted as a citadel of learning. This development is associated with the introduction of Islam in West Africa around the 14th century or much earlier. Important scholars were said to have entered Katsina city (metropolis) where they contributed much in the development of Islam. For instance, Muhammad Adulkarim AlMaghili from Tuat came to Katsina in 1493 and wrote treaties for the Emir of Katsina Muhammad Korau. This confirmed the fact that:
“By the 16th and 17th centuries, Katsina had become an important centre of learning. From the 18th century, indigenous Katsina Islamic scholars had started emerging such as Waliyan Danmasani and Waliyan Danmarna. The emergence of these indigenous scholars marked another epoch in the development of Islamic learning in Katsina. Many Islammiya schools and Mosques and other centers of learning were emerging… This conforms to the fact that: Katsina has always had a considerable local reputation for learning, taking its place after Timbuktu in this respect. For centuries, people have come from all over West Africa to sit at the feet of learned Mallams of Katsina to improve their learning and enlarge their experience. It has been claimed that there was in effect a university there. ”
However, the British conquest of Northern Nigeria in 1903 marked another stage in the development of the socalled Western style of education. This continues even when Nigeria attained her independence in 1960. Consequently, education continues to receive paramount attention as part of the effort made by government of the first republic to enhance social and national development in the country and Katsina metropolis in particular.
Nonetheles s, it is therefore based on these facts that, this chapter would attempt to draw our attention to some of the significant issues which reveal how inseparable the state of learning was in Katsina. Starting with the geographical location, early history of Katsina with special emphasis on education, the educational development in the 19th century, which includes both ‘Traditional and Islamic Education (i.e. forms, nature and structure)' as well as the impact of the educational developments on the political, social and economic development of Katsina.
1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
Land and People
Katsina is the capital of ancient katsina Emirate, currently serving as the centralized administrative city at the same time capital of the state is an upland area located on Latitude 120 45’ N and 130 15’ N and Longitude 70 30’E and 80 00’E. It is also argued to lie between Latitude 120 5’ and 130 22’ North and Longitude 70 33’ and 90 22’ East in the extreme north of Nigeria and spur of land between two water courses of Koramar Tilla and Gisu flowing in north easterly direction. However, Katsina is located at the extreme part of NigeriaNiger border. The town and its immediate environs form the present study area, which is bordered by the local area of Kaita to the North (North East), Jibia and Batsari to the North West, Batagarawa and Rimi to the South and then Mani to the East. Thus, Katsina being part of the northern plains of Hausaland is further located about 258km East of Sokoto and 135km North West of Kano.
Prior to the 19th century, Katsina Kingdom covered a very large area (i.e. her authority extended to Maradi and Tassawa in the north border of Zamfara in the west, and as far south of Birnin Gwari. It was indeed the main entrance gate to Hausaland. Thus, the town of Katsina is popularly called Birnin Katsina (Katsina Metropolis). In the ancient times it had a city wall built around it, to provide security. Similarly, a number of gates were constructed for easy access to the city. For example Kofar Guga gate is located in the Northwest which called Kofar Yari (Western gate) in the ancient days. In the Western part, there is Kofar Yan’daka which was the gate that the first Colonial Governor of the Northern Region, Lord Lugard, entered and took over Katsina during the British conquest of Northern Nigeria in 1903. Kofar Kwaya is located in the southwestern part of the city, and Kofar Sauri is located in the northern part of the city. While Kofar Durbi is located in the eastern part and was the major gate of the ancient city of Daura and Durbitakusheyi, the latter was one of the earliest settlements in Katsina kingdom. Also by the southern part of the city, there was kofar Gozaki which according to legends, the gate was closed because of the menace of an evil spirit that lived in its vicinity. Lastly, Kofar Marusa is by the southeastern part of the city, named after Marusa the commander of incharge of Eastern Katsina.
Moreover, the historical importance of Katsina, together with its strategic location in Northern Nigeria had greatly contributed to its population growth. The 2006 population census recorded the estimated population of the study area as 459,022. The increasing population in recent years has been attributed to Uthman Dan Fodio Jihad in 1804, ruralurban migration of the people for business purposes and influx of civil servants. Owing to increase in urbanization and employment opportunities, the establishment of many more governmental and private schools and to meet the educational needs of the people is particularly remarkable.
Thus, Katsina being an urban centre accommodates people from different works of life, but the predominant ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani. There are other communities or other ethnic groups who also formed part of the composition of today’s Katsina Metropolis and participate in the political, social and economic development of Katsina. These are Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Tiv, Idoma, Igala, Kilba (Huba), Margi, Eggon among others. It is also important to note that there are also the citizens of Niger Republic who reside in all wards, and are smallscale traders. The people living in Katsina Metropolis are Muslims, and live together with other Christians, who are either indigenes or immigrants. More so, two types of settlement form the closeknit economic, cultural, administrative and historical interrelationships of the area.
Moreover, the area is a watershed between rivers draining in Niger and Chad basin. The topography and soil texture of the area is characterised by continuous sediments and sandy drifts, mostly broken by outcrops of granite in forms of duwatsu (rocks) such as Dutsin Safe. It is believed that is the main reason why the soil is red in colour. The red soil (jar kasa) is prevalent in Katsina metropolis and other parts of Northern Katsina. This is added to Laterite Iron stones, which are good source of tama (iron ore). The plains of the area stand above sea level at an elevation of about 1,600 to 1,800 feet. In Katsina area, the valleys of the rivers are shallow, which usually change their course and form lakes. An example of this is Tabkin Sauri characterized by yellowishbrown soil. Similarly, clay loams are found around the fadama (wet lands) suitable for the growth of vegetables like tomatoes, pepper, lettuce and fruits. The area has a good supply of underground water, at the depth of 50 to 240 feet, mainly increased by percolating rainwater. Thus, see Map 1 to 6 below.
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Source: Survey Deparment. MLSE, katsina Copyright 2007
1.1.1 Climate and Rainfall
The climate is semiarid, similar to what prevails in the Sahel Sudan ecological zone. The climate is also subject to the movement of air masses, which affects the rainfall and temperature of the area. These air masses are the Tropical Continental air mass or northeast winds, which blow from the desert bringing harmattan, and the Tropical Maritime air mass, or southwestern wind which blows to the area from the Gulf of Guinea bringing rainfall into the region. Annual rainfall is about 20 to 40 inches, with an average of 25 inches (that is an average rainfall of 600700mm annually), and in bad years, it is 15 inches.
Thus, the temperature is generally high, but it reaches it peaks in April and May where daily temperature may reach to up to 30c. From June to October Katsina experience warm wet season, which is the rainy season and between November and February comes the harmattan period with the lowest temperature characterized by a long cold and dry atmosphere and visibility use to be often very poor because of haze and dust. In other words, the area has an average temperature of 42⁰C, which is adequate for plant growth. During the harmattan period, a maximum of 90⁰C is noted; this falls back between the months of November and February.
Rainfall was a fundamental element that determined the pattern of settlement and economic activities in Katsina. However, the amount of rainfall and temperature varies, and are subject to changes in the atmosphere. Rainfall bring changes to the environment, popularly known as damina mai ban samu (rainy season the provider of livelihood). Rain normally begins in April and when the rains becomes regular, temperature is usually lower in the morning and at night, thereby it is excessively hot. The mid day temperature rise to 100⁰C and a minimum of 75⁰C is recorded. The early rain is accompanied by cida (thunder) which is an indication of the beginning of the rainy season.
Notwithstanding, great attention is devoted to farm work at the early stage of the rainy season. This is because of the uncertainty of the rain, because after the first rain there is often a delay of three to four weeks. In addition, when this happens the seeds are wasted. So, in order to overcome this problem, much attention is devoted to farming, utilizing the available knowhow, skills and labour. Crops like groundnut, beans and sweet potatoes are planted within the period of little or no rain, and this in turn often leads to famine and higher prices of the available foodstuff.
The period of shortage of rain followed by time of heavy rain, by the end of June, cloud cover becomes permanent with frequent rain. It is also a time of excessive rain, which makes weeding and harvesting of crops a difficult task. More importantly, at this point if the harvest of millet is delayed, it is normally washed away which becomes a source of concern of the people, as the available food becomes expensive due to the high demand of Millet for Fura; a drink made of millet consumed in the area as food. Similarly, this is a period, when flood occur, washing down farmlands and houses, so it is a critical period for the generality of the people of the area.
Usually, the rainfall has often been unfavourable in one out of five years, which is accompanied by low productivity of crops. The period of excessive rain is followed by times when crops are harvested from the farm, and the harvested crops are stored. With harvest over, the dry stalk of cotton, groundnut and beans are left in the farms as feeds for cattle. This arrangement comes in form of agreement for the herdsmen to provide manure on the farmlands. Some of the stalk is taken away, and stored for the feeding of animals, goats, and as well kept in various household.
Thus, farming in the dry season which usually is done especially in fadamomi (wet lands) requires moisture that is why in some instances wells are dug and shaduf is used in evacuating water from wells for the irrigation of plants. This agricultural activity entails the cultivation of vegetables and in some cases food crops are planted along side with vegetables. The vegetable cultivated include onions, tomatoes, cabbage and lettuce. These are planted in square formed layout to allow water to pass into the farmland area. A large proportion of land in Katsina metropolis has been utilized for this economic activity.
Thus, the products serve the Katsina markets as well as the surrounding villages and distant markets. Some of the tomatoes and pepper are dried, stored and used in the rainy season when they are scarce. They also form items of trade in the Tsohuwar and Sabuwar Kasuwa in Katsina metropolis as well as the surrounding villages. In addition, onion leaves were dried and taken to long distant places, known as gabu used in food preparation. This is important because it shows how people utilize sunshine to preserve food items in order to prevent spoilage, as well as due to high demand for dried items in rainy season.
Lying within the northern Sudan Savanah, the vegetation of Katsina metropolis falls within the Savannah zone of West Africa, namely the Guinea, Sudan and Sahel Savannah. It is important to note that, a type of vegetation in the area is influenced by the amount of rainfall, soil type and intensity of human activities in the area.
The vegetation found in the area comprises of trees and shrubs. The trees are found in areas close to settlements, while the shrubs are found in areas far away from settlements. The areas where trees are found are under intensive cultivation, and it is characterize by trees covering many kilometers. This kind of vegetation was suppressed. Even when Clapperton visited Katsina on 16th May 1824 noted that most of the area was extensively cultivated.
Trees found around the settlement are shea butter (Acacia Albida) and Tamarind (Taramindus Indica). Other important trees found beside these are, baobab (kuka) (Adonsonia digitate), locust beans (dorowa) (parkia filiwida), black plum (dinya) Vitex, (faru) (lannea), Egyptian thorn (bagaruwa) (acecia), Silk cotton tree (rimi) (ceiba pantandra), Niger Gutta tree (gamji) (ficus platyphylia), African ebony (kanya) (diospyrus mespilifornsis), winter thorn (gawo) (Acacia Albida). 
Some species of trees like kuka (Baobab), cediya (ficus thornniya), durumi (ficus polita) and rimi (Ceibi pentandra) are found in settled areas, sometimes near the houses. It is believed that the tree cluster is an indication that people have lived in the area for a long time. Meanwhile, these trees are of economic significance to the people of the area.
1.1.2 Land Uses
Land in our area of study is dominated by activities, such as residential, institutional, commercial and industrial land uses, with small area utilized for farming which includes livestock production and gathering.
Residential areas cover most part of the study area, different land uses such as commercial, institutional, and educational areas are all located within the residential vicinity. Sabuwar Ungwa extension is the major area functioning as industrial layout. Industries such as Dana Steel Rolling, packaging, beverages processing etc., are found in this area.
Commercial activities happen to be growing very fast in the area. There are many smalls and one major central market. The popular markets here are Katsina Central Market , Kofar Marusa Market, Old market and Yar’ Kutungu Market. Also there are many departmental stores, shopping centres and supermarkets where local and foreign commodities are sold. Institutional land uses can be found at various locations within urban Katsina. Tertiary institutions include Katsina Islamic University, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Federal College of Education, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnics, College of Agriculture and, School of Nursing and Midwifery in addition to numerous Nursery/Primary and Secondary Schools both governmental and privately owned.
Agricultural activities are confined to open spaces within the builtup areas and at suburbs, and on the stretches of flood plains and the little floodable plains of the part of the low terrace depressions that retains water in the area. As well as other undeveloped lands within the area and other extensive areas just outside the city gates. The most common crops grown are Corn (Sorghun spp), Millet (Panicum miliaceun), maize (Zea mayz), beans (Vigne unguiculata) etc. Irrigated crops are Okro (Abelmoschus esculentus), Cabbage (Brassica oleraceacapitata) spinach (Spinacia oleracea) etc., Perennial crops and Fruits.
The area also supports large number of cattle, sheep, donkey and goats. All livestocks in the area graze on natural pasture and shrubs for their nutritional needs, and supplementary feeding from the beans stalk.
Furthermore, when we look at the landforms of the area we will discover that it reflects the sedimentary rock formation. The landscape is relatively flat, almost featureless, typically less than two degree, and about 510m at the Katsina city centre. The plain is underlain by clay sandstones and grits with small basal pebble. Rock out crop is generally absent, other than the small inlayers of basement complex plains further south of the area.
1.2 EARLY HISTORY OF KATSINA TO THE 19TH CENTURY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION
For a clear understanding of Katsina, we need the general overview of Katsina history from the earliest time upto the 19th century when the Fulani conquered the area, which has political, education and economic impact on Katsina.
However, according to some oral traditions and Henry Barth, Katsina Kingdom came into being during the early part of 13th century with a ruling dynasty at Abuttai (when the seat of power was at Abuttai) where Katsina is presently situated.
Thus the history of Katsina Kingdom can be fully understood when we look at the coming of Islam in Katsina even though the precise date of it is not known i.e. when Islam was first introduced. However, it is believed that a group of Mande immigrants arrived there at about the same time as they reach Kano in the 14th century. Significantly, Muhammad Korau, who was the contemporary of Muhammad Rumfa, was of Wangarawa origin.
Moreover, the era of Muhammad Korau (14451495) was also regarded as an important period. This is because, according to Historians, Wangarawa scholars visited the area after their short stay in Gobir before reaching Kano. Muhammad Korau a Mallam from Yandoto went to Durbawa to preach Islam. Later, he was reported to become the Mallam to the Durbawa King (Jabda Yaki Sanau) and eventually overthrew him and became the first Muslim ruler (14451495). The overthrow of the old dynasty was regarded as a victory for Islam and Islamic education. It would appear that Islam has been spreading among the people of Katsina for a long time but had made no strong and favourable impressions on the ruling dynasty. One should agree with Bugaje that the seizure of power by Korau represented the climax of Islamization at Katsina up to 15th century. Thus, the Islamization goes along with the spread of Islamic education because it was during this time that Gobarau mosque serves as centre of spiritual and intellectual activities; coupled with the emergence of so many Islamic scholars as well as the tradition of Islamic reforms.This was carried further during the reign of Sarkin Katsina Maje, who was noted for his desire to implement Islamic practices among his people. The outcome was that those his subject who were nominal Muslims were made to observe the obligatory prayers, and bachelors were forced to get married in order to live a decent life. Another achievement of Maje was the construction of additional mosques in the Metropolis, which is another development in the expansion of Islamic education.
Thus, the second ruler of the new dynasty was Ibrahim Sura who ruled (149598). It was reported that he and Sultan of AgadezMuhammad Sattefen were specially mentioned in an advisory note on Islamic administration written and addressed by AsSuyuti to the kings of Sudan. With the visit of AlMaghili to Katsina at about the end of Sura’s reign, Katsina metropolis experienced another epoch in the teaching of the Qur’an. By implication, it means that by this time Katsina was developing into an important Islamic stronghold and centre of learning. The famous Gobarau Mosque inside the city of Katsina was said to have been constructed on the initiative of AlMaghili. Like the Sankore Mosque at Timbuktu, it developed into a major centre of advanced Islamic scholarship, which served the interests of the students and scholars of Hausaland, Borno and beyond. This made some scholars to argue, “Its intellectual activities could compare favourably with those of other medieval African universities like Fez and Timbuktu”. Thus, in the sixteenth century, a number of other Muslims also visited Katsina.
Much more, the last years of the fifteenth century saw the beginning of the reign of alMurabit (14981524). His contemporaries knew Ali as a religious warrior, but we do not know precisely what he did. One of his early successors, Ibrahim Maje, who ruled from 15491566, is known in local tradition as an Islamic reformer. This means that Islam faced some problems after the reign of Ali alMurabit or that of Maje accelerated the pace of Islamization. It is also reported that whichever the case, this king is reported to have attempted to force the Islamic religion on his people, particularly the nobility who seemed less disposed to accept it than the common people. But we are as yet know the results of these effort nor are we in a position to say much about the policy adopted towards Islam by the individual successors by Ibrahim Maje up to the outbreak of the early nineteenth century revolution in Hausaland.
Similarly, by the end of 16th century, it is important to note that, Katsina began to produce indigenous scholars of international repute. They include Muhammad B. Masina al Barwani al Kashnawi popularly called Ibn Sabbag (Dan Masina). There was Muhammad alFulani al Kashinawi who became famous in the secret sciences (Ulu’um al siriya), Mathematics and astronomy. Muhammad alKashina was educated in Katsina, later he travel through Egypt to perform the Holy pilgrimage. On his return, he stayed and taught in Cairo where he died as a guest of alTabati. Among his workers is alDurr al Manzum WA Khulasat al Sir al Maktum fi ilimi altalsim WA Najum which he complete in Cairo in 1734 A.D. Thus, by the end of the 18th century, katsina came into conflict with the powerful kingdom of Gobir.
By extension, when we look at the nature of Katsina polity by 1850 A.D. we will discover that, Katsina was ruled by an emirate under the Sokoto Caliphate. Authority was vested on the emir who controlled numerous towns and villages which together formed the districts. The districts were cooperate units of administration under the Hakimi (District Heads), group of villages make up the districts. While Katsina the study area, was the capital and centre of administration of the emirate. Some time before colonialism, some of the hakimai (districts head) lived in the Metropolis but sent their representatives to the districts. The emir was in charge of the affairs of the emirate but was answerable to the Caliph based in Sokoto. The Caliph was in charge of appointment and deposition of the emirs.
Katsina as stated earlier was the capital of the emirate as well as the ancient city. It was the centre of administration where the palace complex comprising the house of the emir and his officials, as well as places for the conflict of royal business. The area remained the capital of the emirate to date.
Meanwhile, in the judicial aspect, Qadis (judges) were drawn from the intelligentsia from all parts of the emirate. There developed a quarter in the metropolis where the judges’ were employed and the area came to be known as Unguwar Alkali (Alkali Quaters). The judges were responsible for administering justice in the courts established in the emirate. People found to have committed offences were tried in the courts; where sentences were passed based on Islamic jurisprudence. The emir maintained a court where he received appeals from those dissatisfied with judgment in the courts of the Qadis. The final court of appeal was the court of the commander of the faithful (leader of the Caliphate) at Sokoto. This system of emirate administration continued up to the beginning of the 20th century, when the area was conquered by the British imperial power.
Economically, the source of finance for the Government was mainly through taxation, which was levied on farmers. Other forms of taxes include; Jangali i.e. Cattle tax and occupation tax levied on artisans. There was also customs duty collected on goods entering the gates of the metropolis. An official of Sarkin Katsina known as Sarkin Tafarki collected this tax. However, most of the Katsina people engage in farming (agricultural production), weaving and dyeing. Leather working seems to have remained an important activity the Birnin Katsina as the main centre of production for export. Thus, changes in the nineteenth century have come to be closely associated with the fighting that took place in the 19th century. Usman expressed that the view expressed by Henry Barth,is that this fighting led to a rapid decline in the commercial importance of Birnin Katsina in the 19th century, has gained widespread currency.
1.3 THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE 19TH CENTURY: INDIGENOUS AND ISLAMC EDUCATION
No study of the history of education in Africa is complete without indigenous (traditional) education, which is transmitted from one generation to another to educate members of the society to be productive, useful, honest and loyal. It further emphasized social responsibilities, job orientation, and political participation, spiritual and moral values. Both the children and adolescents were engaged in participatory education through ceremonies, rituals, initiatives, recitation, and demonstration. They were also involved in practical fishing, weaving, cooking, carving, knitting among others. This added to physical training is to developed body and mind. There are many recreational activities usually done at the specific time especially in the evenings during particular seasons; few among them include;wrestling,boxing,racing,drumming,riding,dancing, divination/ fortune telling and many more. This shows that intellectual training is part of African tradition. Owing to the study of local History and Geography, which enable the children know their locality, events and important personalities, this added to mathematics and traditional medicine. Thus, the study of the environment enables them to understand surroundings like vegetation, animals and birds. The children also developed special abilities through poems, proverbs, riddle, jokes, and stories. The process of learning is in steps and according to age of children; at the end of each stage a child is tested and further initiated into the next stage. Age and experience is significant in the learning process.
In another way, the teachers, instructors or trainers in the traditional system of education includes the family which is responsible for the training and education of the younger ones or members, peer group which consist of age mates and playmates, elders consist of religious and traditional rulers, and masters of some craft and trade such as carpenters, tailor, farmers, traders, porters, herbalist, and leather workers among others.
Generally the objectives of indigeneous education centered on respect for elders, character development, intellectual, physical and social training and then vocational development.
By extension, the system of traditional education and its development in katsina is a lifelong process starting as early as possible and continue in ones life. However, during the traditional education in Katsina, when a child was born his first teacher was his mother. Who taught him the art of speaking(or how to speak), walking, etc. thus the dressing, bathing, feeding of the child are the first steps in training and as he/she grows older he/she is encouraged to do it by himself/herself, gradually introducing other activities for independent living.
In addition, the child was also taught to differentiate between the appropriate language of address and that of abuse. Polite words were differentiated from those which are rude. As the child grows older and start to interact with other people in the vicinity, like the other siblings, the dos and don’ts of the community were taught to him. Methods of control and discipline at home involved rebukes, ridicule and sometimes beating by the elders of the house to bring conformity with the right attitude and habit. Sisters and brothers are all partners towards the education of the child not only in Katsina but in an African society. As the child grew, initiation ceremonies are held thereby indicating sex roles and time for specific activities. Folklores and tales were told to the children, which helped in shaping his/her attitudes. Stories of illustrious sons of the community who had shown bravery and wisdom were told to the children to emulate. The age groups had their own system of instilling discipline. Indeed, ridicule and excommunications from the group were some of the methods used or adapted.
Nonetheless, the older family members pass on skills and trades to the child. The knowledge of these skills helps the child in his future life. That sort of education was strictly ulitarian and meant to serve the immediate community. In the field of physical training, especially at the village playground, songs were chanted and display of physical fitness and prowess this ensures physical development of the child within the community.
Thus, in the traditional preIslamic and precolonial period, the use of the supernatural powers helped in controlling the conduct of the members. Katsina society grew bigger and more complex and knowledge expanded. Education became more than a family affair; a specialist on any given trade became necessary and organized training and expanding curriculum mandatory.
Therefore, while all these things were taken place, there came Islamic education, which was said to be a more organized educational system that completely covered every facet of human life, from cradle to grave.
Islam as a way of life and religion means total and unconditional submission to the will of Allah. Islamic education began since the time when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) started receiving revelation from angel Jibril thereby teaching and guiding him on what to and what not to do. However, the development of Islamic education in Katsina in the 19th century could be traced to the coming AlMaghili, who went to katsina from Kano. Even though, by the 15th century Katsina had also become a centre of learning. Some of the pilgrims from Mecca used to visit Katsina, especially eminent scholars from Timbuktu. Similarly, a number of scholars from Sankore University visited the city, bringing with them books on divinity and etymology. In the 17th century, katsina produced native scholars like Muhammadu Dan Masina (d. 1655). Learning developed among these ulamas (learned men) through contacts with centre’s of learning like Timbuktu. A group of these mallams, most of whom seem to be interrelated, formed an intellectual harmony, and among them, the state of learning was much higher. They were organized into a sort of guild, and a master would grant a recognized certificate (Ijazah) to those students who satisfactorily passed the presented course of study under him. This system continued until the coming of the British in Nigeria.
Thus, it was this type of Islamic education, which gave cultural prestige to Islam as J. Spencer Trimingham said, ‘through the system of intellectual and material culture, Islam open new horizon…and from this superiority of Muslims display when confronted with pagans. Desire for knowledge and pride in acquisition of letters has been an important factor in the past, but today, this desire is mainly directed into other channel.’
By extension, there is every reason to believe that by the end of the 18th century Islam was accepted and widespread among people of Katsina Indeed explorers writing about ancient Hausa states had written extensively on the prominence of Katsina as the chief city of education and commerce in Hausaland. According to Hunwick, one of such explorers, Dr. Henry Barth wrote in (1853) about Katsina town in the seventeenth century:
“In fact, Katsina during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of our era seem to have been the chief city of this part of Negro land… Muslim scholars provide advisers, viziers, judge and councillors in court of Emirs.” 
Much more, there is lot of evidence to show that Islamic education received a great attention in the city of Katsina. Numerous schools grew in so many areas and were supported by the political authorities and wealthy citizens, who made donations in expectations of reward in the hereafter. In keeping with the Timbuktu tradition, scholars moved from place to place, and students followed them in search of experts in relevant fields of Islamic sciences in which they wanted professional certification. Most of the pilgrims to Mecca used to visit Katsina.
Thus by the end of the sixteenth century, Katsina had began to produce indigenous scholars of international repute. The scholars included Muhammad B. Masani al Barnawi al Kashinawi (popularly known as Dan Masina) who was originally from Borno. Muhammad al Kashinawi Ibn Sabbagh (Dan Masina) was another, some of those writings have luckily survived, if still unstudied. There was also Muhammad B. Muhammad alFulani al Kashinawi who also became renowned in the secret sciences (alulum al sirriya), Mathematics and Astronomy.
Moreover, from the middle of the 17th century, the tradition of Islamic learning in Katsina appeared to be mature to a point where it produced a coterie of indigenous intelligentsia renowned for their knowledge abroad and influence at home. Thus, these scholars included Sheikh Abdussalam al Futy al Kashinawi (b.1741). He was a Fulani of Futa Toro decent, at the same time descendant to Sheikh Usman Danfodio. He was born in Katsina and he operated a great school in the city. He travelled widely in search of knowledge. That took him to Agadez, Fezzan, Tekedda and some NorthWest African countries. He was highly respected for having memorized the Holy Qur’an and all the six canonical books of the Hadith (alSitta Siba). His most famous book was the “Atiya alMuti” (on Fiqh Islamic Jurisprudence) which is widely in use particularly in Hausaland. He was said to have written several other books.
Another scholar was Sheikh Muhammad Mode alKashinawi. He was an Islamic scholar of high repute who excelled as a Qadi (Judge). He wrote the book, “Sar alImam” which dealt on the path a good leader should tread.
Thus, another was Sheikh alTahir ibn Ibrahim alFulani who was a physician and well versed in the Islamic medicine. He wrote the book called, “Treaties on the Treatment of Haemorrhoids.”
Lastly, there was Sheikh Kisko Gambarawa, who was a descendant of the Wangarawa Gobarau imams and a very learned scholar. He ran a very large school, which attracted students from all over West Africa including Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio who studied under him before the 19th century Jihad that He (Dan Fodio) led. A miracle attributed to Sheikh Kisko who foresaw that Sheikh Dan Fodio was to lead a great Jihad in Hausaland and beyond.
1.4 IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON THE SOCIO ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF KATSINA
The impact of educational development (traditional and Islamic education) on the political, social and economic development of Katsina cannot be over emphasize, because before the coming of colonial education, there was traditional education which emphasize on character formation, then Islam which was the comprehensive learning system which seems to have met the society’s expectations and demands at that time. No wonder the colonial rulers had to treat the matter of spreading the socalled western education with caution.
However, traditional education during the preIslamic era in Katsina placed great emphasis on character formation. Thus, this had gone a long way in moulding the character, behavior and attitude of the children to that of integrity, honesty, responsible, piety, etc.
Thus, consciousness was in the life of the people to the extent that any person of questionable integrity is normally put to ridicule and subjected to various forms of embarrassment. For example, if the person is a girl and if the husband discovered that, her chastity has been freely violated. That would bring disgrace to her family who would be considered as having low integrity.
Moreover, the impact of the traditional education was so great that the extent that, there was no place for laziness and street begging. Apart from specific skills mastered by every youth in the community, farming was compulsory for everybody. Thus, the education always emphasize on good upbringing and acquisition of skills for survival. Every family had a large agricultural land out of which every member of the compound was given a piece to cultivate. Thus, the society had no place for the lazy man. Likewise, the married women were trained and in turn expected to perform the household chores, prepare food for farm workers, and up bringing of the young children being the first teacher.
By extension, when we look at the contribution of Katsina scholars to the development of Islamic education in Katsina (17th 18th centuries) whose impact went beyond the 19th century, we will discover that, renowned Katsina Ulama contributed their quota to the upliftment of the society in fields of endeavor i.e. administration, commerce, social life, science and technology, etc. These things were done through writing books, teachings and preaching, which enhanced the standard of Islamic education; the thinking ability of the people, psychology, reaction and actions on issues that affect their lifestyle. It also increased the status of Katsina as a centre of learning, which made scholars from distant places visit the metropolis to further their educational career and others came as visiting teachers to exchange ideas.
Thus, Islamic education brought about widespread acceptance and changes not only in the ritual affairs of the people, but also in sociopolitical as well as economic spheres. Literacy among the people was enhanced, as well as other intellectual activities. Sharia was established, and used by the rulers of Katsina and this (Sharia) was taken with all seriousness. However, even when a lot of local customs and beliefs had found their way into Islam, the scholars accused the ruler of doing nothing to correct the wrong. Thus, it was the activities of these scholars that led to the great Jihad, which was declared on Tuesday, February 21, 1804. This jihad which is popularly known as Sokoto jihad, led to the overthrow of the centuries long existing system of Habe rulers and the subsequent establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate, which was the largest political unit in West Africa in the 19th century, and lasted until 1903 when it was conquered by the British colonial forces.
Thus, Islamic scholarship continued in areas under Katsina in and after the 19th century, and Katsina city maintained its position as an important centre of learning. Preliminary investigation reveals that centres of Islamic learning in Katsina in the 19th century continued to exits despite the political upheavals, which disturbed the area. Scholars in Katsina established and maintained schools within both the Birni and the outside. Some of the learning centres were established since the times of Muhammad B. AbdalKarim alMaghili (1503), Muhammad b. Ahmed alTassakti (d. 1529), Abu Abdullahi Muhammad b. Masani (15951667) and his contemporary, Muhammad B. Sabbagh.
More so, these learning centres especially Hambali school produced two (2) Alkalis (Judges) of Birnin Katsina (Ali Muhammad Hambali and Dalhatu Muhammad Hambali); the area where they settled came to be named “Unguwar Alkali” (Alkali quarters) up to date. The schools also produce Limamin Juma’a (Imam of Friday congregation prayer); that is Mahmud Muhammad Hambali. While the school of Tsohuwar Kasuwa, which had branches in Kakarku supplies, also many of the Alkali of Katsina state.
Nevertheless, the Islamic education turned Katsina in the past to be held with high reputation in many parts of the world as a seat of learning and piety to the extent of being compared to Timbuktu. For centuries, people have come from all over West Africa to sit at the feet of learned Mallams of Katsina to improve their experience. It has been claimed that there was in effect a University there
Thus, the Islamic education led to the birth of native scholars like Muhammadu Dan Masina (d. 1667). ‘Learning developed among the ulama (learned men)’, says ‘through contacts with centres of learning like Timbuktu. A group of these mallams, most of who seem to be interrelated, formed an intellectual harmony, and among them, the state of learning was much higher. They were organized into a sort of guild, and a master would grant a recognized certificate (Ijazah) to those students who satisfactorily passed the prescribed course of study under him. This system continued until the coming of the British to Nigeria.
Thus, it was the Islamic education, which gave cultural prestige to Islam. As J. Spencer Trimingham said; ‘through the system of intellectual and material culture, Islam opens new horizon...religions of the book.’
In another development, it was as a result Islamic education under the leadership of Usman Dan Fodio (i.e Jihad) that educating women was highly encouraged in Katsina especially in his famous work Ihya alSunnah. ‘if anyone says that a woman is generally ignorant of these matters (for example, matters relating to business transactions) my reply is that it is incumbent upon her to endeavour to know those (commercial regulations) as it is binding upon her to know about other matters pertaining to her religion like ablutions, fasting and prayers.
Furthermore, the message of Shehu Uthman worked so well that female education became prevalent among the Musims in not only Katsina but northern Nigeria as a whole. His jihad was followed by a resurgence of literacy. The Shehu’s two daughters were highly educated and their literary contributions have come down to us as specimens of learning among Muslim women in Islam in West Africa. His older daughter gave religious instructions and lessons on Islamic studies, law and jurisprudence. His youngest daughter Asma Nana was a renowned poetess. The Shehu allowed women to attend lectures and preaching in an attempt to practice what he preached.
This high standard of Arabic and Islamic education continued until the coming of the British to Nigeria in the middle nineteenth century. Islamic education is part and parcel of Islam.
Hence, another impact is that it was Islamic education that made every ‘good Muslim’ambitious to study Arabic so as to be able to read the Koran, study the laws and traditions of Islam. It is on record that the Prophet once said that ‘the ink of the scholar is holier than the blood of a martyr.’ This perhaps explains why Islam is the desire for knowledge and pride in its acquisition and has always been a crucial factor hence the importance attached to it in our area of study.
In other words the development of Islamic education was an essential element of Islam. Those who possessed it were seen with high esteem in Katsina. Indeed Muslim scholars or Mallams (Ulamas) formed a class of their own and enjoyed a social status that seems too enjoyed by the highest official of the state.
Furthermore, student with professional skills earn a living after completing their courses. For instance, a good student who studied law was appointed by the Emir and District Heads as the Alkali (judge), court messenger, or a clerk whereas, most administrative posts within the Sokoto Caliphate (which Katsina is inclusive) came to be associated with certain families towards the end of the nineteenth century. In the case of the judiciary scholarship in Islamic law remained (and still remains) the sine quo non for appointment to judicial posts. Indeed, the judiciary turns out to be the only government departments open to scholars of talakawa percentage since appointment was based on scholarship and not on birth, as was the case in other government posts. Muslim scholars also acted as advisers to the rulers and other administrators. They were usually given payments for their services. The rulers also appointed their senior administrators and counselors from among makarantun ilimi graduates. Mallams who did not secure government appointments become either Koranic or makarantun ilimi teachers. Yet others join the commercial world as traders. For those who could not otherwise have enjoyed political influence, the only sure way was to acquire Islamic education. This was because rulers and administrators alike looked at the ulema (ulama) as the custodians of Islamic law and as such, they were consulted on all matters of the state. Suffice it to say here therefore that Islamic education was both satisfying, as it was supposed to bring a man closer to Allah, as well as bestowing on him prestige and social status in the community.Islamic education was materially rewarding since Mallams benefitted from Zakat as well as given gifts by their students and parent.
From the discussion in this chapter, it is believed that prior to the advent of colonial or the socalled Western style of education traditional and Islamic form of education have played important roles in the lives of the people of Katsina; thus education was not a new thing. Owing to the fact that, these systems of education process are still in existence; they are complete systems of life as they provide assistance and guidance in every aspect of peoples needs: physically, socially, mentally, spiritually and morally. This shows that, their objectives cover all the various domain of human development, which starts from prenatal to the adult stage.
Furthermore, the discussion has shown that, traditional education in not only Katsina or Nigeria but Africa is geared towards the promotion of lives of the society. It also maintains the sociocultural and economic structures of the people. The education is built on solid and practical foundations. It is in close harmony with the life, needs and aspirations of the community. The curriculum covers all virtues and ideas that encourage healthy living. The community constituted the school as well the farm, the workshop, dispensary and a field for experiments; particularly in agriculture and medicine.
Meanwhile, Islamic education was derived from the religion of Islam. The education is solely on the holy book of Islam known as Quran, which was written by inspiration of Allah. Thus, the Islamic education is concerned with the moral, intellectual, social, economic, as well as spiritual development of man. This paved way in reviving the society up to the time colonial or the socalled Western education appears, even at it, Katsina still maintain its reputation as a centre of learning which led to the establishment of Old Katsina College in 1922 as we shall see in chapter two.
CHAPTER TWO INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN EDUCATION AND THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN KATSINA, 1906 – 2010
Education is important and central for societal development. Education has been the force behind the progress of all cultures and civilizations. However, western style of education came to Katsina in the 20th century. This led to series of changes and development that transformed the society of Katsina, even though it has its own limitations.
This chapter is set to examine the objectives of western education in Katsina from 19062010.This include the history of Public schools in Katsina, it administrative structure, the organization flow chart, the problems facing public schools and then how they are funded.
2.1 THE INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN EDUCATION IN NIGERIA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON KATSINA
The introduction of Western style of education in Nigeria begins with the arrival of Wesleyan Christian Missionaries in Badagry in 1842. It played an active role in the provision of formal education for the people. Between 1842 and 1914, about ten different Christian missions arrived in Nigeria, and began intensive missionary and educational work. Schools were built for the purpose of disseminating education and conversion of people to Christianity. The missions began to struggle for pupils/members such that there was a proliferation of primary schools established by different missions. The education received was limited to 4Rs i.e. Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and Religion. This new missionary education prepared the recipient for new job opportunities in colonial service such as teachers, clerks and interpreters. Emphasis was placed on character training, most of the missions established primary schools with little emphasis laid on secondary and higher education, at the initial stage.
Thus, western type of education developed faster in the South than in the North of Nigeria because of the skepticism about the impact of Christian missionary education. By 1914, it was estimated that about 25,000 Quranic schools were already in existence all over Northern Nigeria. But, by 1910 Industrial School (Technical or Clerical School) was established in Katsina and in 1916 and in 1930 girl’s school was established. The arrival of Christian Western education met stiff opposition. However, missionaries did succeed to establish schools at times, in collaboration with colonial Government. For instance, Gidado Primary School was established in 1927 followed Babban Ruga Primary School in 1937 in Katsina. The colonialists were not keen on establishing schools that was why they did not impose it the way they imposed other colonial policies.
Thus, the introduction of Western style of education to Northern Nigeria was done in early 1900s. Moreover, Western Education was rejected in the North because there was an established indigenous Islamic education, which made it difficult for the Muslim areas to readily accept western education, which was being introduced and promoted by the Christian missionaries.
Moreso, the development of Western Education in the North could be traced back to Reverend Richardson, J.C.D. Ryder, J.K Burgin and Dr. W.R.S. Miller who requested Governor Lord Lugard to allow them into the new protectorate in order to establish missions in Kano and Ilorin. Thus, the permission was granted, but the mission, which was led by Mr. Tugwell in 1899 was rebuffed by the Emirs of Kano and Ilorin. The mission therefore moved to Zaria where they were allowed to remain at Girku and later Wusasa. Dr. Miller established a boy’s schools to enable him educate the sons of Emirs for the purpose of Lord Lugard’s socalled Indirect Rule policy. Moreover, with the rejection of Christian Missionaries, the Colonial government stepped in and established schools and it was this kind of situation that gave birth to Elementary Schools and Katsina College in 1922 whereby majority of the pupils/students were sons of emirs, district and village heads, Emirate Councilors and people close to royalty.
Thus, in the early 1910s, elementary schools were established in various districts of the Northern Province. The subjects taught in the school were: Reading, Writing, English, Hygiene and Religion and the teachers were graduate of Makarantar Dan Hausa. 
Thus, the government in a bid to provide the necessary manpower for the colonial administration established Provincial Primary School which superseded the Elementary schools which its curriculum is higly limited. Between 1912 and 1918, Provincial schools were established in not only Katsina but Sokoto, Kano, Bida, Zaria and Birnin Kebbi. Also, a change in educational policy in Northern Nigeria brought about the establishment of Middle Schools to replace the provincial schools. By 1931, with the commission of the Bauchi middle school, the establishment of middle schools was completed in the region. Thus, the Middle School (which is just like today’s Junior Secondary school) was placed between the Elementary schools and the College, which is the secondary school.
The Elementary school was a kind of school established by colonial government in 1910 for the sons of emirs, chiefs and the malams, and also for apprentices or anyone who could pay for his materials and the school fees is 1/ 2/6d a month. Then there is another type of elementary school for the commoners with intents to teach inferior type of education and the art of crafting. The chief’s son’s school was a boarding school. The age of the pupil in those schools varied from 5 to 25. The curriculum was religion, English, arithmetic, reading, drawing, nature study, geography and hygiene. The instruction was given by the Director of Education and the Superintendents of schools and by a regular staff of local teachers, who themselves received regular instructions from the Europeans staff.
Funds for running the schools, including capital projects, came from native treasury. The salaries of European instructors came from the government while, those of Nigerian instructors from the native treasuries.
Note, before the elementary school was abolished (phased out), it comprised of classes I to IV, and was terminal for the majority of pupils. Some of the pupils who completed their elementary school were selected, usually by means of competitive examination, to go to a preparatory or ‘remove’ class of provincial middle school, which was a two to four year postelementary or primary course leading to award of a middle IV certificate. The idea of ‘remove’ class was to give the pupils a sound foundation and remedial programme before proceeding to class I in a middle school. The middle I and II became known as senior primary, while middle III and IV became forms I and II of the secondary school. The middle school was reorganised in 1951 to bring about comparable standards in Southern and Northern schools of Nigeria.
The financing of the middle schools came from the Native Authority Treasuries, and grants from the Regional Government were merged with those of the Native Authorities Graduates of the Old Katsina College made up the staff of the middle schools.
Thus, the first significant development in secondary education after 1950 was the conversion and upgrading of middle schools, first to junior secondary schools and later to full secondary schools. The process which began in 1953 was completed in 1966. Not only were the middle school upgraded to secondary status, their facilities were simultaneously expanded, resulting in a steady increase in enrolments.
More so, sources reveal that, secondary school education in the North started with the establishment of Katsina College in 1921. The college was entirely run by expatriates except for two indigenous staff who graduated from the Hans Vischer School in Kano and who were teaching Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1938, it was transferred to Kaduna and named Kaduna College. It was again transferred to Zaria as Government College Zaria and later renamed Barewa College Zaria.
The fund of the school come from affected provinces who paid 5 pounds monthly to the school authority, for the up keep of the college, as well as for the visit of the college students on vacation to Lagos. The subject taught includes English, Mathematics, History, Geography and Education (Principles and practices). In terms of administrative structure, the college had principal, deputy principal, subject heads, administrative staff, bursar, labourers, cleaners etc. The principal reported to the Provincial Education Officer who in turn reported to the Director of Education at the Regional Education Ministry in Kaduna.
 Ahmadu Bello, My Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962) pp.2829 and Shehu Ibraham Bakori (ed), Katsina State Historical Guide 1: Historical Sites and Monuments (Katsina: Katsina State History and Culture Bureau,2007) pp.3132
 See “Katsina” Microsoft@Student Encarta 2008[DVD], Redmond, Wt: Microsoft Corporation.
 Max Lock Survey Group, Surveys and Planning Reports for Kaduna State Government (London: Westminster Press Ltd, 1978) p.23. Cited in Jamilu Shehu, “State Creation and Urban Transformation of Katsina Town, 19872007” in Abdullahi M. Ashafa (ed). Urbanization and Infrastructure in Nigeria Since the 20th century (Kaduna: Kaduna State University, 2011) p.220.
 A.T. Grove, Land and Population in Katsina Province, K.M. Buchaman and J.C. Pugh, Land and Peoples of Nigeria, Ph.D. Thesis A.B.U., Zaria. Cited in Hussaina Ibrahim, “The Impact of Colonialism on Aspects of the Economy of Katsina Metropolis, 19031960. M.A. Thesis A.B.U., Zaria, 2011. P.28. and Jamilu Shehu, “State Creation and Urban Transformation of Katsina Town, 19872007”…Op cit.p.220
 Y.B. Usman, Transformation of Katsina, 14001883. (Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1981). Pp. 186187.
 See S.J. Hogben, An Introduction to the History of Islamic States of Northern Nigeria. (Ibadan: Oxford University Press, 1967) p.86. Note: This is base on ‘The Emirate of Northern Nigeria’ by S.J. Hogben and A.H.M. KirkGreene.
 Source: “Gazettes of Katsina State History and Culture Bureau”. Retrieved Tuesday, 29 November, 2011. On http//:www,katsina/gaktsng.org/tourism.htm
 National Population Commission 2006: Data for National Development. Retrieved Tuesday, 29 November, 2011. From http//www.population.gov.ng/htm
 See Y.B. Usman, Transformation of Katsina, 14001883. (Zaria:A.B.U., press, 1981). P.7. Cited in Murja Sule “The Roles and Responsibilities in Child Upbringing. A Case Study of Katsina Metropolis”. B.A. Project Umaru Musa Yar’ aduwa University Katsina (UMYUK), 2010. p.9.
 “Katsina” The Encyclopedia Online February, 2007.
 Note: The Fulani are primarily semisettled cattle herders, with some limited crop production activities. The Hausa are largely crop cultivators, but who also keep some animals. A History of association and interaction between the two ethnic groups has led to merger of culture and tradition, mainly through the unifying influence of Islam, the Hausa language and intermarriages.
 “Katsina” The Encyclopedia Online February, 2007.Op cit.
 See I.D. Nabata, Katsina Historical Guide V1. (Katsina State History and Culture Bureau,2006)p.5. Cited in Mu’azu Mohammed, “The History of Native Authority in Building, in Katsina Metropolis (19211960) B.A Project, UMYUK, 2010. p.8
 Hussaina Ibrahim, “The Impact of Colonialism on Aspects of the Economy of Katsina Metropolis, 19031960” Opcit. p.28.
 Ibid. p. 28; Y.B. Usman, The Transformation of Katsina 14001883, Zaria,1981.
 See Grove, op cit p.29 and Bakin Kasuwa, p.29.
 Shehu, op cit. p.220.
 Hussaina Ibrahim, p.29.
 Shehu, op cit, p.220.
 Usman, The Transformation of Katsina; Grove, Land and Population in Katsina.
 Shehu, Ibid, p.221; Information was originally derived from Mallam Nura Mawada, Geography Department UMYUK, 14 September 2010.
 Usman, op. cit
 Bunchanan, op cit., p.24.
 Usman, op. cit, p.24
 Grove, op. cit., p.4
 Usman, op. cit., p.4
 Ibid, p.4.
 Ibid, p.4.
 Bakin Kasuwa, op. cit., p.31.
 Grove, op. cit, p.4.
 Usman, op. cit
 Hussaina Ibrahim Bakin Kasuwa; Interview with Sarkin Lambun Katsina, June, 2007.
 Similarly, it is made clear that, after the rainy season, the grains are harvested and stored, and then people engage in various industrial and commercial purposes. For example, household construction, food processing, mining activities, craft production, e.t.c, mats, hats and rope making from leaves of goriba (hyphaene thebaica) as well as kaba (huphaene) are important socioeconomic activities. A large section of the population of this area was occupied with this economic venture, especially the male population. These forms of production were wide spread due to the availability of the raw materials in large quantity in Katsina.
Much more fundamentally, ropes were use along with water container (guga) to draw water from the well. Men won the hats as shield from the scorching sun. In addition, mats were needed and used in every household, sometimes dye was used on the mats to produce different designs used by all sections of the society. Another dry season activity is the processing of grain popularly known as sussuka and shika done by the women folk. It required removing the husk from the grain through pounding using mortar and pestle, and then faifai (tray) is used to separate the husk from the grain. Women undertake this venture within the households and sometimes farmers to process their grain for payment call upon some of them. This dry season activity employs the services of women, thereby providing them with income, which they use to solve personal problems. That is not to always depend on their husbands’ relations, cousin’s e.t.c. for feeding, clothes among others.
By extension, when we look at the soil in the area, as elsewhere in Nigeria, represent an interface between chemical weathering of rocks and an active and intermittent surface and subsurface denudation system, fueled by intensive rainfall and rapid runoff. The properties of the soils, therefore, represent complex interrelationship between intensity of weathering and rate of lateral and vertical eluviation of materials, which are in turn related to lithology, topography, climate vegetation and other environmental control. Thus, the soil of the study area fall under tropical ferruginous soil and weakly developed alluvial soils of the major streams.
For more see MLSK (Ministry of land and survey, katsina): History and master plan of urban katsina(report, 2008)
 Bakin Kasuwa, op. cit., p.34
 Bakin Kasuwa, p.34
 Ibid p.34.
 Ibid, p.26.
 Ibid, p.35.
 Usman, op. cit.,p.13.
 Bakin Kasuwa, p.34 Point out that, these trees are of economic significance and they are utilized by the people of the area. They are used for food, fodder, medicine, industrial raw materials and firewood. They constitute the major source of fuel for the local economy. Acacia Arabia (bagaruwa) (leguminosoe) is an important source of gum Arabic, and the leaves boiled with tamarind pods are used as medicine for the cure of diseases which cause they eye lashes to fall out. Daddawa is made from the seed of dorowa (parkia filiciodea). It is a condiment used in food seasoning and serves as an important item of trade.
The leaves of Baobab (kuka) (adonsia digitata) are used in the preparation of soup, miyar kuka. The pods of tsamiya Indian tamarindus (tamarindus indica) are used in the preparation of various kinds of drinks as laxative.
Vitex (dinya), its fruits are used in making sweets (alewa and madi). It has a taste of honey; it is used also as an ingredient for ink, it is boiled with gum to get a tick extract, beehives are mostly placed on the branches of these trees. The wood of vitex is used in making axes and hoe handles, mortar and pestle. The seed of bagaruwa (acacia arabica) is used in tanning of leather materials, while the wood is used to make handles of axes and hoes. The inner bark of kuka (baobab) is stripped and used to make ropes and mats. Hats and baskets are made from the leaves of goriba. In the hollows of tamarind tree (tsamiya), cocoons of silk warm are found and this is processed into silk thread used in highly valued embriodery.
Trees found close to the settlement are not planted like food crops; they are inherited and carefully preserved, utilized as source of income to the people. Some of these trees play important roles in the lives of the nonMuslims of the area. Trees like tsamiya and kuka are associated with iskoki (spirits) and a kind of bori cult is associated with it. The tsamiya tree of Bawada, which was enclosed in the palace of Sarki Korau, was the site of religious activities and the installation of the king.
The importance of this vegetation lies in the way it created linkages between the people and the environment.
Nevertheless, the area outside the settlement where shrubs and small trees predominate is characterized by thin soil unsuitable for farming activities. It is made up of abandoned farmlands where farming has stop temporarily. The trees in the area belong to thorny species; about 20 feet high, also shrubs and grasses are found in this area. Geza (combretum micrantum), sarkakkiya (acacia atanacantha), sabara (bauhinia thonniga), kalgo (bauhinia peticulata) in some instances kaba (hyphaene thebaica) and thorn bushes (Acacia) are also found in the area.
The shrubs are equally important; the shrubs of sabara (bauhinia thonniga) are burnt around herds of cattle, sheep and goats to keep off flies. The leaves mixed with water are used in the treatment of stomachaches. Women also take it after childbirth. It is used as prevention for leprosy and other skin diseases. In some instances, leaves are added to food to prevent indigestion. The shrub of shiwaka (venonia amgdalina) grows around rivers and in most areas in some household. The root is used as chewing stick for cleaning teeth and the leaves are used as medicine.
Thus, it is important to note that, Geza (combetum microntum) is used in roofing and it is an important source of firewood. The leaves are used in the treatment of high blood pressure. Kaba is important in rope making and mats, which are major occupation of the people in the dry season due to the availability of the product in the area. The saura is a major grazing area for herds of cattle, sheep and donkeys. The grasses of the vegetation are used in making thatched roof and the light of brooms.
The area furthest away from settlement is called Daji. It is the abode of maharba (hunters) and nomadic Fulani who move around with their herds of cattle in the Daji. There are several trees such as kiriya, madaci, marke that are used for medicinal purposes in the area. They are also used by wood carvers in the making of mortar, pestle, hoe handle, among others.
 See MLSK, 2008.
 For detail on Tertiary Institution in Katsina. See Abubakar Sani Lugga, The Great Province (Katsina: Lugga Press, 2004) p.69.
 Lawal Auwal Danbuzu, “Composition and Spatial Distribution Solid Waste Collection Points in Urban Katsina” April 25, 2011.p.2.
 MLSK 2008. Op. cit.
 See “Katsina From the Earliest Time” Katsina Emirate Council, 15 March, 2012 on www.katsinaemirate.org/dallazawa and also Abdullahi Smith “The Early States of the Central Sudan” in J.F. Ajayi and Michael Crowder (ed), History of West Africa Vol.1. 2nd edition (London; 1981) p.185.
 See Abbati Balarabe, “Qu’anic Schools and Problems of Almajirai in Katsina Local Government Area” B.A. Project, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina 2009. p.11.
 Katsina From the Earliest Time…, Op cit. p.11.
 See Muhhamad Alhaji “As alWangarauiyyi” Kano studies Vol.1. No.4. cited in Abbati Balarabe, “Qur’anic Schools and the Problems of Almagiranci… p.11.
 Balarabe, p.12 and also see Ismaila Abubakar Tsiga and Abdalla Uba Adamu (ed) Islam and the History of Learning in Katsina. (Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1997) pp.174175.
 Balarabe, op. cit., p.13.
 See Abdulkarim umar Dan Asabe, “Islam and History of Learning in Katsina from the Jihad to the Colonial Conquest: The Case of the Tsohuwar Kasuwa School, katsina city”. An Article in Isma’ila Abubakar Tsiga and Abdulla Uba Admu (ed). Islam and the History of Learning in Katsina (Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1997) pp.174175 and also Sani Abubakar Lugga, katsina College (Katsina: Lugga Press, revised and Reprinted copy, 2004) pp.1314.
 Visit Katsina Emirate Council website on www.katsinaemirate.org/dallazawa
 Hussaina Ibrahim, op. cit., p.39.
 See I. Dankousso, Katsina, Traditions Historique des Katsina après la Jihads (Niamey: Centre Regional de Documentation pour la Tradition Orale, N.P.) p.175; Bakin Kasuwa, p.39.
 Hussaina Ibrahim , Op cit p. 44
 It is important to note that all the judges in the courts were product of Islamic education. NOTE: During the Habe dynasty, which ends in the 19th century, a new political structure developed around Katsina kinship. The components of this structure include; Kingmakers, palace chiefs, occupational chiefs, etc. At the initial stage, the kingmakers comprised of Yandaka, Durbi, Samri and Gozaki. However, in the course of time Samri and Gozaki were dropped. The duty of the kingmakers was to elect a new king when the incumbent died or was deposed For more see, Gazettes of Katsina State History and Culture Bureau http//:www,katsina/gaktsng.org/tourism.htm
 Bakin Kasuwa, Op cit, pp. 4041
 A. Babs Fafunwa, History of Education in Nigeria. (London: George and Unwin, 1974) pp.1214 and also Zainab I. Braji, “Traditional Education In Nigeria” An Article in Zainab I. Braji and Martha Yusuf (ed) A Handbook of History of Education in Nigeria. (Kano:Sahatu Press Ltd, 2008) p.13.
 Fafunwa,pp.13 and 18
 Lugga, katsina college.. p.9.
 Fanfuwa, op.cit, pp.1314
 Fanfuwa, op.cit, pp.1314
 Lugga, op.cit, p.19
 Fafunwa, op. cit., pp.1314.
 Ibid, p.10.
Note: Lugga in page 1113 further state that; in the pagan areas of Africa and Hausaland in particular, members of the community were advised to conform with the norms of the society or face the wrath of the “god” that was “Bagiso” in hausa or other lesser spirits called “Iskoki”. All those were means of bringing conformity to the behaviour of the community members. The fear of that “god” was so much among the entire Hausa pagan community that it turned into religion. Bad habits like stealing, adultery and telling lies were all abhorted by the “god” and so a taboo for any member of the community. That transparent honesty is still evident in any original Hausa settlement inhabited by the “Maguzawa” (pagan Hausa people). It was on this foundation of fear of the supernatural that communities in Hausaland immediately embrace Islam.
Thus, interpretation relations among the precolonial Hausa communities were of prime importance. For example, any awful approach by a child towards an elder was blamed on his parents and the family in general. That meant that all members of the family were charged with the education of the young. Any failure was not the failure of parents alone but the entire family, which might lead to the ostracisation of the whole family and might take it impossible for any member of the community to marry from such a family. The precolonial Hausa community placed great emphasis on character formation. Any girl of questionable integrity would be put to ridicule and subjected to various forms of embarrassment if the husband discovered that her chastity has been freely violated. That would bring disgrace to her family who would be considered as having low intergrity. A thief was an outcast and stood the chance of being isolated from the community. People dare not go close to him and his family’s name dragged into mud. All those were methods of social contract, which brought sanity to the precolonial Hausaland and made life easy for its members.
There was no place for laziness and street begging in the precolonial Hausa community. Apart from specific skills mastered by every youth in the community, farming was compulsory for everybody. Education in the Hausa community included good upbringing and acquisition of skills for survival. Every family had a large agricultural land out of which every member of the family compound is given a piece to cultivate. The society has no place for lazy man. A lazy person is often denied a wife in his community. A married woman was expected to perform her household chores and help in the upbringing of the young. Indeed, in a typical Hausa society, if a woman were viewed as somebody who was incapable of bringing up her child in the most desirable manner, a relative (e.g. a sister or a mother or even grandmother) would take such a child away for proper upbringing where he/she would not be ‘spoilt’.
 Ibid, p.13.
 See Hafsat Ahmed Usman, “Historical Background of Islamic Education in Nigeria”. In Zainab I. Braji and Martha Yusuf (ed). A handbook of History of Education. (Kano: Sahatu Press, 2008) p.35
 See Fafunwa, History of Education in Nigeria, p.54. However, it is important to note that Almaghili was a scholar and throughout his travelling, was anxious to promote the true application of Islamic law. Thus, he taught for some time in Katsina when visited in the 15th century. Thus, such made a Mosque to be design and built to reflect Timbuktu type of architecture. Such made the Gobarau Mosque became an important centre for learning attracting scholars from far and wide, and later serve as a kind of university. The tradition of a mosque serving as apraying ground as well as a school is not a new thing in Islam. And in fact, the oldest university in the world, the Alzhar University in Cairo started as a mosque and metamorphosed into a university which is the pride of Egyptians and Muslim at large. For more, visit the website of Katsina State History and Culture Bureau on http://www.katsinalgang.org/tourism.htm.
 See Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa, Muslim Education and Development of University Education in NigeriaIslamic Scholarship through Ages: An overview. A paper presented at Muslim Education Summit. Access 15th March, 2012. http://www.uimga.org. see also Hamidu Alkali, ‘A note on Arabic Teaching in Northern Nigeria. Kano Studies, No.3. June 1967, p.11.
 See J.S. Trimingham, Islam in West Africa (O.U.P. 1959) p.30.
 Muhammad Alhaji, “As alWangarawiyyi, Kano Studies Vol.1. No.4; Abbati Balarabe, “Qur’anic Schools and the Problems of Almajirai in Katsina Local Government” …, p.13.
 Hunwick, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa; 18491855, Vols., 1,2 and 3. (London: N.P., 1974); Balarabe, p.13.
 Balarabe, op. cit., p.15; M. Hiskett, The Development of Islam in West Africa (Longman: New York.,n.d)
 Note: AlShinawi was educated in Katsina and then travelled through Egypt to Hajj. On return from Hajj, he remained and taught in Cairo, where he died in 1741 as quest of alJabarti. Among the works of alKashinawi is alDur alManzum wa Khulasat atsir almaktum fiilmi altalasim wal Nujum which he compiled in Cairo in 173334. For more see History and Culture Bureau File, 1981.
 See Sani Abibakar Lugga, The Twin Universities (Katsina: Lugga Press, 2005) pp.1 and Balarabe, op. cit., p.16.
 Lugga, The Twin Universities ….p.1
 Note: it was said, that students of Sheikh Kisko Kabarawa one day asked why he was paying special attention to the young Usman and he replied that the young man would one day lead others to the revival of true Islamic teachings; therefore, he deserved to be very knowledgeable.
Thus, according to the source, Sheikh Kisko married a wife from another learned family as the Unguwar Liman Katsina. In addition, she bore him a child called Idris whose family produced the tenth Katsina central mosque Chief Imams including the current Katsina Chief Imam, Sheikh Muhammad Lawal. For more see Lugga, The Twin Universities.
However, from the foregoing the objectives of Islamic education are:
To help man understand that the fundamental purpose of human life on earth is to worship Allah alone.
To help man understand the sole purpose of his life in this world and to enable him develop a sound faith and establish corresponding good deeds and such that makes his life successful both in this world and the hereafter.
To make man realize relationship with Allah, his creator, Lord, sustainer and to understand his existing relationship between him and other creatures through Sharia.
To have an understanding of how to administer a society with justice. As well as how human beings should relate with one another.
To create in every Muslim a true sense of his selfworth, and to help him correctly understand his rights and responsibilities as an important member of the ummah (society).
All this lay the foundation for building a strong committed and wholesome Muslim personality and motivate the Muslim to go in search of knowledge, which will enable him both in this world and in hereafter.
For more see See Hafsat Ahmed Usman, “Historical Background of Islamic Education in Nigeria” Zainab I. Braji and Martha Yusuf (ed). A Handbook on History of Education in Nigeria (Kano: Sahatu Press Ltd, 2008) p.40. However, it is important to note that Abbati Balarabe, “Qur’anic Schools and Problems of Almajirai in Katsina Local Government Area; Ben Yunusa, Isuues on Curriculum (Zaria: Sankore Educational Publishers Yag enterprise, 2009)
 See Abbati Balarabe, “Qur’anic Schools and the Problems of Almajirai Katsina local Government Area” p.19 However, it is assert. That, in the present day Katsina state Area, the Jihad Campaigns came to an end when the Birni was captured after a long siege and the last preJihad Sarkin Katsina was forced to abandon the capital and move to Dankama Area where he committed suicide by throwing himself into deep well at the end of 1807.
See also Haruna Abdullahi, “A Comparative Study between Qur’anic and Islamiyyah schools in Katsina Metropolis” pp.89. Where he state that, the development of Islamic learning education in Katsina appeared to have passed through three district stages: (1) Stage of pagan kingship; (2) Stage of Muslim leadership and (3) Stage of Jihad, which lasted until the colonial period. For more see Smith H.F.C., A Fragment of the 18th century Katsina. (Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1974) p.23; H.J. Yola, Islamic education in Hausaland U.G. 4, Lecture Notes, 2008 and U.M. Bugaje, Islam and History of Learning in Katsina (Ibadan Spectrum Book Limited, 1977) p.167.
 See Abdulkarim Umar DanAsabe, “Islam and History of Learning in Katsina from the Jihad to the Colonial Conquest: The Case of the Tsohuwar Kasuwa School, Katsina City.”… Pp.174175, where he asserts that, those learning centres include:
The Hambali School.
The School of Darma.
The School of Tsohuwar Kasuwa.
The School of Karkarku near Daura.
The School of Zangon Daura.
The School of Baure.
The School of Kuntaru (also Daura).
The School of Matallawa near Dutsi.
The Schools of Yan Doma and Kusada.
The Schools of Matazu and Kurkujan.
The Schools Birnin Kogo.
The Schools of Yandoto and Yankuzo.
 The schools numbered 13 are the ones within the area of study; Hambali, Darma and the school of Tsohuwar Kasuwa. However, for detail discussions of these schools see: DanAsabe, pp.173181 and Balarabe, op. cit., pp.2124.
 See Sir Hugh Clifford opening address of Katsina College (KCK) on 5th March 1922, Access 15th March, 2012:6 on http://www.katsinalga.ktsng.org/tourism
 See Hamidu Alkali, “A Note on Arabic Teaching in Northern Nigeria.” Kano studies, No.3 (June 1967) 11
 J.S. Trimingham, “Islam in West Africa.” (O.U.P., 1959) p.30.
 “ Shehu Uthman Dan Fodio, Ihya alSunnah wa Ikhmad alBidah’’, Manuscript Presented at Ibadan University Library.n.d., N.P.
 See P.K. Tibenderana, “British Educational Policy in Northern Nigeria, 19061928: A Reassessment.” Center for Nigerian Cultural Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (1976) p 4. For more on that see G.N. Brown & M. Hiskett (eds) Conflict and Harmony in Education in Tropical Africa (London, 1975) p.471. Where they discussed on British attitude towards Islamic education in northern Nigeria.
 See History of Hambali School where two (2) prominent Alkalai (Judges) of Birnin Katsina (Ali and Dalhatu Muhammad Hambali) were produced as well the Limamin Juma’a (Imam of Friday Congregation prayer) i.e. Mahmud Muhammad Hambali of same family and also school of Tsohuwar Kasuwa which still supplies many of the Alkalai of Katsina state. For more see DanAsabe, op. cit., pp.174176.
 See Paul Staudinger, In the Heart of the Hausa State, Vol.2, African Series No.56. Trans. Johanna Moody, Forward by Lovejoy (Athens: Ohio University Centre for Monographs in International Studies, 1990)pp. 81, 82, 93, 95, 97 and 104106.
Where it is reveal that during the indigenous and Islamic education people of Katsina and trained into different occupation and profession i.e. taught to be self employed. For instance, people are trained into Textile industry (which produce clothe), Leather industry, Basket Making Industry (produce mats use for sitting, sleeping on, as fence, building material for houses, flag shape fan of which coarser and finer varieties are produce and which is use for journey and many other purposes). On the other hand some are trained as Craftsmen; Craft potterywhich produces water pots, lamps etc. some are into Smith industry (Blacksmith), which is the most important because it produces weapons for defense, and tools for farming, both of which are objects of much greater significance here than clothes and basketwork. In addition, the trade of smith is concern with not merely working of iron but its wider sense includes also brasscasting, girding, tinsmelting and silver work. Moreover, the smith makes the handles and scabbards for swords, though blade come from abroad. There are also singers and musicians who travel through the country under the protection of rich people or visit towns on their account to perform concerts, such yield profit/revenue. The smith makes the instruments they use. Likewise, there are builders: special building trade (Art of building). Meanwhile, some are trained as butchers.
A prominent profession is that of the scribes, interpreters of the Koran and priests, or whoever else they be called, all encompassed by the name of mala which is burrowed from the Arabic. Every king has one or more as advisers in religion, political affairs, as secretaries, scribe or readers. As advisers they had great influence as the Hausa are not fanatical Muhammedans.
Note, the name Malam, however, is not only connected with a specific profession but many learned people may have it as title, and are actually great traders. By the only very seldom are fanatics.
 Tibenderana, Op cit,p. 9.
 Western Style of Education is the system of education experience in Katsina because Indigenous education has been part of the society then followed Islamic Education, which came as the result of trade. Then the socalled Western Education, which came after the British conquest of Northern Nigeria form 1900.Katsina fall to British hand in 1906. This paved way for the introduction of the Mission Schools and or the socalled Colonial Education in Katsina.
 See M.A. Mkpa, “Overview of Educational Development: PreColonial to Present Day” Access Saturday, November 26, 2011 on http://www.answers.com/ce/what is the history of education in Nigeria
 Yusuf Turaki, The Colonial Legacy In Northern Nigeria: A Social Ethical Analysis of the Colonial and PostColonial Society and Politics in Nigeria. (Jos: Challenge Press, 1993) pp. 8283.
 See Ayuba Gona, “Brief History of S.I.M./ECWA” A paper presented during the S.I.M/ECWA 100 years anniversary, 8 – 20th November, 1993 P.2. See also Dahiru Rabe, “The British Colonial Occupation and the Christian Missionary Activities in Katsina Emirate, C. 1930 – 1936.” Seminar Paper presented at department of History, ABU Zaria, 2010. P.31. and Umoh Mandu Akpan, “History of Christian Missionaries in Katsina State, case study: Babban Ruga” Katsina State History and Cultural Bureau, 2010 p.17.
 Sani Abubakar Lugga, Katsina College (Katsina: Lugga Press, 2004) p.24.
 Ibid. p.26. For more information on the establishment of Government Secondary Schools and Missionary Activities in Northern Nigeria see A.S. Thakur and A.N. Ezenne, A Short History of Education in Nigeria (Ibadan: De Ayo Publication, 1980) Pp. 19 – 20.
 Lugga, Pp. 27 – 28
 Ibid, Pp. 27 – 28.
Note, it was the graduate of ‘Makarantar Dan Hausa’ that staffed them.Thus, Makarantar Dan Hausa was the first i.e. Hans Vicker Elementary School in Kano. This mark the first Colonial Government involvement in education in Northen Nigeria. This school was in Nasarawa – Kano in 1908. The curriculum of the school include; General Knowledge, Hygiene, Drawing, Arithmetic, Religion, English and Geography were added to the earlier Reading, Writing and Hausa. Later Agriculture and experimental farm was on the production of cash crops meant for exports to England. This cash crops include; Groundnut and cotton.
 Lugga, Katsina College, Pp. 2930
Note, these Middle Schools were said to be based on academic excellence with a weeding exercise for the weak ones. It had duration of four years plus a compulsory remedial class called a “remove class” of one year. That made the school calendar to be five years. After which a successful candidate would go straight to Katsina College.
 C.O Taiwo, The Nigerian Education System: Past, Present and Future. (Lagos: Nelson Pitman Limited, 1980) P.53; and Albert Ozigi and Lawrence Ocho, Education in Northern Nigeria (London: George Allen & unrom, 1981). P.43
 Taiwo, P.52
 Ibid, P.52
 Ozigi, Op cit, P.52 and Taiwo, P.52
 Ozigi, P.44
 Ibid, P.64
 Ibid, Pp. 58, 59 – 60.
 Sani Abubakar Lugga, Katsina College. (Katsina: Lugga Press, 2004) P.29
 Ozigi, Op cit. P.75
 Lugga, Op cit. P.30
 Ibid, PP.52, 61 and 62