Preface – Vorwort
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Vorwort - Preface
Usbekistan nahm im Jahre 2012 bei den deutschen Einfuhren Platz 133 und bei den deutschen Ausfuhren Platz 86 ein. Maschinen, chemische Erzeugnisse und Kfz bzw. Kfz-Teile umfassen ca. ¾ % aller deutschen Einfuhrgüter, wie in der Abb. 1 zu sehen ist.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Abbildung 1: Deutsche Ausfuhrgüter nach SITC (% der Gesamtausfuhr, 2012)
Im Gegenzug erhielt Deutschland aus Usbekistan vor allem Textilien und Bekleidung, Nahrungsmittel und Rohstoffe.
Die Veränderungen im Außenhandelt zwischen Deutschland und Usbekistan veranschaulicht die Tabelle 1.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Tabelle 1: Außenhandel (Mio. Euro)
Neuere Zahlen liegen noch nicht vor. Der Rückgang der Einfuhren und Ausfuhren hängt auch zusammen mit der Inflationsrate in Usbekistan, die für 2013 auf 10,7 % geschätzt wird und der Einschätzung des Geschäftsumfeldes. Usbekistan gehört zur Hermes Länderkategorie 6. Beim Ease of Doing Business belegt das Land Rang 154 von 185 Ländern und beim Corruption Perception Index Rang 170 von 176 Ländern. Im März 2013 hatte Usbekistan den Rang 121 von 179 Ländern bei der Länderbonität Institutional Investor inne.
Eine Übersicht über wichtige Rohstoffe zeigt die Abb. 2.
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Abbildung 2: Wichtige Rohstoffe
Die staatliche Gesellschaft für Förderung und Absatz von Kohle in Usbekistan O’zbekko`mir OAJ möchte sowohl die Förderkapazitäten als auch die Logistik erneuern. Dazu sind bis 2018 neun Projekte mit einem Investitionsvolumen von 555,2 Mio. US $ geplant. Weitere wichtige Projekte betreffen zwei staatliche Programme bis 2015 zu Investitionen in der Textil- und Bekleidungsindustrie, kleinere Vorhaben in der Schuh- und Lederindustrie, verschiedene Sanierungsvorhaben in der Wasserwirtschaft, die Rekonstruktion von Krankenhäusern und die Ausschreibung von Consulting-Leistungen für die Entwicklung von Investitionskonzepten für die Landwirtschaft, für Energieeffizienzprojekte und für Schulungsprogramme für berufliche Bildungseinrichtungen. Bei der Weltbank wurde ein Darlehen in Höhe von 100 Mio. US $ für Instandsetzung und den Ausbau von Regionalstraßen beantragt.
Schon diese wenigen Projekte zeigen den noch immer enormen Modernisierungsbedarf der gesamten usbekischen Wirtschaft auf. Hauptprobleme bei der Marktbearbeitung sind die mangelnde Liberalisierung der Wirtschaft und die Devisenkonvertierung. Geschäftssprachen sind Usbekisch, Russisch und Englisch. Die Analphabetenquote lag 2002 bi 0,7 %. Ausschreibungen für Projekte gibt es auch für integrative Kindergärten und Schulen. Die in der Tabelle 2 dargestellten Zahlen zu den Hochschulabsolventen im Jahre 2011 verdeutlichen die hohe Stellung der Erziehungswissenschaften.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Tabelle 2: Hochschulabsolventen 2011
Die in diesem Band veröffentlichten Beiträge von Wissenschaftlern verschiedener Universitäten, vor allem aus Taschkent und Namangan, spiegeln die vielfältigen Probleme und Lösungswege der wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Entwicklung Usbekistans wieder. Dass Usbekistan als Forschungsobjekt auch in Deutschland interessant ist, zeigt der Beitrag von Frau Dr. Koch. Im Erfahrungsbericht von Timur Mahkamov wird aufgezeigt, mit wie viel Engagement eigene Ziele verwirklicht werden. Die im „Usbekistan-Knigge“ aufgeführten Hinweise resultieren zum Großteil aus eigenen Erfahrungen.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Irina Hundt
Ein Kurzbericht eines usbekischen Zuwanderers
Mein Name ist Timur Mahkamov, und ich wurde 1981 in der Stadt Fergana geboren, die im zentralasiatischen Usbekistan liegt. Nach dem Abitur im Gymnasium für Weltsprachen habe ich zunächst Englische Philologie an der Ferganer Staatlichen Universität studiert, bin dann jedoch nach Taschkent umgezogen. Das ist unsere Hauptstadt mit einer Bevölkerung von mehr als 3 Millionen. Dort bin ich als Praktikant bei einer Business-Holding eingestiegen. Das war eine Auslandsgesellschaft mit Sitz in Zug, in der Schweiz. Da habe ich den Weg vom Praktikanten bis zum Vertreter der Import, Export & Investitionen Abteilung dieser Gesellschaft durchlaufen. Diese Businesseinrichtung hat mir gut gefallen, da sie sehr aktiv war. Ich bin auch ein ganz aktiver Mensch. Deswegen habe ich mich nach der Einreise nach Deutschland im Jahre 2008 gleich bei der Otto Benecke Stiftung e.V. zur Beratung angemeldet, denn ich wusste, dass ich hier dann BWL studieren wollte. Da ich mit meiner ganzen Familie hier eingereist war, konnten meine Schwester und ich nach dem erfolgreichen Bestehen der ersten Sprachprüfung in die Förderung der Garantiefonds-Hochschule aufgenommen werden. Nach dem OBS-Kurs hat meine Schwester ihr wirtschaftspsychologisches Masterstudium in Bochum abgeschlossen, dann einige Monate nach Arbeit gesucht. Anspruchsvoll, aber machbar! Wer sucht, der findet! Nach vielen Versuchen ist sie als Trainee bei einem Pharmakonzern eingestiegen und heute dort schon als HR Business Partnerin in Festeinstellung tätig. Meine Mutter ist Ärztin mit mehr als 25jähriger Arbeitserfahrung und konnte bei dem Akademikerprogramm der Stiftung (AQUA) eine Maßnahme besuchen, die sie zwischenzeitlich auch erfolgreich abgeschlossen hat. Im letzten Jahr hat sie die Gleichwertigkeitsprüfung auch sehr gut bestanden und seit Sommer arbeitet sie schon wieder als Ärztin in einer großen Klinik bei Heilbronn. Unsere Familie ist stolz auf unsere Mama! Mein Vater ist Mathematiker, aber er blieb am Anfang unseres Weges im Jahre 2008 mit meiner kleineren Schwester in Reutlingen, da sie dort ins Gymnasium ging und wir alle in den Kursen der Stiftung bundesweit „unterwegs“ waren. Die kleine hat ihre Abi-Prüfungen mit Eins absolviert, eins von den besten Zeugnissen im Jahr 2012 erhalten und studiert Psychologie schon im 3. Semester an der Uni Konstanz. Ich soll es noch mal sagen: Wir wohnen in Deutschland seit 2008…
Den Sprachkurs der Otto Benecke Stiftung e.V. in Berlin fand ich sehr gut und nützlich; trotzdem habe ich ihn in nur 3 Monaten beendet, weil ich keine Zeit verlieren wollte. So erfolgreich wie beim Führersein war ich leider nicht ganz bei meinem Test DaF, den ich nur beim zweiten Versuch bestanden habe. Es waren zu viele verschiedene Gedanken in meinem Kopf und wenig Konzentration damals. Ich bewarb mich dann an einigen Hochschulen, die mir gefallen haben und kämpfte mit sehr vielen Formularen und Papier. Schließlich bekam ich die Zusage für die HTW in Dresden.
Da ich schon bestimmte praktische Erfahrungen in Zentralasien gesammelt habe, wollte aber gerne das alles in der Theorie verstärken. In dem Sinne fand ich die Lernmodule der HTW Dresden sehr kompakt und inhaltsvoll. Am Anfang war es natürlich unglaublich schwer das alles zu verstehen, da es zu viel neue Informationen waren. Aber ich habe es trotzdem geschafft, weil ich immer nur positiv denke. Natürlich nicht nur darum, ich war und bin einfach zielstrebig und versuche immer bis zum Ende zu kämpfen, wenn ich mir etwas vorgenommen habe. Mein Auslandssemester habe ich am MIIT Moskau, einer Partneruniversität der HTW Dresden absolviert, aber das Praktikum bei einer Business Consulting Firma in meinem Heimatland gemacht. Für mich war es schon wichtig und interessant neue westliche Kenntnisse auf dem zentralasiatischen Markt zu implementieren, da ich ursprünglich aus der Region komme. Das habe ich geschafft, meine große Abschlussarbeit auf Englisch befasst sich mit dem Thema: „Application of western business methods and models on Central Asian market in form oft he strategiec marketing plan fort he start-up company Galaxy Orion LLC“. Diese Arbeit wird heute auch als realer strategischer Marketing Plan bei dem Start-up Unternehmen erfolgreich angewendet. Das Start-up Projekt war ein Projekt der Compass Consulting GmbH, wo ich aktiv mitgewirkt und als Marketing Koordinator gearbeitet habe.
Parallel dazu habe ich mich mit den Vorbereitungen für meine Hochzeit beschäftigt, da ich mir das Ziel gestellt habe im Heimatland zu heiraten, aber erst nach dem Studium. Ich würde sagen, das war auch sehr anspruchsvoll, aber auch machbar. Im September 2011 haben wir das alles sehr laut gefeiert mit Gästen aus der ganzen Welt. Insgesamt ein zweitägiges Fest mit insgesamt mehr als 1000 Gästen. Sogar meine Professoren aus Dresden waren dabei und waren positiv überrascht, wie ich das alles zwischen Arbeit, Praktikum und Hochzeit kombiniert und organisiert habe. Ich möchte mich bei meinen Professoren auch recht herzlich bedanken. Ohne sie, ihr Verstehen und ihre Mitwirkung hätte ich mein Studium an der HTW Dresden nicht abgeschlossen.
Mein Studium der Betriebswirtschaftslehr habe ich im Jahr 2012 erfolgreich als Betriebswirt abgeschlossen. Dann habe ich alles gemacht, um meine Frau nach Deutschland zu bringen, das habe ich auch zum Glück geschafft. Heute sind wir schon zu Dritt mit unserem wunderschönen Baby Boy, der hier in Deutschland geboren ist und vor kurzem schon 1 Jahr geworden ist. Als Junior Projekt Manager habe ich nach dem Studium in einer Baufirma nationale und internationale Kunden betreut und strategische Projekte koordiniert. Das Projekt bei dieser Baufirma habe ich bereits erfolgreich abgegeben, da es auf 1,5 Jahr befristet war.
Mein Fokus möchte ich nun vorrangig bei einem deutschen Unternehmen auf Marketing Management und Sales im osteuropäischen Raum und in der GUS Region richten, da ich praktische Erfahrungen aus der Region mitbringe, die lokale Mentalität sehr gut verstehen, Russisch meine Muttersprache ist und mein Business Administration Studium in Deutschland abgeschlossen habe, um meine bisherigen östlichen Kenntnisse an Business in Deutschland anzupassen. Für mich es ist wichtig Ost und West einander näher zu bringen.
In 5 Jahren sehe ich mich in einer verantwortlichen Stellung im Bereich Strategisches Marketing Management und Business Development, da ich gerne mit Menschen arbeite und Verantwortung trage. Außerdem ist mir wichtig, den internationalen Aspekt meiner Tätigkeit zu vertiefen, so dass ich hoffe, in 5 Jahren in grenzübergreifenden Projekten aktiv mitzuwirken.
Ich bedanke mich noch Mal für alles, was die Otto Benecke Stiftung e.V. und die Berater und Beraterinnen in Stuttgart und Berlin, meine Professoren in Dresden und alle guten Menschen in Deutschland, die ich in der Zeit getroffen habe, für mich persönlich und für meine Familie gemacht haben.
Was ich den neuen Zuwanderern raten würde? Immer positiv zu denken, weiter und weiter zu gehen und nie aufzuhören. Hören sie subjektiven und negativen Empfehlungen oder Meinungen nicht zu. Denken sie global, aber handeln lokal. Sammeln sie nur ihre persönlichen Erfahrungen, weil jede starke Persönlichkeit eine eigene Geschichte hat. Außerdem möchte ich sagen, wer etwas nicht will, findet immer eine Begründung dafür, aber der, der etwas wirklich will, findet immer einen Weg, um dieses Ziel zu erreichen. Und natürliche das Ziel soll auch richtig positioniert werden. Die wichtigsten immer nach oben. Aber wie gesagt, jeder Mensch hat seinen eigenen Kopf und soll somit für sich selbst verantwortlich sein. Was ich mache, ich stelle die höchste Priorität immer als erste und versuche sie zuerst zu erreichen. Es ist immer wichtig an den Anfang ein klares Ziel (Mission & Vision Statements) zu stellen, alles andere kann unwichtig sein. Man bekommt solche Kenntnisse nicht nur aus einer Lebensschule, sondern auch aus einem BWL-Studium, weil Wirtschaft nur die Leute studieren können, die rational handeln und konzeptionell denken können. All das würde ich empfehlen, aber das sind nur meine Lebensphilosophie und private Meinung, die mir geholfen haben und weiter helfen.
The Soviet Government’s policy targeted at expropriation and acquisition of Uzbekistan’s natural resources
(In case of natural gas industry during 1950 – 1970)
National University of Uzbekistan
In this article the policy of adoption and development of gas industry processes in 1950-70s in Uzbekistan is highlighted. It was conducted by Soviet government colliding statement emerged in the result of usage of natural recourses in the interests of Soviet Union.
According to the official documentation, during the Soviet period Uzbekistan’s economic development path contemplated raising effectiveness of collective production capabilities through increasing republic’s role and position in the distribution of labour within the Soviet domain, exhaustive utilization of natural resources, human resources and existing production capacities. Therefore, the main emphasis focused on cotton harvesting sector in order to attain such goal in practice, as well as to develop production capacities in the republic. Industrial specialization of republic’s economy reflected precious metals and metallurgy sector by having a significant strategic importance for the Soviet government, which had been created in the expense of rich natural resources, whereas natural gas industry was considered as the third important sector within the Soviet domain. It is vital to note that, systematic exploration and acquisition of natural resources in Turkistan’s lands started from the early years of Soviet regime. If initially scientists conducted researches individually, later on special large scientific institutions were established in order to carry out complex exploration and research on natural resources, and they had been financed continuously.
For instance, the volume of scientific research and geologic exploration activities in Uzbekistan had expanded year – by – year. Administrative pursuits that were executed in the field of natural resource exploration facilitated to achieve substantial results in researching and acquisition of these resources. As a result, large number of precious natural resource fields was opened in Uzbekistan that were not even imagined before, and considered as ‘limitless and vast’ natural resources of the country were used exhaustively as a raw material source of socialist economy for many year.
During this period, due to seemingly complementary assistance of Soviet regime and extensive explorations carried out by a large number of geological exploration teams that were transferred to our country metallurgy, oil, coal mining and especially gas extraction industries were developed significantly. Leaders of former Centre were aware that Uzbekistan’s territory possess immense natural gas reserves, located in the Fergana Valley, Surkhandarya region, between Bukhara and Khiva and Ustyurt.
The gas industry in Uzbekistan have started to develop from the 40s of the last century at the supplementary gas extraction reservoir in Fergana Valley and until 1959 had not been established as an independent sector in the industry. Particularly, in 1940 700 thousand cubic meters of gas was extracted during oil drilling in Fergana Valley and it was used for heating in oil processing plants. In 1942 14 kilometers long gas pipe was build between Andijan city and Andjian oil field. Even though in total 125.042 million cubic meters of natural gas was extracted in Uzbekistain in 1958, and reported that Fergana and Andijan cities supplied with natural gas, in actual fact only 5,3 thousand homes had natural gas. Also, during that period, only certain small organizations were provided with gas power.
Subsequent geologic explorations had revealed that in terms of natural gas reserves Uzbekistan could take one of the leading positions in the USSR. Main natural gas reserves were located in four provinces – regions: Bukhara – Khiva region, Ustyurt, Fergana and Surkhandarya. Exploration of these locations bestowed over 4,6 trillion cubic meters of proved, 3,6 trillion cubic meters of estimated natural gas reserves.
Opening of Gazli field in October 1956, evaluation of Jarkak, Saritash and Koravulbazar reserves had contributed accelerated acquisition of Uzbekistan’s natural resource to become the main item in the agenda. For that purpose necessary initial organizational and administrative procedures executed. For instance, “Uzbekneftgaz” unit was relocated from Tashkent to Bukhara, Mubarak oil exploration expedition was established. Discovery of South Mubarak field has gathered momentum for investigation of natural resources in the territory of Kashkadarya region. Drilling activities near the South Muburak mine in Yulduzkak, Oktepa, Kemachi, and Zekri speeded up. In 1959 Koson oil exploration team started drilling in Okdjar, Shurchi, Korachukur, Khujajayran and Korabayir. Within the year 45 thousand 526 meters long pipes constructed. For every pipe monthly average drilling speed of 501.0 meters increased to 593,3 meters. Similar actions actively continued during the subsequent years.
If there were 36 natural gas reserves in January 1966, it was only the beginning of further work in the industry. Because, after one year in the territory our republic the number of natural gas reserves mainly profiting the Centre had reached to 40.
As it was mentioned previously, when in 1958 125.042 million cubic meters of natural gas was extracted in Uzbekistan, in 1965 natural gas extraction had reached to 16.474.000 million cubic meters i.e. within seven years the volume of natural gas extraction had increased to 130 times (for the same period in the USSR the same measure showed only 4.5 times increase ).
The construction of pipelines accelerated together with geological explorations at the predicted natural gas reserve locations. During 1960 – 1961 Gazli – Jarkak – Chimkent pipeline with capacity to transport 4.5 billion cubic meters of gas per year started to operate. After short period, 2163 kilo meters long with the capacity to transport 21 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year, considered the largest pipeline in the USSR Bukhara – Urals was constructed (it was the longest gas pipeline in the world at that time!). In 1965 world’s longest in length and the largest in capacity Central Asia – Center gas pipeline (with three branches) started to operate, and at the same time construction of Bukhara – Tashkent – Frunze - Almaty pipeline with the capacity to transport 10 billion cubic meters of natural gas commenced. Through these two pipelines in 1967 itself 5.3 billion cubic meters of natural gas was transported from Uzbekistan.
Continuous extraction of natural gas had lead to serious reduction of natural gas reserves in the country. For example, according to evaluations of that period, between 1962 and 1967 natural gas reserves depleted to 1,5 trillion cubic meters. In 1965 there were 37 towns, 71 regional centers, 208 urbanized settlements and other types of residential areas, 320 industrial and over 3,5 thousand communal service organizations, nearly 400 communal heating units, 141 state and public organizations provided with gas power, while only 424,6 thousand homes had access to gas power in Uzbekistan.
Consumption of natural gas from 196,4 million cubic meters in 1958 had reached to 4110 million cubic meters in 1965, and for the same period the liquefied gas consumption increased from 457 tons to 42620 tons. Therefore, it meant that only the 28 percent of total extracted gas was consumed internally in Uzbekistan while remaining amount was distributed to other areas within Soviet domain.
The development of chemical industry also owes to accelerated extraction of natural gas in the country. Use of natural gas as raw material had lead to increased production of mineral fertilizers, synthetic tar, plastics, and other industrial chemicals. From synthetic tar, plastics and other chemical raw materials artificial fiber, leather, silk, fur, synthetic rubber, cellulose and many other types of goods were produced. The volume of gas fuel consumption in electrical plants had increased year – by – year. Large electrical power plants were constructed on the basis natural gas resources. The Tashkent hydropower plant with capacity to generate 1300 thousand kW electrical power, Navoi and Sirdarya hydropower plants were examples of such initiatives. Chemicals and energy sector and in other industries heavily relied on natural gas consumption as a raw material source and this naturally contributed to changes in industrial production structure in Uzbekistan by providing means to gain a prominent position in the Soviet economy. However, this ‘prominent position’ was reflected in the papers, reports, numbers and graphical charts, while cotton, silk, karakul wool, gold, oil and gas as well as many other natural resources had not actually made a positive contribution to livelihoods of local population. In other words, even although expansion of gas industry in Soviet Uzbekistan granted opportunity to develop production capabilities in southern and central regions of Soviet domain, from these complex pursuits the Soviet treasury benefited more than Uzbekistan. The negative consequences of impounding economic policy of Soviet regime was avowed by the first President Islam Karimov of the Republic of Uzbekistan “ … improper allocation resources and poor attitude in building economy, big oversights in developing economic sectors and disparities have resulted insufficient outcomes. Thus, economy had experienced a number of serious problems. Social, economic desolation amplified in Uzbekistan, which led to happen catastrophic circumstances. 
TOLERANZ-PLEDGE DER BILDUNG VON HOHEN GEISTIGEN PERSON
Namanganer Staatlichen Universität, Usbekistan
Globalisierung als ein Phänomen des modernen Lebens hat einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die ganze Welt, und Bildung als ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Weltsystems als eine besondere soziale Institution, die das Überleben der menschlichen Gesellschaft und ihrer Entwicklung gewährleistet, wurde auch in den Prozess der globalen Integration beteiligt.
Diese Situation führt zu der grundlegenden Rolle der Bildung, die als eine der wichtigsten staatlichen und öffentlichen Institutionen, die Organisation des Lernprozesses, die Vorbereitung des Einzelnen auf das Leben und volle Selbstverwirklichung jedes Einzelnen zu gewährleisten. Die vorliegende Bildungssystem sollte in erster Linie auf die "harmonische Entwicklung der einzelnen Person zu konzentrieren, um ihr volles Potenzial Student im Bildungsraum zu fördern und, natürlich, für die aktive und kreative berufliche Tätigkeit vorbereitet werden, berufliches Wachstum durch kontinuierliche Verbesserung» 7,p.44].
Allerdings Bildungseinrichtungen derzeit nicht ausreichend diese Funktionen. [9, p "Humanisierung ist noch nicht vollständig in die Praxis NATIONAL Bildung legen". 23]. In den letzten Jahren tendenziell philosophischen und sozialen Studien, die feste moralische Stabilität menschliche Fähigkeit zum Überleben, kulturelle Anordnung der sein eigenes Leben zu reduzieren. Deutliche Steigerung des Niveaus der Angst, Aggression bei Jugendlichen. Im pädagogischen Umfeld verbreitete sich "Phänomen Ausschluss von Persönlichkeit, die nicht nur aufgrund der geringeren Qualität der pädagogischen Aktivitäten, aber auch die Herausforderungen der sozio-ökonomischen, politischen Instabilität, ethnische Konflikte, die allgemeine Atmosphäre der geistigen Verarmung der Mehrheit der Bevölkerung"[8,p.153].
Unter diesen Umständen wird es beliebte soziale Aktivität von Bildungseinrichtungen, um die Aussichten für gewaltfreie Interaktion von Individuen und sozialen Gruppen, neue Strategien zur Förderung der Entwicklung von Toleranz zu bestimmen. Dies ist die Suche nach den philosophischen Grundlagen der Toleranz Bildung Ausbildung.
In den modernen Bedingungen tolerant orientierte Ausbildung ist eines der Hauptprobleme der Philosophie der Erziehung. Es hat einen Sinn-Potential, sie aktualisiert und äußerte Verständnis für die Besonderheiten der ein Mann des Friedens, und in dieser Welt, schlägt er die Priorität des Humanismus in Bildung und pädagogische Raum.
Der Begriff der "Toleranz" wird in verschiedenen Bereichen des Wissens verwendet. Verständnis der Menschen, ihre Identität, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von Wissen und Verständnis: Es ist mit einer Reihe von grundlegenden philosophischen Fragen verbunden. Tolerant Installation manifestieren sich in eine aktive Position im Leben, und Toleranz als Haltung und als Aktion kann nur Menschen [3,S.erzogen.49].
Toleranz bedeutet "Haltung der betroffenen Person, der Wunsch, seine Haltung, die die Arbeit des Geistes treibt fühlen, wenn nur, weil es anders, nicht vergleichbar mit der eigenen Wahrnehmung der Realität, Sensibilität, Aufmerksamkeit zu Partnern, Erzeugung Einfühlungsvermögen und Freundlichkeit gegenüber anderen ist. Toleranz zeigt die Offenheit des Einzelnen, ist dies das Ergebnis der frei von Dogmatismus. Toleranz ist im menschlichen Wunsch geäußert, eine Verständigung mit Akteuren zu erreichen, um eine Vielzahl von Einstellungen zu koordinieren" [1,S.36].
Die wichtigste Voraussetzung für die Umsetzung der Prinzipien der Toleranz in den pädagogischen Prozess ist die Umsetzung der Perspektiven der Konvergenz in der natürlichen und geistigen Menschen. Kultur der Toleranz näher an das Verständnis der Einzigartigkeit des Menschen, Kontingenz des menschlichen Lebens in einer Vielzahl von Formen, was auf die Möglichkeit, die innere Welt eines Menschen in seiner Einzigartigkeit und Integrität zu verstehen, in die Tiefe seiner Gefühle zu durchdringen. Angaben zu der Person ist aus der Sicht der Toleranz als nicht so vollständig, sondern als ein ständig weiterentwickelt, die jedes Mal erzeugt und kann nicht auf ein für allemal zu Muster wiedergegeben werden. So eines der wichtigsten Probleme der Bildung - den Menschen das Recht auf Selbst-Auswahl in verschiedenen Situationen und Probleme, ihnen zu helfen, zu navigieren diese Probleme Lösungen zu finden, um zu lehren. Dieses Problem führt zum Verständnis der tolerante Kultur des Lehrers. Tolerant Bildung bedeutet erste Orientierung Lehrer an Verständnis für die Bedeutung von Verhalten und Handeln der Studenten, Hervorhebung im pädagogischen Aktivitäten der Task Verständnis der Person.
Institute of Education in einer Vielzahl von Organisationsformen hat einen besonderen Platz in der Bildung von Bewusstsein und Verhalten. Bildung ist ein Bereich, in dem neben den kulturellen und beruflichen Ausbildung der jungen Generationen, Haltungen und Werte-basierte Identity[2,5].
Menschliches Problem, sind inzwischen sehr bedeutsam sind vor allem auf die Weitergabe von persönlichen Prinzip eine einzigartige Art und Weise zu fangen, von denen die Realisierung des Phänomens der Bildung ist durch die Ausübung von Toleranz gegenüber den einzigartigen Eigenschaften der menschlichen Erziehung und pädagogische Raum bezogen. Aufgrund dessen ist die Entwicklung des Menschen. Bildung muss sein ", um die Bildung der menschlichen Persönlichkeit gerichtet, um seine Selbst-Bewusstsein und Selbst-Aktivität, und die Hauptrolle bei der Umsetzung der Toleranz in der Bildungs-Raum zu fördern ist der Lehrer"[4,p.86].
Umsetzung der Toleranz in der Bildung - ist die Schaffung eines toleranten Lehrer Raum, die als Vereinigung aller Themen des Bildungsprozesses, die Organisation der Beziehungen zwischen ihnen, die auf den Grundsätzen der "Pädagogik der Toleranz", die Grundlage der humanistischen Bildung gebaut definiert ist.
Der Lehrer ist das primäre Mittel von Inhalten und pädagogischen Prozess. Von der Lehrerin Persönlichkeit, hängt seine beruflichen Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten, Überzeugungen, Einstellungen, Perspektiven, die Fähigkeit, in der Klasse Erziehung Zusammenarbeit sehr spirituelle und tolerant des einzelnen Schülers. Humanistische pädagogischen Interaktion - es ist immer dialogische Interaktion, kreative, persönliche, die zur Bildung einer toleranten pädagogische Raum.
Um erfolgreich zu lösen beruflichen Aufgaben der Lehrer muss gebildet werden, und die Fähigkeit entwickelt, seine Schüler zu tolerieren. In pädagogischen Tätigkeit ist immer "gemeinsames Handeln erfordert, dass alle Teilnehmer nicht nur eine grundlegende Gleichheit, Kreativität und Aktivität, sondern auch die Fähigkeit, sich über ihre Gleichgültigkeit und Herablassung für diejenigen, die aufgrund der Art ihrer Arbeit zu tun haben steigen" [2, p. 36].
In der heutigen Modernisierung unseres Bildungssystems im Hinblick auf den Abschluss eines gemeinsamen europäischen Bildungsraum, Toleranz-orientierte Ausbildung können die meisten voll enthüllt die innere Welt des Menschen, um die Entwicklung ihrer kreativen Potenziale zu stärken, entdecken Sie die Aussichten für die menschliche Entwicklung, die Fähigkeiten und deren Umsetzung in den Ausbau Leben, bilden den Auszubildenden ein Gefühl von Einzigartigkeit. Hat Toleranz Sinn-orientierte Ausbildung der potenziellen, sie aktualisiert und drückte humane Lehrtätigkeit und die wichtigste Voraussetzung für die Verwirklichung der Toleranz in den pädagogischen Prozess ist der Wunsch der Lehrer, Lerner-orientierten Ansatz zur Bildung umzusetzen durch die Prinzipien der Entwicklungsbiologie Bildung.
1.Валитова P . P . Толерантность: порок или добродетель? // Вестник Моск. ун-та. 1996. № 1. Сер. 7: Философия.
2.Комогоров П.Ф. Теоретическое обоснование процесса формирования толерантности у студентов высшего учебного заведения. М., 2002.
3. Лекторский В.А. О толерантности, плюрализме и критицизме // Вопросы философии. 1997. № 11.
4.Мамардашвили М.К. Философские чтения. СПб., 2002.
5.Медведев И.П. Толерантность как основа социальной безопасности. Ставрополь, 2002.
6.Протопопова А.Б. Морально-нравственные принципы Болонской образовательной модели // Философия образования. 2008. № 3.
7.Румянцева Н.Л. О стратегии развития образования // Философия образования. 2008. № 4.
8.Степанова Н.Г. Специфика нравственного подхода к анализу межэтнической толерантности // Философия образования. 2007. № 3.
DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT: ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC-THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS.
Namangan State University Uzbekistan
Etymological and semantic analysis of democracy indicates that it is applied to social spheres and in the fields of activity through notions of “social democracy”, ”economic democracy”, “democratic values”, “democratic state”, “democratic society”, “democratic administration”, “democratic development”. As American political scientist D. Helda notes in his work “Models of democracy”, there are more than 10 models of democracy admitted by specialists of different groups in today’s social and political, philosophical literature. Conceptual ideas of researchers who seek to create the theory of democracy can be found in the following ones:
- participation of most people in social and political reality. This conception is based on democracy of Plato, Aristotle and Africa. Therefore many researchers emphasize that notion of democracy comes from Greek words as “demos” – people, and “kratos”– power
- administration of public life through representative authorities or people’s representatives. This conception was suggested by the English philosopher and economist D.S.Mill. in his opinion the capitalistic political economic basis is established by competitive representatives – active participators in production
- retain and balance the conflicting forces. This conception was suggested by European political scientist K. Medison. In his opinion, democracy is a means of keeping under control the conciliation of different opposite sides with political interests
- competition among political leaders and elite groups. This conception was worked out by German sociologist and political scientist K. Schumpeter. The researcher considers democracy the struggle and competition among elite groups for political power and position
- economic competition, a means of competition. This conception was suggested by R. Dal. In his opinion, democracy promotes competition among different economic players and thus it changes into economic democracy, polyarchia
- transformation of centralized governing to local and self-government authorities. This conception was suggested by French sociologist Alexis de Toville as he noted “there are numerous circles connecting with each other in the states of democratic peoples”
- democracy is a social equality. This conception was suggested by A. Smith, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. In their opinion, social economic and political inequality turns contradictions, struggles into anthogonistic reality, and democracy forms social equality in the society. Notion of “democratic life” of A. Smith and D. Ricardo was utopia, K. Marx’s approach was prevailed by “social revolution”
- democracy is a personal freedom. This conception was suggested by the Nobel prize laureate, famous economist F. A.Hayek and his associate, philosopher and sociologist K. Popper. For example, F.A.Hayek noted that society is such various that human is connected with it in different ways. Democracy is a means of accommodation of this connection with laws and interests of a person to social interests. Person is “not a pawn on the chessboard of economy”, but “a social power” which has his own rights. “Human,– he writes – has never been the master of his own life and will never be the one: his intellect will study new things, aspire to uncertainty and unexpectedness and achieve perfection continually”. Democracy will ensure personal freedom in this aspiration
- democracy is a form of government of state and social life. Almost in all western states Constitutions the influence of people on passing laws and decrees, their participation in discussing problems concerning social life, process of governing state and society are interpreted as the essence of democracy
- considering democracy as social juridical reality. In jurisprudence people’s government, parliamentarialism, division of power, freedom of speech, right of private property, freethinking, self-government, secular statehood, political and cultural freedom of citizens, gender equality, free choice of place of residence, participation in meetings and activities of unions and so on are considered as democratic values
- considering as a sociological reality. In sociologists’ opinion, democracy is a form of state, social government which admits the people as the source of state power. That’s why sociological literature studies problems of holding elections for positions in state government, reporting of authorized persons back to the electors, the public control over state administrative authorities, activities of political parties, non-governmental organization and conditions for their full activities, activity of mass communication media, place of self-government institutions in the life of population
- research of democracy as a social political reality. “Democracy is reality connected constantly with people and their interests, transient, having historical nature, attitude to power, state and the public government”. This opinion of the famous political scientist P. A. Aronis cited in this or another way in almost every literature on political science
- considering democracy as a means of realization of social development, wishes of social medium, ensuring person’s free will. This is a philosophical approach. It should be noted that philosophical interpretation of democracy doesn’t deny absolutely descriptions in other fields, but it generalizes them from point of view of social philosophical conception, unites and embraces them.
Above mentioned interpretations and approaches to a certain extent are directed to comprehend and reveal conceptions of democracy peculiar to its some certain quality. Such interpretations and approaches are risen to integral conception level only in social philosophic degree. For lack of such approach specialists of narrow fields write that “the answer to the question what democracy is and what democracy is not still remains unclear”. Even L.A. Nudenko who specially researched the theory of democracy came to the conclusion that “it is impossible to interpret and explain it satisfactorily to everybody” for democracy expresses various realities and it being interpreted in different ways. In our opinion, it is the result of lack of social philosophic approach to democracy. Specialists, proceeding from their narrow gnosiological interests, though it is not negative case as a matter of fact, didn’t take into consideration that it is also possible to approach to democracy widely, as a result they interpreted democracy which is wide, various political, economical, legal and social cultural reality in the circle of their narrow gnosiological ideas and interests. In addition to that they didn’t take into consideration that there existed national peculiarities of democratic development. Meanwhile every social reality is the reflection of some certain ethno cultural and ethno social relations. Not taking into consideration such peculiarities turns democracy into abstract, even cosmopolitan idea, as a result there will be contradictions, oppositions between universal essence of democracy and ethnosocial reality.
Every researchers admit in one or another meaning that democracy is reality connected with state and society government. Democracy is connected with political system, exactly political system ensures “political freedom and democratic rights of a person, correspondence of official constitution and legal standards to political reality”. In addition to it, political system expresses not only embracing and various political process, but on the one hand it also expresses interests of state, political system and political groups, and on the other hand it organizes social political reality, mass movements, activity of civil institutions from the point of view of general democratic development. Therefore, democracy is not the movement which appears in itself or the one of groups which pretend to express wishes of most people, it is the result of the activity which reckons with social development legality and comprehends, saturates with this legality in its activities. Social historical development indicates that first of all the subject of the mentioned activity is state, political system. Because, if even state, political system were “totalitarian or monarchial, it, to a certain extent, would be realized by people’s institutionalized society, notion of political system is always social. Process of notion within state government system is made approximately appropriate to other anthropomegamachines’ ones”.
But every political system doesn’t rely on state and democracy, social government , but there are always elements, forces aspiring to social development in them. When these elements, forces support the mentioned theoretical models of social development there will be real possibility for democratic development. After investigating peculiarities of democratic development, researchers classify them in two groups – immoralistic democracy and integralistic democracy. Integralistic democracy is based on the theory of Marxism and includes socialistic, people’s, communitarion democracy. According to supporters of this direction and conception, people themselves can not rule state and society, they need the political power which will lead and direct them. And this power is the Communist Party or communists. As a matter of fact, the question is not in leading power because society and state are in immanent need of such power, but what kind of political strategy, aim it has and in what ways and means it will achieve its object. The object of integralistic conception was expropriation of exploiters and annihilation of ruling class at all. This inhuman approach fell into crisis at the end of the XX century, and pluralistic conception took into consideration and harmonized with interests of different classes, groups and persons and confirmed its correspondence to social development.
At present democracy is divided into literal, participator, elite, consocial, delegative, electron democratic conceptions, representation democracy and polyarchia. Though these conceptions are partially reflected in the above – mentioned directions, they can not reveal inner immanent peculiarities of democracy. To analyse democracy as conceptual notions it is necessary to rely on the given classification and proceed from it
The list of used literature:
1. Held D. Models of Democracy-Oxford, 1987. – p 12.
2. Mill.D.S Principals of political economy. – Moscow: Politizdat, 1981. – p 17-21.
3. Social science Concept: A systematic Analysis-London. 1984 – p 146.
4. Globale Dynamik, locale Lebenswelten: der schwierige weg in die weltg.-Muench, Richard, Aufl, Suhrkamp, 1998 – p 11.
5. Dall. R. introduction to economic democracy – M. 1991.
6. Tocville de Alexis. Democracy in America Moscow: Progress, 1992. – p 438.
7. Hayek F. A. Society of free people. London 1994 – p 259.
8. Constitutional (state) law of foreign countries: Volume1. M: Juridicial literature. 1993.
9. Satori Q. The theory of Democraty Reviisited. Part. The Classical Issues – Chatam 1987. Constitutional Law – M: jurist 1997; Covler A. I. Crisis of Democracy? Democracy at the turn of the XXI century. – Jurist 2001.
10. Russian sociological Encyclopedia – M: Norma-infa – M 1998 –p 117.
11. Aron R. Democracy and Totalitarism – M: ACT, 1993 – p 9.
12. Isaev B. A. Theory of politics. – SPB “Piter” 2008; Salmin A. M. Modern Democracy: Essays on formation – M:Aspect-Press 2004 –p 28-31.
13. Politology. Course of lectures – M: Zerkalo 1999 – p 234.
14. Nudenko L. A. Theory of Democracy – M: Jurist, 2001, – p 5.
15. Theory of Democracy – M: Jurist, 2001 – p 7.
16. The same book.
17. Dakhin A. V. Alternative metaphors of globalization//Cosmopolis, 2003. № 3(5) – p 153-154.
18. Ezenschdat Sh. N. Paradox of democratic regimes: fragility and convertibility// Polis, 2001, № 1 – p 72-73.
19. Theory of politics. Edited by B. A. Isaev, - SPB, “Piter”, 2008, – p 144-160.
Developing opportunities of textile and production of light industry goods and export potential of Uzbekistan
Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology
Light industry is one of the most developed branches of the national industry of Uzbekistan and the country stands out in the world for its favorable conditions and significant features for the development of this sector.
Even more than 2000 years ago there was spun cotton threads and woven cloth in the present territory of Uzbekistan. In X-XI centuries, the cotton cloth, woven in Bukhara, Samarqand, Fergana, Khwaresm and in the other territories of the region was very famous in many countries of the world. That time the cloth was woven by using hand tools.
In the beginning of XX century the light industry sector of Uzbekistan mainly consisted of cotton mills and the sector produced almost 80 % of gross domestic industrial products. After 1920s, there were set up mills of cotton reprocessing, silk, spinning and weaving, shoe factories and the branches of the sector began to grow steadily. The Tashkent Institute of Textile established in 1932 contributed much to the development of the sector. The per capita production of cotton cloth that was equal to 21-22 meters square in 1940-1960s, increased to 50 meters square in 1990s.
Today, light industry is considered as a diversified industrial complex that has more than 2600 effectively run enterprises including more than 120 joint stock companies in branches such textile, spinning, shoe, sewing, silk, and knitwear.
During the first decade after Independence (1991-2000), the large cotton reprocessing and primary commodity producing enterprises have dominated in light industry. Together with the processes of modernization and diversification of national industry, the light industry sector is also being developed step-by-step and in this the role of small business subjects is increasing.
The government policy on the modernization and diversification of light industry has been the main factor of development of the sector in the second decade of Independence era (2000-2010). During these years there have been adopted several laws and programs directed to the development of the light industry and achieved the improvement of competitiveness among the enterprises of the sector and the efficiency of investments, the increase of the shares of the sector in export of finished goods and the national goods in domestic market.
The July 1, 2002 #3102 decree of the President of Uzbekistan “On the improvement of the management of light industry of the Republic” and the March 25, 2004 resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On measures of stimulation of the development of light industry of the Republic and the management system of SJSC “O’zbekyengilsanoat” (Uzbek light industry) are directed to the development of the management system of the sector. The January 27, 2005 #38 resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On measures to attract investments to the textile sector of the Republic” has increased investment opportunities to the sector. The resolutions of the President of Uzbekistan "On Program of modernization and technical re-equipment of textile enterprises for the years 2006-2008" and "On Program of modernization and technical and technological re-equipment of industry for the years 2007-2011" have served as a basis for the stimulation of the expansion of the productive capacities, the increase of the export figures, and also creation of additional jobs owing to modernization and re-equipment of the enterprises. In December 16, 2010 there has been adopted the resolution of the President of Uzbekistan “On the key aspects of the development of industry for the years 2011-2015.” The resolution states that the key aspects of the development of industry are: diversification of the production, providing the growth of export opportunities, the increase of the production of competitive goods for export, expansion of markets for them on the basis of the qualitative reprocessing of domestic raw materials.
In 2011 in Uzbekistan the production of light industry products has represented 2, 2% of GDP and 8, 5 % of total industry capacity. 18% of employees of industry (114,000) work in this sector. In 2010 there has been achieved 290% growth in light industry productions, 270% in knitwear items, 320% in garment items, and 140% in shoes production compared with 2005. All these prove that light industry is the main and rapidly developing sector of the economy of Uzbekistan. (Table 1)
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Table 1: The analysis of the figures of the production of light industry of Uzbekistan
The laws and programs to develop the light industry have become important factors in solving questions such as the increase of productive capacity, attracting more investments to produce competitive goods that meet the requirements of international market, the efficient use of investments. Therefore, the President of Uzbekistan has set the goals of completing more than 270 investment projects of 6, 2 billions USD worth and also programs of the sector on modernization, and technical and technological re-equipment of production.
During the years 2006-2010, there have been attracted 400 millions USD investments to the light industry sector. According to the programs mentioned above, it is planned to invest 1-1, 2 billions USD in total during the 2011-2015 years. Since the main part of investments is directed to the enterprises in the system of SJSC “O’zbekyengilsanoat”, we can analyze the level of efficiency of investments to the sector through the Table 2.
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Table 2: The efficiency of investments in the enterprises in the system of SJS
The table shows that owing to the results of the modernization of light industry and its technical re-equipment each a 1000 USD investment made in the sector during three years has increased the production to 23033 USZ, the export to 726,4 USD and what is most important, there has been created 0,03 jobs per each 1000 USD.
The success of the programs on the development of textile and light industry sectors in the Republic for the years 2011-2015 will lead to the 2% annual growth rate of the sector in GDP. The growth in export will be equal to 1 billion USD and this will give an opportunity to create 600,000 additional jobs. These figures are considered to be the main means to provide the entrance of Uzbekistan to the world market with competitive products of light industry and textile and strengthening its positions there.
The export market of Uzbekistan is being expanded year by year and in 2012 it has consisted of the markets of more than 50 countries. 70% of the production of 180 enterprises has been exported in 2012: 40% value of total export has been sent to Russia, 12% to Turkey, 10% to EU, 5% to South Korea, and the rest 25% to the south-west countries of Asia and others. If to analyze the foreign trade of the products of light industry, in 2010 compared with 2005, there have been achieved 6, 1 times growth of the positive balance of export to import.
The dynamics of the export and import of light industry goods in Uzbekistan
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However, the detailed analysis show that the country in the top five cotton producers of the world, has less than 1% share of the market of cotton goods. Uzbekistan satisfies its domestic demands for knitwear and garment items only to 59%, for socks to 15, 6%. The small amount of Uzbek exports is sold to the developed countries. These all above require developing of marketing services of light industry enterprises and what’s more, the wide use of the approved international strategies.
Owing to the continual increase of demands to the production of light industry and as one of the most effective branches of economy for Value-Added Taxes, this sector now has became the main field of stiff competition of the world market. In this process, only the innovative technology based activities and efficiently organized marketing services can lead to the development of the enterprises of light industry and producing competitive in the global market goods.
The analyses above are requiring the devising of methods of the development of light industry and the improvement of mechanisms of its formation. Organizing the light industry sector according to the innovative development mechanism is considered as the main factor to increase the role of Uzbekistan in the world market in this sector, improvement of science and living standards of the population. (Picture 1)
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Picture 1: The innovative development mechanism of the light industry of Uzbekistan
In the period after 1990s the organization of Industrial clusters is becoming of significant importance in the world practice for the local development of the sectors of industry of a particular state. Clustered approach is considered as new management system that: provides the constant development of domestic economy; increases its competitiveness by introducing innovations; assure the development of the human capital; meets appropriately the requirements of domestic and regional development and withstanding the strong influence of the global competition as the source of high technology production and the economic growth.
Establishing of the infrastructure is one of the important factors in following this strategy. Usually, clustering is begun with the establishment of its infrastructure in a particular area and developed with the creation of techno parks and special economic zones. In the Fergana valley part of the Republic, about 1000 light industry enterprises and almost 3000 small business subjects run their businesses. The territory has 65% market share of cloth production, 16% of knitwear items, 41% of garment items and 43% of shoe production. Approximately 20% of export of light industry goods of the Republic is produced in the Fergana valley. There are 5 vocational Colleges and 1 higher education institution in the valley that provide highly qualified specialists.
We know from world practice, that the above analyses may serve as a basis for establishing Namangan textile cluster in Fergana valley and through it is possible not only to increase competitiveness, but also to achieve greater efficiency of introducing innovations. The researches show that the innovative activity of enterprises, formed clusters, is more increased than that of those out of clusters.
To proceed from the analyses, the way that meets today’s requirements for producing competitive goods, engaging efficient activity in international markets, adapting to the changes in demands and supplies, is to form innovative clusters in the light industry sector.
PROSPECTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN UZBEKISTAN
Gabdulhakov F.A. docent, Gabdulhakova R.F., senior lecturer
Namangan State University, Uzbekistan
This article deals with the overall development strategy of foreign language teaching methodology. Regardless of what is taught in the school, professionals face a number of challenges that are common to all languages. Among these problems are: 1) The attitude of the state and society towards the language learning process, in other words the demand of a particular language; 2) Development of methodology (techniques) of language teaching; 3) Learning from best practices from other countries gained in foreign language teaching; 4) Determination of innovative approaches and technology used utilized in the process of teaching a language. Therefore, in this paper we consider the overall strategy of optimizing the process of language teaching.
Key concepts: language policy, communicative competence, communicative language teaching orientation process, preparation for inter-cultural dialogue, rhetoric, innovation, interactive methods, pedagogical communication, humanization process of language learning, learner centered approach, text centrism, text-formation, optimization of the process of language teaching.
During last two decades the question of foreign language teaching received a closer attention in Uzbekistan. It is evidenced by the adoption of the National Programme for Personnel Training and a number of subsequent documents that have created favorable conditions for the development of methods in language teaching. Resolution “On measures for further improvement of the study of foreign languages” has been adopted just recently. According to the new document, the study of foreign languages, mainly English, gradually will start in elementary schools in the form of gaming lessons and lessons in speaking in the first grade, and in the form of learning the alphabet, reading and spelling in the second grade. In future, teaching special subjects in universities, especially in engineering and international specializations, will be conducted in foreign languages.
At the current stage of societal development, it is important for academia to educate the personality of a student aiming at the maximum of his/her educational potential opened to the perception of new experience, capable of informed and responsible choices in different life situations. In order to raise such an individual, first of all, it is necessary to teach students to solve certain communication problems in different areas and situations with different linguistic means, i.e. form their communicative competence. Educated in such conditions one should ultimately reach the level defined as the level of the "linguistic personality”.
As a result of the transformation taking place in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the process of language teaching today can evolve to meet the needs of people and gain more tangible practical and communicative orientation. Preparation of a person to communicate in target foreign languages is equivalent today to preparation for intercultural dialogue.
Such a situation can be generally noted as a positive development because it indicates an increase in people's interest in foreign languages. On the other hand, society itself is interested in such university graduates who could be recognized by the international community. Accordingly, the practice of language teaching should respond to this situation and to work out best solutions to emerging problems.
The process of foreign language teaching takes place in different ways in different countries. Within the post-Soviet area, this process has its own specific characteristics. In particular, the main problem of foreign language teaching is the lack of rhetoric classes in schools and colleges in several countries. This approach to language learning and teaching has developed due to the abolition of rhetoric classes in Russian schools in the late nineteenth century. From ancient times, the teaching of the native language was conducted simultaneously in two directions – education of rhetoric skills and the study of the theoretical foundations of the language. In the twentieth century methods of foreign language teaching in schools were based on techniques of teaching of the native (Russian) language in Russian schools. This fact has led to a tangible difference in the approaches to the problems of language teaching in our country and in other European countries. This was proved with the excessive grammatical focus of the process of foreign language teaching in our methodology. This situation, no doubt, was reflected in the practice of foreign language teaching, since for a long time foreign language teaching copied main rules of native language teaching. In the end it appeared that many graduates, having a large amount of theoretical knowledge, were helpless in communicating in studied language. It continued until the end of the twentieth century.
Currently perspective directions of development of foreign language teaching methods are communication skills and implementation of innovative technologies, humanization of the educational process.
Optimization of the process of foreign language teaching involves the development of certain areas of methodical science. These are:
- to explore the possibility of increasing the practical orientation of lessons and achieve the situation in which the goals of lessons are planned in the form of practical tasks;
- to identify ways to strengthen communicative orientation of lessons. To do this, it is important to use interactive teaching methods;
- to include the creativity in the process of language teaching, which takes the form of co-operation of teacher and student. To do this, it is necessary to introduce the idea of "pedagogical communication" in classes;
- to increasingly rely on new information and communication methodologies, which involves the use of modern equipment and facilities;
- to expand the idea of developmental education through the establishment of appropriate training texts and the use of modern and up to date information in the content of exercises performed in class;
- to use of the differentiated learning tasks and widely implement the principle of personality-oriented approach;
- to develop students' speaking skills initiative, which corresponds to the principle of humane learning.
The main purpose of teaching foreign languages in the curriculum is defined as "education of students to communicate fluently in the target language." To obtain such a result it is necessary to take care of the formation and development of communication skills of students, focusing on the achievements of modern methodical developments.
A promising orientation in the development of the direction in communicative methodology of foreign language teaching is text centrism. In the methodology for foreign language teaching, which has the aim of linguistic personality formation, it is necessary to introduce an organic component aimed at developing students’ skills of perception of the text, work with the text, and the text formation.
Significant changes are taking place in the methodology of foreign language teaching. From this point of view the identification of new ways in developing the technique of language teaching becomes an important problem of modern methodical science.
We believe that the development path of methodical science requires deep analysis and reflection. Special attention should be given to the question of incorporation of the effective, constructive and rational innovative teaching techniques in the process of education. It should be noted that there is a gap in the literature devoted to this subject.
Innovations in foreign language teaching can be associated with changes not only in the objectives, content, methods and techniques, forms of organization and management system, but also in the styles of teaching activities and the organization of educational and informative processes. Based on the understanding of the process, we identify innovations in techniques, tools, and methodology of foreign language teaching.
Consequently, the identification of the best ways to implement the innovative practices in the process of education becomes one of the urgent problems of modern methodology. Consideration of the above mentioned issues in the organization of the process of foreign language teaching satisfies demands of people as well as general social needs. Successful solutions to these problems can lead to the optimization of the process and increase of its effectiveness.
Language policy in Uzbekistan is a reflection of the needs of society and the desire of the population to learn foreign languages. Methods of teaching foreign languages as the science will continue to develop in the future with the flux of technology and demands of time. The methodology of teaching languages as science, is connected with the needs of society and the process of integration that occurs in the global world of science. Optimization of the process of language teaching to some extent depends on the integration efforts of professionals working in the field of teaching different foreign languages, including the Russian language. The successful development of methods of teaching foreign languages is connected, on the one hand, with the research and study of language teaching techniques and experiences in other countries, and on the other - with the encouragement and support of innovative research in within the country.
1. Zhalolov J. Methods of teaching foreign languages. Tashkent, Ukituvchi, 1996
2. Azizkhodjaeva N. N. Educational Technologies and Pedagogical Skills, Tashkent, 2003.
3. Vlasenkov A. I. Developmental Teaching of Russian Language. Moscow, 2003.
4. Lvov M.R. Methodology of Russian Language. Dictionary. Moscow, /Enlightenment,
5. Faberman B. L. Modern Pedagogical Techniques. Tashkent, 2000.
The chemical content and application of Margelan radish
M.Saloydinova, D. Iminova, Sh.Abdullayev
Namangan State University, Uzbekistan
Population of people increases day by day which requires providing them with high quality food products, for example nowadays the population of Uzbekistan is more than 29,5 mln. The daily nutrition of people should have nitrogen and carbon-containing substances, vitamins, microelements and other nutrients.
Radish (in lat. Ráphanus) is annual and perennial grows and reproduces plant from family of Brassicaceae. Wild-growing radish spreads in Europe and Asia, cultivated radish was not found in wild-growing type. The vein of cultivated and some wild-growing radish is long, thick which is allowed to eat. Steady against cold, light and moisture-like plant. Picture of radish is painted on the walls of Amona Ra mosque in ancient Egypt and also used as food stuff of Cheops Pyramids builders. This radish in golden dish was performed in Delifiy mosque, Greece. Golden, silver radish and leaden carrot was presented to Appolon God. Radish was cultivated as a famous food product and medicine in ancient Greece and Rome. According to Appolon ideas from ancient myth the value of some weight radish costs to equal weight of gold. This plant was cultivated as oily plant in Egypt the content of oil in the seeds is about 45-50% and used for soap producing. Radish and sesame oil smut was used for mascara. Dioskorid recommended radish for the food assimilation, vision improving and against cough. The big root crop of this plant was grown by ancient Romans and was used as a medicine in gastrointestinal diseases.
Nowadays radish is cultivated in many states of the world. Root crop and new leaves are used for making meaty and vegetarian soups, salads.
The main objective is a cultivation such plants in Uzbekistan weather condition, discover source economy and waste-free technologies, then attraction them to the production. Margelan radish cultivated in Uzbekistan is annual and two year vegetable plant. It has gentle taste and peculiar smell without bitter taste. More juicy than black radish. Russia has interest in this plant which ripens fast (with in 90 days). This radish is a multi fruitful and good for the winter storage. Avicenna used radish against eruption, elimination of spots on a body and healing of wounds. Radish is useful for the patients poisoned by mushrooms.
The national remedies recommend radish water for the patients caught a cold, also against of whooping cough, blood spittle, liver, gall bladder diseases and as a diuretic medicine in urinary system disease.
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According to the USDA Nutrient Database 100 grams of radish content: water- 88 gr., proteins-1.9 gr., ethers- 0.2 gr., carbohydrates- 8.1 gram (mono and disaccharides), food tissue (cellulose) - 1.6 gr., organic acids-0.1 gr., ash - 1.0 gram, vitamins; vitamin A- 0.2 gr., vitamin B1- 0.03 mg., vitamin B2- 0.04 mg, vitamin B5- 0.2 mg, vitamin B6-0.06 mg., vitamin C-28 mg., vitamin E-0.1 mg; microelements: potassium-350 mg., calcium-35 mg., magnesium-21 mg., sodium-13 mg., phosphorus-26 mg; microelements: iron-2.2mg., iod-8 mkg., cobalt-3mkg., manganese-0.15 mg., fluorine-30mkg., zinc-0.2 mg: calory-35 kilo calorie.
The different parts of the cultivated in Turakurgan radish were set by vegetation. First all parts were extracted with 96% ethyl alcohol than with vodka and distill water. Extractions were analyzed by paper chromatography in 10,30 and 70 % acetic acid system. The chromatography method proved presence of flavonoids, aromatic acids, carbohydrates at the maintenance of the radish parts.
The processes of washing, cutting and drying the radish were done in “Turakurgan- Shirinlik Agro” production limited company.
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Process of cutting Circle, straws and cube forms of the radish
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One part of Sandvik drying line Process of drying
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Pictures after drying
The root crop of radish was cut in the form of a cube, a circle and straw with the special equipment and was dried in 400-500 C using Sandvik drying line. The moisture content of the final product in the form of a cube is 12 %, a circle- 10% and straw 8%. Smell and taste suit for the dried radish. Color is white and light-green. The chemical and physical parameters of the radish samples meet the requirements. This product is recommended to use for the salads and other national meals.
Process of preparation of medical balm from radish in the home condition.
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Margelan radish contents necessary substances for the human body. The harmful substances with negative effect were not found. Exsiccated products from Margelan radish were prepared for the export. Margelan radish is recommended for the export to the Asian nations, Japan, Korean and China because they widely use the vegetable products.
1. Flora of the USSR (in Russian), Moscow-Leningrad 1954. Vol.20.
2. Flora of the Uzbekistan (in Russian), Tashkent 1961, Vol.5.
Benchmarking practices in Uzbek higher education institutions: impact of Tempus projects
Head of the International Relations Department
Namangan State University, Uzbekistan
Benchmarking is proved itself a powerful tool to achieve for quality and adapt the best practices in Western as well as in some Asian higher education institution. This tool is becoming popular in other part of the world too. However, the practicing tools are not called benchmarking but have similar contexts. Tempus projects in Uzbekistan serve to learn each other and provide continuous improvement. In this paper the current issues and challenges facing to struggle for quality in Uzbek higher education are discussed. The benchmarking practices within the Tempus projects are highlighted. In overall the benefits and incentives of benchmarking in higher education are described.
Applicability of Benchmarking in higher education
Basic definition of benchmarking is comparison, and working collaboratively to improve other institutions’ weak points. Benchmarking definitions and concepts have been defined by most prominent authors such as Camp (1989), Zairi (1994), Codling (1998), Cook (1995) and others. According to them benchmarking has proved itself as powerful tool to achieve quality in the organization by comparatively analyzing the weak and strong points in performance and working process. There are many types of benchmarking offered such as international, competitive, functional, diagnostic, internal, process, strategic, operational and etc, which stem the theoretical views. However there is no any exact recommendation which type is suitable in what cases. Therefore, management staff who use the benchmarking must adapt the theories and methods to improve their concerned problematic issues. The effective using the benchmarking practices can provide continuous improvement in organization as its usage lead many of well-known companies to success, like Xerox and Motorola. From the beginning of 1990s the benchmarking practices were used in higher education starting from North America followed to Europe and Asia. Benchmarking applicability in higher education has been described by Asltete (1995), Jackson and Lund (1998, 2000, 2001), Bender (2002), Barak and Kniker (2000), Schuh (2000) and McKinnon et al (2000). Alstete says, due to its reliance on hard data and research methodology, benchmarking is especially suited for institutions of higher education in which these types of studies are very familiar to faculty and administrators.
Review of literature identifies that benchmarking process models and methodologies vary with different number of phases from four steps to 20-30 steps. In a survey of typical benchmarking steps, Bogan and English  listed the Motorola Five-Step process, the Bristol-Myers et al. Seven-Step process, the Xerox Twelve-Step process, and the AT & T Nine-Step process as examples of company proven benchmarking cycles. Camp (1989b) suggested a ten-step generic process for benchmarking. Kaiser’s seven-step benchmarking process is created for the public sector (Bruder and Gray, 1994). In higher education, Alstete (1995) suggested four-step approach: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) as shown in Figure 8 (Watson 1993, Alstete 1995).
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Figure 8: Benchmarking process compared with the Deming cycle. [Alstete (1995), p34]
The first step is planning, which means selecting administrative or teaching process to be studied. In other words, it involves planning what to benchmark and who to benchmarking. The second step uses primary and or secondary research to gather the data. This can involve researching publicly available information about the target colleges and universities through professional associations, personal contacts, a library, or on-line computer services. The third step in benchmarking consists of analyzing the data gathered to calculate the research findings and develop recommendations. This is the critical point in study where the differences or gaps between the participants performance are identified. Adapting, improving & Implementing findings is the final step.
More specifically, fulfilling the Alstete’s four step Plan-Do-Check-Act, Alex Appleby offers ten step benchmarking model which was adapted from Robert Camp. It has several phases of steps planning, analyzing, integrating and action.
The formal ten-step benchmarking process [Source: Benchmarking and threshold standards in higher education, Helen Smith, Michael Armstrong and Sally Brown, 1999 p 65.]
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Tempus projects role to benchmark the higher education institutions in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is country with a population of about 30 mln located in the heart of Central Asia. Currently it has 75 higher education institutions with a student population of about 280 000. Education system in Uzbekistan is a multi-dimensional force which impacts to every sector of the economy and social life. Therefore, educational development and funding the education is remaining on a top agenda of the government policy. Higher education development is a significantly important to achieve economic prosperity and stability in the region. Globalization forces and Information technology are the major challenges which no any university in the world can stand aside. However there are several issues which require much investment and reformations which can be undertaken by cooperation with foreign universities and scientific institutions. The university curriculum in Uzbekistan is to consider making more flexible, mobile, and operative which can be fit to market demands. The curriculum consideration and review tasks responsibilities are delegated to every fulcrum institution of different disciplines. These institutions are in need of to exchange and benchmark the experiences with leading universities in the world. In this term the Tempus program projects are platforms to discuss and implements the bologna process objective in Uzbek higher education institutions which leads to evolutionary integration with EHEA (European Higher Education Area).
Tempus is one of a number of European Community programs designed to help the process of social and economic reform and development in its partner countries. The T rans- E uropean M obility P rogram for U niversity S tudies (Tempus) enables universities from EU Member States to cooperate with those in the Western Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia and in the Mediterranean partner countries through projects to modernize higher education. Tempus has been renewed three times since it began in 1990. The program was consolidated and renewed for the periods of 1994 - 1998 and 1998 - 2000 and again for the 2000 - 2006 period. It has become customary to refer to these periods of the program as Tempus I, Tempus II, Tempus III, Tempus VI, Tempus V respectively. The content and modalities of Tempus VI are currently being introduced. Since the start of the program in 1994 European Commission has allocated 22,16 million euro for financing 79 Tempus projects in Uzbekistan.
Tempus II: 6.14 million euro (1994-2000)
Tempus III: 11.3 million euro (2000-2006)
Tempus IV: 3.6 million euro (2008-2010)
During the period of the program implementation 45 higher education institutions (HEIs) and 38 non-academic organizations throughout the country, in cooperation with more than 100 universities from 20 European Union countries, have participated in program activities. In the framework of Tempus III (2000-2006) 122 people have benefited of Individual Mobility Grants (IMGs). The biggest number of Tempus projects in Uzbekistan has supported the development of new curricula and courses for Masters’ and Bachelors’ programs, mainly in the field of engineering and applied technologies, ensuring their relevance to the local labor market needs through direct involvement of enterprises, branch ministries and other non-academic organizations. Curricula Development Projects were especially important because of their direct links to the National Program for Personal Training (NPPT) and in particular with the introduction of the two-level higher education system.
The Tempus educational projects are main platform for benchmarking practices among universities local and international levels. The following means of practices are used widely:
1. Seminars. This practice provided teaching and administrative staff “to look into their boxes” from the outside. The issues and obstacles in teaching and research developments discussed. The innovative approaches and new tool shared and exchanged
2. Training and workshops. Trainings and workshops organized for group of lectures and management staff in local as well as in European partner institutions. In one project around 20-30 personals trained yearly. This practice gave deep understanding the subject fields and widened the knowledge. For instance, the project titled “Enhancement of role of universities in transfer of innovations into enterprise” had 6 workshops in Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Spain and Portugal which were trained around 125 personals
3. Web-sites. Each project has own web-sites which contains the full information about the project details, partners, ongoing activities, courses, workshops, seminars, publications, data of practices, applications and latest news. The partner institutions have opportunities to share information and use the data of practices. Outcomes of project activities and meeting resolutions published
4. Publications. The publication the outputs and achievements of project is one of the essential way of dissemination the best practices. Normally the publications are made in three languages English, Russian and Uzbek, which are accessible for wide range of readers at the partner institutions.
The enriched practices and achievements within the project are applied in educational process of partner institutions. For instance the project titled “Towards Sustainable Water Resources Management in Central Asia” was completed in Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration, Karshi Engineering-Economic Institute together other European partner universities. The project outcomes and materials continuously used in curriculum development and teaching subjects. Another example is the project titled “Implementing tools and policies for quality work at institutional level” which is in process of implementation by three universities in Uzbekistan. The obtained experiences and gained best practices in the field of quality assurance mechanism are applied in Uzbek partner universities with successful results. The resources centers, which are established during the project implementation, serve to provide ongoing action and sustainability of gained practices.
Currently, (November 2012) there are 17 on-going projects of Tempus which 32 higher education institutions of Uzbekistan are involved. For example the TuCAHEA project is just started which aimed to contribute to building a Central Asian Higher Education Area [CAHEA], aligned with the European Higher Education Area [EHEA], able to take into account and valorise the specific needs and potentials of the Region and of the partner countries, thus responding to the needs of the higher education community and society at large. Namangan State University is a national coordinator from Uzbekistan.
The learning and application practices within Tempus projects in Uzbek higher education institutions can considered as a type of benchmarking. However there some similarities and differences with other popular benchmarking models:
1. There is no demand for financing the benchmarking process since the funding comes from the European Tempus program,
2. The planning phase is similar as the Tempus projects have kick-off seminars and meetings which are discussed the main functional works
3. The analyzing and integration phases as in Alex Appleby’s model is ongoing during the project implementation
4. The resource centers’ functions which are established during the project implementation process are similar as action phase in the Alex Appleby’s model. They provide the sustainability of project outcomes.
Tempus projects serve to internationally benchmark the practices in higher education institutions in Uzbekistan. Each project focuses on specific problematic issue in education such as improving the management, quality assurance, university-business cooperation, research and development, teaching, learning, library, curriculum development, and teacher/student training. Tempus projects can be considered as one of the generic benchmarking processes as used in other international agencies and organizations which facilitates comparison and identify directions for change that will lead to improvement. Such agencies are like NACUBO (National Association of College and University Business Officers), CHEMS (Commonwealth Higher Education Management Service), ACHE (The Association for Continuing Higher Education), ESMU (European Center for Strategic Management of Universities), HEFCE (Higher Education Funding Council for England), and DETYA (Department of Education training and Youth Affairs), National Consortium For Continuous Improvement In Higher Education (NCCI).
1. Zairi, Mohamed. (1996). Benchmarking for best practice: continuous learning through sustainable innovation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann
2. Codling, Sylvia. (1998). Benchmarking. Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower.
3. Cook, Sarah. (2004) Measuring customer service effectiveness. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Gower.
4. Alstete, W. J. (1995). Benchmarking in Higher Education: Adapting Best practices To Improve Quality. Washington, DC: George Washington University.
5. Lund, Helen. (1998). Benchmarking in UK higher education. In CHEMS (Commonwealth Higher Education Management Service) Benchmarking in Higher Education: An International Review (pp. 66-92). London: CHEMS.
6. Jackson, N., Lund, H., (2000) Benchmarking for Higher Education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. p.33.
7. Bender, B. E .,(2002). Benchmarking as an Administrative Tool for Institutional Leaders. In Schuh, J.H., Bender, B. E., Using benchmarking to inform practice in higher education (pp.113-120). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
8. Schuh, J.H., Bender, B. E. (2002) Using benchmarking to inform practice in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
9. McKinnon, K.R., Walker, S.H., Davis, D. (2000) Benchmarking: A manual for Australian Universities. DETYA (Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs) Commonwealth of Australia. No. 6441HERC00A. (Online version at www.detya.gov.au/highered).
10. Helen Smith, Michael Armstrong and Sally Brown. Benchmarking and threshold standards in higher education, 1999 p 65.
11. European Communities, 2008. THE IMPACT OF TEMPUS III. The impact of the Tempus Programme on higher education development in the Tempus Partner Countries.A Survey. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture
14. Call I (2008) – 3 projects: NMPLIS(www.flib.sci.am/eng/Tempus), PERSEUS (www.caredic.net), AIDA (http://www.tempus-aida.ru) Call II (2009) – 4 projects: CANDI(www.candi.uz), HEICA(www.heica.inf.tu-dresden.de), SWAN(www.swan-water.eu), UNIQTOOL(www.uniqtool.org/ru.html) Call III (2010) – 3 projects: PROMENG (www.promeng.eu), UnIvEnt(http://tempus-univent.eu), CIBELES (www.tempus-cibeles.eu) Call IV (2011) – 4 projects: QAPD(www.qapd.uz), EPASAT, TERSID, ISMU
Planning the management in educational institutions
Vice-Rector for academic affairs
Namangan State University
The word “managing” is used when spoken about the affect to managed object (or system) in order to reach real purpose and means one planned activity. Every activity contains the system of managing subject and being managed object and relations between these systems contain the attitudes of humans to each other. That means, every activity demands managing. Human manages himself in individual activity. There needs affect to others in order to organize corporative activity that means management.
Management means the adaptation and organizing the human activity by organizing, controlling, analyzing and marking the activity of participants of planned activity.
So managing, especially the main criteria of organizing activity is a pointing of human or foundation aims and in order to achieve duties and planning the activities beforehand and to choose the way of doing things and to choose a specialist who can fulfill duties and distribute doing duties, and considered the participants must conform the activities which pointed in order to reach real purpose.
Above mentioned managing activity, and its function of acting, its consistency of managing algorithm, methods of managing rules, making activities of staff members and conform managing styles, and mentioned direction expresses managing decision of adopted decision.
The head of educational institution and its managing activity is divided into two subjects, in other words we may understand the activity as the activity between the head and education system. In this position managing object of the head and ruling itself is considered reaching as the essential peculiarities of the educational system, on the basis of different effects, so being ruled educational foundation is also considered to affect the managing subject.
In the course of mentioned educational institution and its head and organizing managing activity, to reach positive results and making essential conditions in the team, to prepare excellent graduating students and developing entire education system, to express reaching the main purpose of the educational establishment, and its also considered dealing in collaboration with both pedagogic staff members and technique member in educational establishment. In the course conforms the activity of the educational institution, in other words to draw up plans for a consistently duties of managing.
Developing the activity of the educational institution, and to use full opportunities for preparing rivalry excellent graduating students, conforming activity of participants, making innovation activity the head of educational establishment indicates important duties, it has important peculiarities, and it is considered mentioned creative process and making occasion among the stuff members and deciding wise decision during solving problematic positions, similarly it means to control executing of organizing activity.
To draw up plans for organizing is first of all it is considered the aim of the organizing, meanings of activities, and duties. To reach general purposes is marked mentioned functions and forming duties, it means the algorithm of managing.
Managing algorithm is the organizing activity of the educational establishment, and it consists of following stages. (Picture 1)
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Picture1: Algorithm of management
This management algorithm is fulfilled by methods of gathering economical socio-psychological information, finding out the development of institution adapting the activity of the members of collective, controlling and analyses of the activity of members of collective choosing and planning the management appointing the purposes of management, gathering information and marking them objectively making decision and using it is one of the main process of development of institution and management of pedagogic staff .
 Alle hier genannten Zahlen beruhen auf Veröffentlichungen Germany Trade & Invest 2013.
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 A.R. Muhiddinov, T.T. Tojiev, Uzbekistan’s black gold, Tashkent: ‘Fan’ 1971, p 26
 UzR PDA, 58 – fund, 201- register, 741- folder, p 187; Uzbekistan SSR industrial development, Tashkent, “Uzbekistan” 1985, p 8
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 E. A, Akhmedov, E.N. Fattakhov, Country of limitless and boundless wealth, Tashkent, 1967, p 8
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 UzR PDA, 58 – fund, 276- register, 689- folder, p 18
 A. Eshmukhammedov, Earth’s natural resources serving people, Tashkent, Fan, 1973, p 6
 I. A. Karimov, Uzbekistan on the threshold of gaining independence, Tashkent – Uzbekistan, 2011, pp 172 –173
 Zairi, Mohamed. (1996). Benchmarking for best practice: continuous learning through sustainable innovation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann
 Codling, Sylvia. (1998). Benchmarking. Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower.
 Cook, Sarah. (2004) Measuring customer service effectiveness. Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Gower.
 Alstete, W. J. (1995). Benchmarking in Higher Education: Adapting Best practices To Improve Quality. Washington, DC: George Washington University.
 Lund, Helen. (1998). Benchmarking in UK higher education. In CHEMS (Commonwealth Higher Education Management Service) Benchmarking in Higher Education: An International Review (pp. 66-92). London: CHEMS.
Jackson, N., Lund, H., (2000) Benchmarking for Higher Education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. p.33
 Bender, B. E .,(2002). Benchmarking as an Administrative Tool for Institutional Leaders. In Schuh, J.H., Bender, B. E., Using benchmarking to inform practice in higher education (pp.113-120). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 Schuh, J.H., Bender, B. E. (2002) Using benchmarking to inform practice in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 McKinnon, K.R., Walker, S.H., Davis, D. (2000) Benchmarking: A manual for Australian Universities. DETYA (Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs) Commonwealth of Australia. No. 6441HERC00A. (Online version at www.detya.gov.au/highered).
 Helen Smith, Michael Armstrong and Sally Brown. Benchmarking and threshold standards in higher education, 1999 p 65.
 European Communities, 2008. THE IMPACT OF TEMPUS III. The impact of the Tempus Programme on higher education development in the Tempus Partner Countries.A Survey. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture
 Call I (2008) – 3 projects: NMPLIS(www.flib.sci.am/eng/Tempus), PERSEUS (www.caredic.net), AIDA (http://www.tempus-aida.ru)
Call II (2009) – 4 projects: CANDI(www.candi.uz), HEICA(www.heica.inf.tu-dresden.de), SWAN(www.swan-water.eu), UNIQTOOL(www.uniqtool.org/ru.html)
Call III (2010) – 3 projects: PROMENG(www.promeng.eu), UnIvEnt(http://tempus-univent.eu), CIBELES(www.tempus-cibeles.eu)
Call IV (2011) – 4 projects: QAPD(www.qapd.uz), EPASAT, TERSID, ISMU