Loading...

Corporate and Brand image among Telugu dailies in Indian Print Media

by Pradeep Kumar (Author) E. Nagaraju (Author)

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation 2013 256 Pages

Communications - Public Relations, Advertising, Marketing, Social Media

Excerpt

CONTENTS

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgement

List of Tables

List of Graphs

List of Figures

CHAPTER 1 PRINT MEDIA
1.1 Introduction To Print Media
1.2 History
1.3 Impact Of Various Factors on Print Media Industry
1.4 Online
1.5 Indian Media
1.6 Indian Print Media
1.7 List of Newspapers By Circulation
1.8 List of Newspapers In India
1.9 Indian Print Industry: An Overview
1.10 Indian Readership Survey 2012 Round2
1.11 Andhra Pradesh Print Media
1.12 History of Telugu Newspapers
1.13 Andhra Patrika
1.14 Andhra Prabha
1.15 Andhra Jyothi
1.16 Andhra Bhoomi
1.17 Eenadu
1.18 Udayam
1.19 Vaartha
1.20 Prajasakti
1.21 Surya
1.22 Sakshi
References:

CHAPTER 2 A. BRAND IMAGE
2.A.1 Introduction To Brands
2.A.2 Brand Management
2.A.3 Concepts
2.A.4 Brand Image Concept
2.A.5 Brand Image: Definitions
2.A.6 Concepts of Brand Image
2.A.7 Brand Identity Vs Brand Image
2.A.8 Theories of Brand Image
2.A.8 a. Roberts The Three Dimensions of Brand Image
2.A.9 The Importance of Building a Strong Brand image
2.A.10 Brand Creating Value
2.A.11 Keller’s CBBE- model
2.A.12 Aaker’s Brand Identity Planning Model
2.A.13 Why Do Enterprises Need To Develop A Brand Image
2.A.14 Obstacles To The Branding Principles
2.A.15 Conclusion
2. B. CORPORATE IMAGE
2.B.1 Corporate Image
2.B.2 Corporate Image : meaning and definition
2.B.3 The Importance of Corporate Image
2.B.4 Factors of Corporate Image
2.B.5 Elements of Corporate Image
2.B.6 Theory of Corporate Identity
2.B.7 Creation of Corporate Image to Drive Company Brand Equity
2.B.8 Measuring the corporate Image
References

CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology
3.1 Statement of The Problem 96
3.2 Need For The Study
3.3 Objectives
3.4 Hypotheses
3.5 Data Sources
3.6 Sampling Methodology
3.7 Statistical Tools Applied
3.8 Research Instrument

CHAPTER 4 Data Analysis
4.1 Weighted Average Analysis
4.2 Cross Tabulations

CHAPTER 5 Results and Discussion

CHAPTER 6 Suggestions

Bibliography

ANNEXURE

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

FOREWORD

Newspapers are one of the most powerful mediums of communication. It has a vast reach and coverage. People prefer newspapers over other sources of information, as it is affordable, has reference value and is easily available. But this is a competitive world, in this environment many changes take place. It was also clear that these changes were due to a market that was changing more and more rapidly due to the increasingly diverse ways in which the public accesses news and current affairs, in particular, via the internet. Hence, it can be said that it is a difficult time for the news papers.

Among the news papers the brand image plays a crucial role in the marketing of the news papers. A strong brand image is a powerful asset. A recognised and trusted brand identity makes people confident that the organisation is dependable. This is why successful businesses work hard at building their brands and present them in a clear and consistent way. It is generally acknowledged that consumers base their buying decisions not only on rational considerations, for instance, the price-quality ratio, but also to a great extent on their subjective estimations and associations. The value added to a product by its brand, which is usually referred to as “brand equity,” comprises both brand reputation and brand image. For years, marketing professionals and academics have been developing and using research techniques to investigate brand image and brand reputation of the products but a lacuna in news papers.

Hence, it can be said that the authors Mr. Nagaraju and Dr. Pradeep Kumar had done great job by performing research on brand image of the news papers and framing the work with the title of “Corporate and Brand image among Telugu dailies ” which is a very timely one. The authors have investigated various aspects which related with brand image and corporate of news papers such as coverage of news, improvement in comprehensiveness, price, readability, availability, reaching of time, paper quality, biasness, quality of printing and picture etc. I would like to congratulate the authors for bringing out this book in an appropriate time and I am sure that this book will be quite useful to the news paper industries for improving their brand image and circulation. The book is also handy for the journalists to improve the quality of news. Finally it is much helpful for the researchers in Management and the students of Journalism. I wish the authors all the best.

PREFACE

Every organization has a CORPORATE IMAGE, whether it wants one or not. When properly designed and managed, the corporate image will accurately reflect the level of the organization's commitment to quality, excellence and relationships with its various constituents - including current and potential customers, employees and future staff, competitors, partners, governing bodies, and the general public at large.

Recent research in business strategy suggests that corporate reputations are a valuable strategic asset for every company. Good reputations have been shown to help firms attain and sustain superior financial performance in their industry. Corporate image management focuses on the very heart and soul of the organisation, even to the extent of evaluating why the organisation exists and determining the organisation's key purposes. It represents one of the highest levels of functional control of the organisation.

Thousands of companies now recognize that brand names are their most valuable assets that company possesses in the brand that it has created in the competitive business environment, but too often branding is merely a tactical decision, almost an afterthought. In this thought-provoking work, many authors provided the most comprehensive models for BRAND IMAGE management to date.

Curiously, corporate and brand image has become the number one topic for companies. In fact, as we discuss further, one can clearly observe that brand image grows out of corporate image, and corporate image is the lifeblood of the brand image.

India is the second largest newspaper market in the world, after China. While globally the print industry is on a decline, the Indian print media is showing steady growth, driven by an increase in advertising spend, a rise in literacy rates and the growth of regional-language and specialty newspapers.

Extensive efforts are made to collect information on the issues of Corporate and Brand Image in the Telugu dailies to throw light on the tumultuous scenario the Telugu dailies are facing in building their corporate and brand image. Information is collected from primary sources through interacting with customers and executives and from secondary sources by gathering published information from various websites, magazines and journals. It is sincerely hoped that the book will be useful to the business people, students and faculty of MBA and Journalism, Research scholars and to the society at large.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.

We would like to express our greatest appreciation and gratitude to Sri. N. Vijaya Bhaskar Chowdary, Secretary and Correspondent, Madanapalli Institute of Technology and Science, A.P. and Prof. S. Raghunatha Reddy, Dean, Dept of Commerce and management, Yogi Vemana University, A.P. for their tremendous support and help without whose encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized.

We take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regards to the readers of Telugu news papers who exemplarily supported throughout the course of this book. The blessings, help and guidance given by them from time to time shall carry us a long way in the journey of life on which we are about to embark.

We thank, our family members for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleagues in developing the book and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

LIST OF TABLES

List of News Papers by Circulation

List of Regular News Papers

Niche Newspapers

Online only Newspapers

Growth of The Print Media Industry in 2006-2010

Top 10 dailies of INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY 2012

Top 10 English Dailies

Top 10 Magazines

Top 2 Telugu dailies, Indian Readership Survey 2008

Circulation and Readership of Sakshi

Brand Identity vs Brand Image

Elements of Roberts ‘Mystery Concept

Elements of Roberts‘ Sensuality Concept

Elements of Roberts‘ Intimacy Concept

Projected Growth of The Indian Print Media Industry in 2010-15

Age of the Customers

Marital status of the Customers

Qualification of the Customers

Profession of the Customers

Occupation of the Customers

Income of the Customers

Region of the Customers

Customers’ Loyalty towards the dailies

Customer’s Past reading dailies

Customers Primary Daily

Ranking of The Attribute “Looks Good”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

Ranking of The Attribute “Easy To Read”,

Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Price”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Information”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Availability”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Best Quality”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Just A Need”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The Attribute “Advertising”, Which Enticed The Customers To Try The Papers

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Political News)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Sports)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Films)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Children Fun Games)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Entertainement)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Health)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Education)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Advertisements)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Stock News)

The Ranking of The News Priority of The Daily (Picture & Printing)

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Wording

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Biasness

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Paper Quality

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Reaching Time

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Availability

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Price

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Readability

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Latestness of Information

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Coverage

The Ranking of The Aspects Which Can Be Improved In Comprehensiveness

The Satisfaction With Coverage of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Printing & Picture of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Information of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Quality of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Price of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Readability of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Availability of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Reaching Time of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Political Bias of The Daily Customers’ Recommendation of the Daily To Others

The Additional Features to be included in The Dailies

Weighted Average Analysis

Weighted Average Method – 1 The Corporate Image For Eenadu

Weighted Average Method – 2 The Corporate Image For Sakshi

Weighted Average Method – 3 The Corporate Image For Andhra Jyothi

Weighted Average Method – 4 The Brands Which Customers Familiarity Of The Daily

Weighted Average Method – 5 The Ranks For The Attributes Which Enticed The Customer To Try The Eenadu Paper

Weighted Average Method – 6 The Ranks For The Attributes Which Enticed The Customer To Try The Sakshi Paper

Weighted Average Method – 7 The Ranks For The Attributes Which Enticed The Customer to Try The Andhra Jyothi Paper

Weighted Average Method – 8 The Ranks For The Brands of The News Priority of The Eenadu Daily

Weighted Average Method – 9 The Ranks For The Brands of The News Priority of The Sakshi Daily

Weighted Average Method – 10 The Ranks For The Brands of The News Priority of The Andhra Jyothi Daily

Weighted Average Method – 11 The Brand Image Towards Eenadu

Weighted Average Method – 12 The Brand Image Towards Sakshi

Weighted Average Method – 13 The Brand Image Towards Andhra Jyothi

Weighted Average Method – 14 The Availability of The Daily

Weighted Average Method – 15 The Ranks For The Aspects Which Can Be Improved

Weighted Average Method – 16 The Satisfaction of The Customers With Features of The Eenadu Daily

Weighted Average Method – 17 The Satisfaction Of The Customers With Features of The Sakshi Daily

Weighted Average Method – 18 The Satisfaction Of The Customers With Features Of The Andhra Jyothi Daily

Weighted Average Method – 19 The Recommendation of The Daily

Additional feature to be included in the daily

Cross Tabulations/ HYPOTHESES TESTING

1. Age And Typical User

2. Qualification And Typical User

3. Income And Typical User

4. Typical User And Recommending The Brand To Others

5. Typical User And Corporate Image

LIST OF GRAPHS

Most Prominent Source of News

The Readers of Dailies

The Choice of Readership

The Customers’ Awareness of Different Forms of Businesses of Eenadu

The Customers’ Awareness of Different Forms of Businesses of Sakshi

The Customers’ Opinion About Corporate Vision And Direction

The Customers’ Opinion About The Overall Corporate Operations To Day Compared With A Year Ago

The Customers’ Opinion About Financial Strength of The Company

The Customers’ Opinion About Corporate Skill In The Marketing

The Customers’ Opinion About Ability To Develop Strong Consumer Promotions

The Customers’ Opinion About Regular Introductions of New Inventions

The Customers’ Opinion About The Corporate Focus on Improving Customer Satisfaction

The Customers’ Opinion About The Corporate Leadership Commitment

The Customers’ Opinion About Commitment To The Public

The Customers’ Opinion About Corporate Social Responsibility

The Customers’ Opinion About Practicing Business Ethics

The Customers’ Opinion About A Good Employer

The Customers’ Opinion About Reliability of The Company

The Customers’ Familiarity With Top Dailies

The Customers Do Wait For The News Paper

The Customers’ Trust Towards The News of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards The Coverage of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Updates of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Paper Quality of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Future of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion on Whether Wording of The Paper Reflects Truth

The Customers’ Opinion Towards The Readability of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Price of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Reaching Time of The Daily

The Customers’ Opinion Towards Availability of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Coverage of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Printing & Picture of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Information of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Quality of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Price of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Readability of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Availability of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Reaching Time of The Daily

The Satisfaction With Political Bias of The Daily

LIST OF FIGURES

Publishing Industry Size

Rainbow Colour Lab of Ramoji Film City awarded Kodak's International certificate.

Rainbow Colour Lab, Ramoji Film City's state-of-the-art film processing lab has been awarded the International Certificate for Colour Film

Brand

Forming a Brand

Customer-Based Brand Equity Pyramid,

Aaker’s Brand Identity Planning Model

Modified Brand Image Development Process

Corporate Image Index

CHAPTER: 1 PRINT MEDIA

1.1 INTRODUCTION(1):

Since the late 1800s newspapers have played an important role in society. They have been an important and in fact vital means of mass population. The newspapers formed a major shift from the town criers to the print media.

The world over experienced a revolution in the gaining information. Ever since the first newspaper was published till date, this means of mass communication has expanded beyond imagination.

Newspapers are one of the most powerful mediums of communication. It has a vast reach and coverage. People prefer newspapers over other sources of information, as it is affordable, has reference value and is easily available. Since a newspaper has such a vast reach, it is also an effective medium for advertising

A newspaper (2) is a publication containing news, information, and advertising. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns that express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, and coupons.

Features a newspaper may include are:

- Editorial opinions and op-eds
- Obituaries
- Comic strips and other entertainment, such as crosswords, Sudoku and horoscopes
- Weather news and forecasts
- Advice, gossip, food and other columns
- Critical reviews of movies, plays, restaurants, etc.
- Classified ads

1.2 HISTORY (3)

Ancient era:

In Ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcement bulletins, were made public by Julius Caesar. They were carved on stone or metal and posted in public places.

In China, early government-produced news sheets, called tipao, circulated among court officials during the late Han dynasty (second and third centuries AD). Between 713 and 734, the Kaiyuan Za Bao ("Bulletin of the Court") of the Chinese Tang Dynasty published government news; it was handwritten on silk and read by government officials. In 1582 there was the first reference to privately published newssheets in Beijing, during the late Ming Dynasty;

In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte, which cost one gazetta. These avvisi were handwritten newsletters used to convey political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently throughout Europe, and more specifically Italy, during the early modern era (1500-1700CE) — sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered as fully being ones.

Modern era

Newspapers printed with movable type date to the beginning of the 17th century.

Contribution of Asia

By 1638 the Peking Gazette had switched from woodblock print to movable type.

Contribution of Europe

Johann Carolus' Relation aller Furnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in 1605 in Strasbourg, is often recognized as the first newspaper. Strasbourg was a free imperial city in the Holy Roman Empire; the first newspaper of modern Germany was the Avisa, published in 1609 in Augsburg.

The Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. of 1618 was the first to appear in folio- rather than quarto-size. Amsterdam, a center of world trade, quickly became home to newspapers in many languages, often before they were published in their own country.

The first English-language newspaper, Corrant out of Italy, Germany, etc., was published in Amsterdam in 1620. A year and a half later, Corante, or weekly news from Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, France and the Low Countreys. was published in England by an "N.B." (generally thought to be either Nathaniel Butter or Nicholas Bourne) and Thomas Archer

The first newspaper in France was published in 1631, La Gazette (originally published as Gazette de France).

Post- och Inrikes Tidningar (founded as Ordinari Post Tijdender) was first published in Sweden in 1645, and is the oldest newspaper still in existence, though it now publishes solely online.

Opregte Haarlemsche Courant from Haarlem, first published in 1656, is the oldest paper still printed. It was forced to merge with the newspaper Haarlems Dagblad in 1942 when Germany occupied the Netherlands. Since then the Haarlems Dagblad appears with the subtitle Oprechte Haerlemse Courant 1656 and considers itself to be the oldest newspaper still publishing. The first successful English daily, The Daily Courant, was published from 1702 to 1735.

Contribution of North America

Untitled watercolor of a man reading a newspaper, about 1863, by Henry Louis Stephens. The paper's headline reports the Emancipation Proclamation.

In Boston in 1690, Benjamin Harris published Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic. This is considered the first newspaper in the American colonies even though only one edition was published before the paper was suppressed by the government. In 1704, the governor allowed The Boston News-Letter to be published and it became the first continuously published newspaper in the colonies. Soon after, weekly papers began publishing in New York and Philadelphia. These early newspapers followed the British format and were usually four pages long. They mostly carried news from Britain and content depended on the editor’s interests. In 1783, the Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first American daily.

In 1751, John Bushell published the Halifax Gazette, the first Canadian newspaper.

1.3 IMPACT OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON PRINT MEDIA INDUSTRY

Impact of Industrial Revolution on print media industry

By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspaper-type publications though not all of them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by regional and cultural preferences. Advances in printing technology related to the Industrial Revolution enabled newspapers to become an even more widely circulated means of communication. In 1814, The Times (London) acquired a printing press capable of making 1,100 impressions per minute.

Soon, it was adapted to print on both sides of a page at once. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus available to a larger part of the population. In 1830, the first penny press newspaper came to the market: Lynde M. Walter's Boston Transcript. Penny press papers cost about one sixth the price of other newspapers and appealed to a wider audience.

Impact of Television and Internet

By the late 1990s the availability of news via 24-hour television channels and then the Internet posed an ongoing challenge to the business model of most newspapers in developed countries. Paid circulation has declined, while advertising revenue — which makes up the bulk of most newspapers’ income — has been shifting from print to the new media, resulting in a general decline in profits. Many newspapers around the world launched online editions in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their audience.

However, in the rest of the world, cheaper printing and distribution, increased literacy, the growing middle class and other factors have more than compensated for the emergence of electronic media and newspapers continue to grow.

1.4 ONLINE

With the introduction of the Internet, web-based “newspapers” have also started to be produced as online-only publications, like the Southport Reporter. To be a Web-Only newspaper they must be web-published only and must not be part of or have any connection to hard-copy formats. To be classed as an Online Only Newspaper, the paper must also be regularly updated at a regular time and keep to a fixed news format, like a hardcopy newspaper. They must also be only published by professional media companies and regarded under the national/international press rules and regulations unlike blog sites and other news websites, it is run as a newspaper and is recognized by media groups in the UK, like the NUJ and/or the IFJ. Also they fall under the UK’s PCC rules.

1.5 INDIAN MEDIA (4)

Indian media initiated since the late 1700s with print media started in 1780, radio broadcasting initiated in 1927, and the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures in Bombay initiated during the July of 1895 —is among the oldest and largest media of the world. Indian media—private media in particular—has been free and independent throughout most of its history. The period of emergency (1975–1977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media was faced with potential government retribution.

The country consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007—making it the second largest market in the world for news papers. By 2008, India had a total of 60,000,000 Internet users—comprising 6.0% of the country's population, and 4,010,000 people in India also had access to broadband Internet as of 2008— making it the 18th largest country in the world in terms of broadband Internet users. India also ranks 8th in the list of countries by number of television broadcast stations by 1997 statistics.

1.6 INDIAN PRINT MEDIA:

Contribution of India (5) is one of the largest print media in the world. The history of it started in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from Calcutta.

History

James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year (this newspaper was later amalgamated with the Times of India in 1861).

The first newspaper in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. In the same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar was published from Bombay, which is still extant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan began in 1854. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which papers have grown over the years are Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Bengali.

The Times of India was founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce by Bennett, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate.The Times Group publishes The Economic Times (launched in 1961), Navbharat Times (Hindi language), and the Maharashtra Times (Marathi language).

During the 1950s 214 daily newspapers were published in the country. Out of these, 44 were English language dailies while the rest were published in various regional languages. This number rose to 2,856 dailies in 1990 with 209 English dailies. The total number of newspapers published in the country reached 35,595 newspapers by 1993 (3,805 dailies).

The main regional newspapers of India include the Malayalam language Malayala Manorama (published from: Kerala, daily circulation: 673,000), the Hindi-language Dainik Jagran (published from: Uttar Pradesh, daily circulation in 2006: 580,000), and the Anandabazar Patrika (published from: Kolkata, daily circulation in 2006: 435,000). The Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, and the Anandabazar Patrika Group are the main print media houses of the country.

Newspaper sale in the country increased by 11.22% in 2007. By 2007, 62 of the world's best selling newspaper dailies were published in China, Japan, and India. India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007—making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers.

The Indian language papers have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspapers. The main reasons being the marketing strategy followed by the regional papers, beginning with Eenadu, a telegu daily started by Ramoji Rao. The second reason being the growing literacy rate. Increase in the literacy rate has direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers.

The people are first educated in their mother tongue as per their state in which they live for e.g. students in Maharashtra are compulsory taught Marathi language and hence they are educated in their state language and the first thing a literate person does is read papers and gain knowledge and hence higher the literacy rate in a state the sales of the dominating regional paper in that state rises.

The next reason being localisation of news. Indian regional papers have several editions for a particular State for complete localisation of news for the reader to connect with the paper. Malayala Manorama has about 10 editions in Kerala itself and six others outside Kerala. Thus regional papers aim at providing localised news for their readers. Even Advertisers saw the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more due to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market.

Current Scenario

The Indian Newspaper industry is one of the largest in the world. It publishes the largest number of paid-for titles in the world. In 1997, the total number of newspapers and periodicals published was 41705, which include 4720 dailies and 14743 weeklies. The highest number of newspapers were published in Hindi, 16864

Metrics to measure the paper (6)

Newspapers in India are measured on two parameters, circulation and readership.

1. Circulation

The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days (typically Sunday), is called the newspaper’s circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost. Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read (especially for those distributed free). Circulation is certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations which is an industry body. It audits the paid-for circulation of the member newspaper companies.

2. Readership

Readership is estimated by two different surveys, The Indian Readership Survey (IRS) and the National Readership Survey (NRS).

1.7 LIST OF NEWSPAPERS BY CIRCULATION

This is a list of the top 10 newspapers in India by daily circulation. Figures in Millions These figures are mainly compiled by the Audit Bureau of Circulations. Some newspapers whose circulation figures are under dispute do not appear on this list.

The Anandabazar Patrika—founded in 1922 by Prafulla Chandra Sarkar—has the largest circulation for a single-edition regional language newspaper in India.

Table: 1 List of News Papers by Circulation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.8 LIST OF NEWSPAPERS IN INDIA

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table: 3 Niche newspapers

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.9 INDIAN PRINT INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW (7)

India is the second largest newspaper market in the world, after China. While globally the print industry is on a decline, the Indian print media is showing steady growth.

- Indian print media is projected to grow by 9.6% over the period of 2010-15, reaching INR 282 Bn. in 2015 from present INR 178.7 Bn. in 2010

- The magazine industry is projected to grow at 5% approx. over the next five years

Table: 5 Growth of the Print Media Industry in 2006-2010

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: PWC | Industry Estimates

Publishing

Indian publishing industry revenue for 2010 was estimated at US$4.7 billion and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 11% to reach US$7.1 billion by 2014.(8) A low readership penetration of 30%(9) compared with a literacy rate of 74% underscores the potential for further growth for publishing in India.

Figure: 1 Publishing Industry Size

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Newspapers

While in a number of international markets the newspaper industry is facing declining readership because of digital media, the print industry in India continues to grow, driven by an increase in advertising spend, a rise in literacy rates and the growth of regional-language and specialty newspapers. The Indian newspaper industry is one of the largest in the world, with more than 74,000 newspapers in 22 languages and a readership of 325 million.(10) Newspapers are very popular with advertisers in India, accounting for 42% of all advertising spend, the most for any medium.(11)

- Diversification beyond print: Growth aspirations fueled by capital availability have led publishers to enter into other media and forge partnerships with TV channels. Newspaper companies are entering into other businesses such as internet, TV, education, events and experiential marketing, radio and out-of-home advertising.

- Growing Hindi and regional print markets: The Indian print industry has witnessed a continued shift toward regional and Hindi markets due to rising literacy rates and increasing disposable incomes in non-metros, as well as advertiser interest in targeting these segments. Between 1999 and 2009, the share of English-language newspapers in print advertising declined from 39% to 32%.(12) The Hindi and regional markets are expected to grow faster than the English-language market, with the combined share of the Hindi and regional markets estimated to be 44% by 2015.(13) Print players are also launching hyper-local editions dedicated to particular areas, communities or sections of society to increase their reach in regional markets.(14)

- Low cover prices: Indian newspapers have extremely low cover prices, with leading dailies being sold at less than US$0.10, and typically packaged with a second free newspaper. Subscription revenues remain negligible for most newspapers, with distribution costs recovered through advertising sales.

- India is becoming a popular destination for media services outsourcing: Globally, media companies are outsourcing print media services such as layout design, classified and display design, graphics and data compilation to India, seeking to take advantage of low costs and a qualified English-speaking talent pool.(15)

- Newsprint and distribution costs: The print industry’s key areas of concern remain the costs of newsprint and distribution. Newsprint, which forms the largest element of cost, fluctuates significantly based on several uncontrollable factors. Distribution cost is linked to petroleum prices and labor costs, both of which have seen significant increases over the last few years.

- Streamlined operations have improved profitability: Newspapers have streamlined their operations by outsourcing non-core functions (including printing), reducing editorial and marketing costs and increasing automation. (16) These initiatives and a rise in advertising volumes are leading to increased EBITDA margins for English and Hindi newspapers, projected to rise from around 16% in 2010 to more than 20% by 2013.(17)

Magazines

Magazines comprise around 19% of the total publishing industry in India. They are viewed as a luxury product, and rely heavily on newsstand sales rather than subscription sales.

- Growth of specialty magazines: India’s economic growth has created a demand for content, covering niche segments such as travel, health care, finance and lifestyle.(18) Niche magazines are underpenetrated in India, with about 3 to 4 magazine titles for each niche category versus 7 to 10 titles globally.(19) This has led to 278 niche magazine launches in India between 2005 and 2010.(20) A number of niche magazines have increased their cover prices from about US$0.50 a few years ago to US$2 today.

- Increase in foreign investments: Foreign magazine publishers are actively entering the growing Indian magazine market, spurred by the relaxed entry norms for international print companies that the Government implemented in 2008. Foreign players can form a partnership with an Indian publisher to print the Indian edition of a magazine with up to 100% foreign content. This is likely to provide Indian readers with foreign magazines at affordable rates.(21) between 2008 and 2009, 189 Indian editions of foreign specialty, technical and scientific magazines received Government approval.(22)

- Need for effective distribution: The absence of a cost-effective and secure distribution network results in few readers opting for subscriptions, and hence, more than 80% of sales are through newsstands. This results in uncertain revenues for publishers. The lack of adequate sales outlets is also hampering the spread of distribution.

1.10 INDIAN READERSHIP SURVEY 2012 ROUND2 (23)

Table: 6 Top 10 dailies

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(AIR numbers; All figures in ‘000)

Top 10 English dailies,

Following are the top English news papers in India, according to the Indian readership survey IRS 2012 round 2 recently released by the media research user’s council MRUC.

NOTE: these are all in figures (lakhs) not in circulation no’s

Table: 7 Top 10 English Dailies

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(AIR numbers; All figures in ‘000)

Top 10 Magazines overall,

Following are the top 10 magazines overall in India, according to the Indian readership survey IRS 2012 round 2 recently released by the media research user’s council MRUC.

Table: 8 Top 10 Magazines

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

NOTE: these are all in figures (000s) not in circulation no’s

1.11 ANDHRA PRADESH PRINT MEDIA (24)

Andhra Pradesh has about three print media groups that publish several newspapers and magazines in English, Telugu and Urdu. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu, Sakshi, Vaartha [Which is simultaneously published in Telugu and Hindi.],Andhra Jyothi, Surya,Sakshi,prajasakti,Andhra Bhoomi and Andhra Prabha. The major English dailies are The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times.The major Urdu dailies are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, The Etemaad Urdu Daily, The Rahnuma-i Deccan and The Daily Milap. Besides these major newspapers, there a number of localised neighbourhood newspapers that cater to several localities. Magazines published from Hyderabad include Swati, Navya, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Jyoti, Vipula,Chatura, Vanita and Chandamama. Movie magazines include Sitara, Siva Ranjani , santosham and Jyoti Chitra..

Top 2 Telugu dailies, Indian Readership Survey 2008 Round2 (25)

Following are the top telugu news papers in India, according to the Indian readership survey IRS 2012 round 2 released recently by the media research users council MRUC.

Table: 9 Top 2 Telugu dailies, Indian Readership Survey 2008

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

NOTE: these are all in figures (000’s) not in circulation nos.

1.12 HISTORY OF TELUGU NEWSPAPERS:
The History
of newspapers and journals in Telugu, as in other languages, is a saga of sacrifice and devotion to nationalist ideals. Profit or other commercial aspects never were dominant considerations. Even the rare example of a financially successful venture like the Andhra Patrika can be said to have done so more due to the affection of the Andhra people to the newspaper than any other consideration.

1.13 ANDHRA PATRIKA (26):

There were some journals earlier but Andhra Patrika, started as a periodical (Publishes every wednes day at 2 Rs cost , Postal charges of 13 annas) in Bombay in 1908 soon became popular because the founder, P. K. Nageswara Rao Pantulu, himself an eminent scholar, sent copies free to libraries and reading rooms all over Andhra. The contents of the periodical reflect the history of Telugu during the 20th century. The Patrika was shifted to Madras in 1914 and became a daily(7000 loyal subscribers) . On Nageswara Rao's death in 1938, his son-in-law, Sambu Prasad, took over. In 1965 it was again shifted to Vijayawada. The paper was dominant in spreading Gandhiji's ideals in the nooks and corners of Andhra. The memory of Andhra Patrika remains a matter of pride to Telugus.

Apart from nationalist ideals, one other subject that occupied the attention of the founders of Telugu newspapers was the style of the language. There were simple styles as in Vemana's verses or the Sumathi Satakam. Even Pothana's Bhaghavatham can be said to be in a simple style of Telugu, compared to poets like Nannaya, or Srinatha. But grammarians, especially during the 19th century, locked up the language in an ununderstandable literary straight jacket that caused a large-scale revolt in the early 20th century. The most notable of the scholars who led this movement were Gurjada Apparao and Gidugu Ramamurthi. Their main rival was the Parishat Patrika, in which such eminent scholars as Jayanti Ramayya Pantulu, Veeresalingam, Vedam Venkatraya Sastri and others stoutly opposed what they felt was debasing the language in the name of simplification. Their fears to some extent have been justified by the success of the votaries of ``as we speak we write''. Some sort of poetic justice can be seen in the writings of these people which, submerged in an ocean of colloquialism, make little sense to Telugu readers themselves and can be understood only if translated into better Telugu or even into English. There have been many other newspapers and periodicals that came to prominence in the first half of the 20th century. Some of these are - Krishna Patrika, Golconda Patrika, , Andhra Sahitya Parishat Patrika, and Bharathi (monthly). Nearly a hundred names are to be found in the list of the newspapers and periodicals of the 20th century.

Fall of the paper:

It was the Market leader till 1960, 2 place up to 1976,(Andhra Prabha replaced first), lost 2 place with Eenadu in the same year, and in 1978 it lost it s 3rd place to Andhra jyothi.

And finally it had been Closed in 1991.

In fact some of the newspapers of those days had to be closed for want of funds.

1.14 ANDHRA PRABHA (27)

Andhra Prabha Daily blossomed on 15th of August, 1938, by Ramnath Goenka which means the glory of the andhras. It's a strange coincidence that exactly after 9 years the tricolour flag of Indian Independence unfurled in the unblemished skies of free India. Andhra Prabha has been synomous for unbiased news, impartial criticisms and extensive analysis. Andhra Prabha emerged as an ideal example for fearlessness by publishing sensational but factual news. While keeping up its glorious and perennial traditional values, Andhra Prabha has been attaining the most modern trends to blend and amalgamate our ancient culture with the contemporary patterns of the world humanity.

Famous Freedom Fighter, Sri Khasa Subba Rao was the first Editor of the radiant matchless and exquisite Andhra Prabha. This itself denotes the National devotion and dedication of the dazzling Andhra Prabha. Andhra Prabha has always been standing for and in favour of its esteemed and endless readers. In fact, the very name Andhra Prabha was indicated, suggested and proposed by a reader hailing from BELLARY. The then management of Andhra Prabha had awarded him with an auspicious sum of Rs. 116/- in token of their gratitude for suggesting an ever beaming name. Thus, Andhra Prabha has always been placing the people's opinion on the high pedestal by inviting invaluable suggestions from the learned readers. Stalwarts and doyans of Telugu Journalism such as Sri Narla Venkateswararao, Sri Sri, Sri Mallavarapu Visweswararao, Sri Nyayapathi Narayana Murthy, Sri Neelamraju Venkata Seshayya, Sri Vidwan Viswam, Sri Panditaradhyula Nageswararao, Sri Kuchimanchi Satya Subrahmanyam, Sri G. Krishna, Sri Potturi Venkateswararao, had adorned the annals of torch bearing Andhra Prabha and enriched its fame and name. Andhra Prabha has ever been on the forefront to extend moral, social and financial support to the victims of natural calamities like floods, famines etc., by voluntarily raising bulk and hafty

Contributions :

Andhra Prabha, which was lit with the nectar hands of Steel Man of Journalism, Sri Ramnath Goenka, has been successfully steered now by Sri Mootha Gopalakrishna. Indeed, he has injected adrenalin in to the veins of Andhra Prabha and made it Invigourating and youthful. Actually, he has selflessly rededicated Andhra Prabha to the millions of Telugu People

1.15 ANDHRA JYOTHI (28)

Andhra jyothi started in the year of 1960 from Vijayawada, which means the light of andhra. It has a circulation of over 5,00,000 across Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states.It has a distinct and unique place of its own in Telugu journalism. It stands aloft on the pedestal of high values and rich professional standards. Andhra Jyothy was bankrupt once and was shut down in 1999.

Vemuri Radhakrishna, who was a journalist in the then team, ventured to buy the bankrupt newspaper and finally could run it into success. Andhra Jyothi editor is K. Srinivas and its Managing Director is Vemuri Radhakrishna

A Historical Necessity

A newspaper wakes you up. A vibrant newspaper shakes your conscience. The need of the hour is beyond this simplification. Hence, the re-launching of, in a way the rebirth of, Andhra Jyothi.

Only those who race with the changing times, who use cutting-edge technologies to deliver the goods, and who peep into the distant futures with proper perspectives are the ones who could really strum out the arrows with precision. They are the people who have the ability to hit the bull's-eye.

Andhra Jyothi has such greatly committed, well-groomed, exceedingly professional soldiers. They have the guts, and we are proud that they are our commanders who have taken the decisive positions. As you may have noticed the loaded guns of our lieutenants have already triggered off the alphabets that zoomed past like the unfailing bullets. And we assure they will continue to do so.

As has ever been, it will be a battle fought every day on behalf of the people. The essence of any newspaper is to wage that battle rightly. And in a rightful and judicious manner too. If unchecked, half-truths, naked lies and true-lies will sweep the society away into wilderness. If the news smells bias, it only signals the death knell. When a newspaper is suspected of becoming a pamphlet for one group or the other, the scenario becomes gloomy with the readers losing trust. It spells doom.

Taking out the arrows, Andhra Jyothi has made its presence against this background on Dasara 2002. On the auspices Aayudha Puja day, it has taken the oath that it would commit itself to every 'letter' that it prints, in true letter and spirit. The true journalistic adage "without fear or favour" is put to test in no uncertain words only to be proved right.

As has already been proved, it is a newspaper with renewed energy and vigour. It is a warrior taking on the invisible enemy. It wields sword. In the same breath it plays with fire. Destined by the changing times and the history, Andhra Jyothi is here to create history.

Dynamic leadership

A proven entrepreneur with wisdom. His personality is embedded with adventure, a trait he borrows from his vast experience as a senior journalist. As the Managing Director, the dynamic leadership of this young industrialist is doubtlessly a shot in the arm of the vibrant Andhra Jyothi that is filled with the young blooded journalists. While establishing himself as the force to reckon with, in leading a hydropower project, he powered Andhra Jyothi, only to help it glow brighter. A man of untiring efforts, and a man with abundance of life-experience, he reaps rich harvest. Uprightness is his quality. Understanding-nature is his special quality. Put together is the secret behind his continued successes.

ANDHRA JYOTHI a new beginning

It was just a four-edition strong newspaper before the re-launch. We promised to grow into a sixteen-edition strong when we re-launched the paper with nine editions. We are glad that we could accomplish the task in less than three years and what's more? We are now eighteen-edition strong. Thanks to the continued strong support extended by the people of Andhra Pradesh. Ours is one of the strongest computer networks connecting every nook and corner. We disseminate instant information.

As of now, the daily has 20 editions, 18 of which are published from Andhra Pradesh and one each from Bangalore and Chennai. The latest IRS 2006 (R1) figures show Andhra Jyothi to have registered the highest growth in number of readers in the language in Andhra Pradesh. From a base of 21.56 lakh readers in 2005 R2, the daily has added 2.38 lakh readers in the current study.

1.16 ANDHRA BHOOMI (29)

Andhra Bhoomi is started in the year of 1960 with the publishers of Deccan chronicle (1938), which means land of andhra. It Covers whole of Andhra Pradesh with editions from Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Nellore etc. It also comes with Monthly Magazine named Andhra Bhoomi Sachitra Vaara Patrika. With a circulation of 3,65,794 Covers whole of Andhra Pradesh and some parts of South India with Bangalore(manily). Andhra Bhoomi is a paper from Deccan Chronicle(DC) ,a leading English Daily of Andhra Pradesh.It is the telugu version of English daily Deccan Chronicle.Both newspapers are owned by T Venkatarami Reddy who is the cousin of Congress MP T Subbirami Reddy.

It is generally biased towards congress and slightly against non congress parties like TDP and PRP.In Andhra usually all newspapers are biased.While Deccan Chronicle,Asian Age,Sakshi,Andhra Bhoomi,Vaarta and Andhra Prabha favor Congress other newspapers like Eenadu,Andhra Jyothy etc favor non congress parties.

1.17 EENADU (30)

Eenadu , headquartered in Hyderabad, India, is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. According to NRS (National Readership Studies) 2005 it has got a readership of 1,13,49,000 and is the second most read daily in India, third most circulated regional language daily and 10th most circulated daily in India. Eenadu (meaning "Today" in Telugu) was founded by the Indian media baron Cherikuri Ramoji Rao in 1974. It has played a role in both crowning or dethroning governments in Andhra Pradesh. It has also successfully adapted the latest publishing and communication technologies into the Telugu language.

HISTORY:

Early days

As with any other publication, Eenadu too had its share of struggles. When launched in Vishakhapatnam, it wasn't able to sell more than 3,000 copies a week. Eenadu found itself struggling to become a daily publication ranked amongst other popular rival publications.

By 1975, Eenadu managed to achieve its target of becoming a daily publication. However, it was popular in regions and rivalry was still an issue. In a period where the company needed vision to drive and expand it any further. Eenadu hired a new set of directors to be part of its key decision and management group which drove it towards what it is today.

Present

Though Eenadu has brought in lot of changes in telugu media and its functioning, it is accused of being anti-congress and credited to have piloted TDP to attain power in Andhra Pradesh in 1984. Eenadu is often seen as a mouthpiece for the Telugu Desam party even though the newspaper critically panned the party on certain issues in the past.

Circulation:

The heart and soul of Andhra Pradesh, it enjoys a circulation of 11, 76,028 copies (July - Dec 2007) per day and is published simultaneously from 23 printing centers. Making it one of the largest circulated newspaper in the country

A new era is started with eenadu

Before Eenadu and after Eenadu. Two phases in language news publishing. Eenadu was born out of an inherent need of Telugus for a newspaper in their own language - best reflecting their nuances, their concerns, their views. Today the newspaper of the telegus is Eenadu.

For Eenadu, by Eenadu

Over 90% of the circulation is catered to by Eenadu's own modes of transport * Eenadu is available in 8,500 shops * 90% of Eenadu readers have an Eenadu printing facility within 100 kms of their reach.

And the winner is

Eenadu topped all newspapers in the country, in readership in 1997 itself. As per NRS 1997, Eenadu was read by 44.11 lakh urban readers every day. No other newspaper either in English or in any Indian language had so much of readership.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

A helping hand to the cyclone-hit

When floods devastated Diviseema, A.P., in 1977, and when the cyclone put an end to many a life in A.P. in 1996, or for that matter when Orissa was devastated by a super cyclone in 1999, and when the Gujarat earthquake brought to halt the human pulse, Eenadu contributed its mite.

Good Quality

When it comes to quality, Eenadu has very high standards of commitment and responsibility. This is best illustrated through its Quality Cell. A division whose responsibility is to monitor quality on a daily and ongoing basis.

About Ramoji groups:

Apart from the paper, it has the following group of companies.

• RFC

The 1666-acre Ramoji Film City, established by the Ramoji Group amid the alluring grandeur of Nature, is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex and one of Asia’s most popular tourism and recreation centers. For the discerning filmmaker, RFC offers comprehensive and international-standard pre-production, production and post-production resources.

• Satellite Television (ETV)

ETV Network - A 12-channel source of rich infotainment, speaking to audiences in the language of their choice.: Telugu, Bangla, Marathi, Kannada, Oriya, Gujarati, Urdu; and Hindi.

- TV Software Development

Ushakiron Television - Carries out TV content development for the entire ETV Network and produces wholesome programming for the whole family. Employing over 1000 highly talented and accomplished professionals, Ushakiron Television has its dedicated divisions all over India.

- Film Production (Ushakiron Movies)

Ushakiron Movies - Feted for producing meaningful and absorbing films that appeal to audiences across the social spectrum. The 20-year-old company has produced nearly 80 films in Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi and Bangla.

- Financial Services (Margadarsi)

Margadarsi Chit Fund - The 38-year-old flagship of the group is one of the most trusted chit fund (financial instrument) companies, with a subscriber base of 3,60,000 members.

- Food Processing (Priya Foods)

Priya Foods - A respected brand leader involved in manufacturing and marketing such products as pickles, condiments, confectionary and edible oils.

- Hospitality (Dolphin Chain of Hotels)

DolphinChain of Hotels - A reputed name in the hospitality industry for over 25 years. The company operates a range of hotels at Ramoji Film City – from super luxury Hotel Sitara to high-quality budget property Tara. The company set up Dolphin, Visakhapatnam’s first ever three-star establishment, in the 80s.

- Indian Arts, Crafts & Textiles Under Kalanjali

Kalanjali – A vast and glittering multi-level complex that offers the finest arts, crafts and textiles from all parts of India under one roof.

- Film Distribution

Mayuri Film Distributors – A highly regarded company that provides integrated movie distribution solutions. Mayuri, which has been distributing quality films for over two decades, is a professionally managed operation with impeccable ethical credentials.

AWARDS:

Figures: 2 and 3

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Rainbow Colour Lab of Ramoji Film City awarded Kodak's International certificate.

- Rainbow Colour Lab, Ramoji Film City's state-of-the-art film processing lab has been awarded the International Certificate for Colour Film Negative Processing for the year 2004 by Kodak.

- Rainbow Colour Lab of Ramoji Film City wins National Film Award. Rainbow Colour Lab, Ramoji Film City's state-of-the-art film processing lab has been awarded the National Award for the category of best cinematography for film processing for the Bangla film Bhalo Theko.

The Honourable President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam presented the award at the 51st National Film Awards function to Smt. Nirmala Rani, General Manager Post-Production, Ramoji Film City.

1.18 UDAYAM (31)

This was started by By Dasari Narayana Rao and Kondapalli Ramakrishna Prasad, grand son of freedom fighter Gottipati Brahmaiah were the chairman and managing director respectively in Dec 29 of 1984. Udayam means morning in Telugu. Due to many reasons it had been closed in 1995.

1.19 VAARTHA (32)

Vaartha - The National Telugu Daily from Hyderabad Created history in the Media world in a very short span of time compared to any other newspaper. It was inaugurated by PV Narasimha Rao prime minister of India, on January 25, 1996.

Vaartha means "News" in Telugu. Vaartha is the firstly daily in Andhra Pradesh to have facilitated Information Technology in publishing all the news that broke as late as 4 a.m in the morning.

The Bold News Paper:

This National Telugu Daily is one of the few responsible and fearless Newspapers in India. It is the fastest provider of the happenings across the globe and has always been in the forefront in providing firsthand news to its readers across the country. Path breaking news, scams, scoops, investigative stories etc... are the forte of Vaartha.

The Quality, layout and design of the newspaper have received many compliments from the reader community. It has been literally proved to be a well-wisher of both people and the government, by pinpointing the defaults in the defaults in the governance and by suggesting measures for the effective working of the government. All these have prompted the newspaper readers to choose Vaartha as the official provider of quality news.

Circulation and readership:

Today, with 20 editions centers and many more pipeline, Vaartha is the most preferred Telugu Daily undoubtedly. No wonder, its circulation stands at 8.12 lacs, and readership at 71.08 lacs per day.

Vaartha is extremely popular in the beginning of its launch and many people switched to Vaartha, which over years failed to keep up to the expectations of people.

1.20 PRAJASAKTI (33)

Prajasakti started as a daily news paper in the year 1981 with Vijayawada as the centre. Currently it is being published from 9 editions at Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Thirupati, Khammam, Kurnool, Rajahmundry, Srikakulam and Karimnagar. It has got a wide network of over 100 primary news gathering centres across the state. Prajasakti has grown up in leaps and bounds and is the largest circulated progressive daily in the Telugu newspaper industry. On the 20th anniversary of Prajasakti it has gone online and came much nearer to all those who are not within the reach in this global world.

Prajasakti is committed to the cause of oppressed people. At its very inception it was with the peasants struggle in 1981. Prajasakti has always spearheaded the propaganda for secular and progressive values in the society. It strives for the democratic values, and upholds the ardent struggle for democracy and a just living waged against the one sided imperialist globalisation. It comes out with a scientific analysis on all the contemporary, national and international issues. Prajasakti stands for the projection of all the just values and relentlessly fights anti peoples policies, corruption, communalism and many issues that make the life of the poor and middle class worser.

Prajasakti was a borne child of the freedom struggle. It had its inception in the year 1942 and was published as a daily from the year 1945. No sooner it was subjected to repression by the British and banned in the year 1948. It started as a weekly journal in the year 1969 and took the form of a daily in the year 1981 with vijayawada as the edition centre. It had grown in leaps and bounds in the last decade and won the hearts of the toiling masses, workers and the middle class.

It is important to note that Prajasakti forged ahead in an atmosphere when all progressive and democratic forces were facing an uphill task of struggling the onslaughts by imperialism. The second edition started in the year 1997 from Hyderabad, the third edition in 1997 at Visakhapatnam and the fourth edition in 2001 at Thirupati, the fifth edition at Khammam in July 2003 and the sixth edition at Kurnool in Nov 2003, the Seventh Edition at Rajahmundry in May 2005, Eighth Edition at Karimnagar in September 2005,and the Ninth Edition at Srikakulam in 2006.

Prajasakti daily is a part of the Prajasakti Sahithee Samastha with its head quarters at Hyderabad. It has a strong team functioning democratically with hundreds of journalists and professionals from the advertisement team, circulation department, technical department and the editorial board headed by S.Vinay Kumar as editor and V.Krishnaiah as general manager. Prajasakti daily is published at the Prajasakti daily printing press that caters the print requirement. Prajasakti daily extends its support to the Prajasakti Book House and the Prajasakti Publishing House which are the centres for progressive literature.

1.21 SURYA (34)

Surya headquartered in Hyderabad. This newspaper is being promoted by Nukarapu Surya Prakash Rao. This telugu newspaper is being published from seventeen cities in India.

Surya -is striking New Standards with an intention to give tough fight to Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi.

1.22 SAKSHI (35)

Sakshi news paper is a telugu daily published in Andhra Pradesh as well as its surrounding states. It is a widely popular news paper that is the rare of its kind. It is still the most successful and popular telugu news paper since its first day of publication.

History

YS Jaganmohan Reddy, son of Andhra Pradesh Ex chief minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy, has decided to launch a Telugu daily, Sakshi. This new daily – expected to launch in February 2008 – will offer competition to the current market leader, Eenadu.

Grand launch on - 24 March 2008, Started with a Bang!

Sakshi is the finest example of a news paper business that is not the rags-to-riches type but the pre-planned and well-executed type of startup business.

Governor N.D. Tiwari launched Telugu daily ‘Sakshi’ brought out in 23 multi-coloured editions by Jagati Publication of which Y.S. Jagan, son of Chief Minister Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy, is chairman, at an impressive function at HICC on Sunday.

Besides the Chief Minister, B.V. Raghavulu (State CPI-M secretary), K. Narayana (CPI secretary), Bandaru Dattatreya (BJP president), Asaduddin Owaisi, Majlis MP, were among the political leaders who attended. B. Ramalinga Raju, chairman, Satyam Group, launched the daily’s web edition.

M. Veerappa Moily, AICC general secretary in-charge of Andhra Pradesh, megastar Chiranjeevi, Akkineni Nagarjuna, N. Srinivasan, Vice-chairman and managing director of India Cements, Pullela Gopichand and Mithali Raj launched the political, glamour, women’s, business and sports pages respectively of the newspaper. An impressive laser show and a choreographic presentation on evolution of newspapers over the centuries were highlights of the function. Congratulatory messages from Sachin Tendulkar and V.V.S. Laxman were shown on video screen.

The Daily is coming up with flying colors and latest technology used for this purpose. The management is aiming at No.1 position for their daily among Telugu readers

Circulation

Sakshi has a print run of more than 1.7 million copies. As of 3/31/2009, Sakshi, with 30+ pages, was priced at Rs. 2.50/- per paper. The paper has been designed by newspaper designer Mario Garcia, and claims to have an initial print run of more than 11 lakhs. The claims have yet to be substantiated by any known standards.

The group also has launched a news channel platform Sakshi TV and the programs have started airing on March 1 2009. This media group is working under the name "Jagati Publications". Jagan’s ‘ Sakshi’ on 28th, with 12 lakhs circulation & Rs.2/-

Circulation and readership:

Sakshi will start with 19 editions in Andhra Pradesh and an initial print run of more than 11 lakh copies. Eenadu has an all India circulation of 11,16,275 copies (ABC figures for January-June 2007).

Focus: Sakshi is targeted at SEC A, B and C above 16 years.

On March 23, 2008, the new Sakshi made its grand entrance, printing 1.2 million copies from the start.

Numbers tell the story:

Table: 10 Circulation and Readership of Sakshi

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Even more impressive is how Sakshi has managed to become the market leader among dailies published in the Telugu language, dealing massive blows to its competitors.

Behind Sakshi’s Success

Partly this success can be attributed to two things. One is that there was a monopoly by the most popular telugu news paper Eenadu at that time. People are ready to welcome another news source but a big one to compare with Eenadu. Another reason was that the editor of Sakshi paper was the son of Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Being the son of a ruling party minister he had lot of flexibilities and options to launch his new paper in a grand manner.

Today Sakshi is a Widely Popular Telugu News Paper

The Sakshi telugh news paper is well received by telugu audience from day 1 and it has been continuing to do so. Its subscription base is also wide across in Andhra Pradesh as well as surrounding states like Karnataka, Maharashtra etc. Sakshi came about in the last one and half year.

Some Political Bias in Sakshi Much Like Eenadu News Paper

Sakshi is now successful news paper in and around Andhra Pradesh. Nevertheless Sakshi holds some drawbacks. While Eenadu writes good reviews for whatever former CM and opposition leader Chandra Babu Naidu does, Sakshi does the same for the ruling party leader Y.S. Rajashekhar Reddy. At the same time, Eenadu does bad reviews for RajaShekhar Reddy’s activities daily. But Sakshi, though points out bad things about Chandra Babu Naidu, still writes his voice openly.

Some Openness in Sakshi

It irritates any audience in general when reading newspapers which appear to follow some political parties. But the openness in Sakshi paper which is not seen so much in Eenadu is what makes this Sakshi news paper thrive today and grow its subscriptions.

References:

1. www.indianews.in/newspapers.html
2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper
3. wapedia.mobi/en/Newspaper
4. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_India
5. www.allaboutnewspapers.com/march11/article4.htm
6. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper_circulation
7. www.slideshare.net/guestacd5bd/industry-analysis-of-print-media
8. “Update on Indian M&E industry,” CRISIL Research, December 2010.
9. M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.
10. M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011; “More than 74,000 newspapers are registered in India,” The Pak Banker Daily, 29 July 2009, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2009, Right Vision Communications Private Limited.
11. ”Global advertising forecasts,” GroupM, Autumn 2010.
12. “Jagran Prakashan,” Deutsche Bank, 3 December 2010, via Thomson Research.
13. “DB Corp. Ltd.,” J.P. Morgan, 28 January 2011, via Thomson Research; “Jagran Prakashan,” Deutsche Bank, 3 December 2010, via Thomson Research.
14. M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.
15. “Publishing: India remains top outsourcing destination,” Business Standard, 27 January 2010, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2011 Business Standard Ltd.
16. M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.
17. Media industry update, CRISIL Research, December 2010.
18. The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.
19. The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.
20. The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.
21. Sruthijith K.K, “Govt gives green signal to editions of foreign news magazines,” Livemint, 19 September 2008, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2008 HT Media Ltd.
22. The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.
23. www.newswatch.in/newsblog/19555
24. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_in_Hyderabad,_Andhra_Pradesh
25. op-cit., www.newswatch.in/newsblog/19555
26. NAATI PATRIKALA METI VILUVALU by Pothuri Venkateswara Rao, published by Rachana Journalism College, Kesava Memorial Educational Campus, Narayanguda, Hyderabad-500029. Rs.
27. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Prabha
28. www.andhrajyothy.com/aboutus.asp
29.www.onlinetipsblog.com/read-andhra-bhoomi-newspaper-online-andhra-bhoomi-epaper/
30. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eenadu
31. Newspaper Marketing In India: A Focus On Languages Press by N V R Jyoti Kumar,2005-06-30,Anmol Publisher.
32. www.teluguwebsite.com/Telugu_VaarthaaPatrikalu.html
33. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prajasakti
34. op-cit- Newspaper Marketing In India: A Focus On Languages Press by N V R Jyoti Kumar,2005-06-,Anmol Publisher.
35. www.telugupedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Saakshi_Telugu_Newspaper (1)

CHAPTER:2. A BRAND IMAGE

2.A.1 INTRODUCTION

Brands are living things. They communicate. Act and react. Create experiences.
Form relationships. Become a part of people's lives. Brands are a means of differentiating a company’s products and services from those of its competitors

There is plenty of evidence to prove that customers will pay a substantial price premium for a good brand and remain loyal to that brand. It is important, therefore, to understand what brands are and why they are important. Businesses that invest in and sustain leading brands prosper whereas those that fail are left to fight for the lower profits available in commodity markets.

Figure : 4 brand

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Brand(2)

The word "brand" is derived from the Old Norse brandr, meaning "to burn." It refers to the practice of producers burning their mark (or brand) onto their products.

Definition:

“A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of these, that is intended to identify the goods and services of one business or group of businesses and to differentiate them from those of competitors”.

“The art of marketing is the art of BRAND BUILDING. If you are not a brand, you are a commodity. Then price is every -thing and the low-cost producer is the only winner.”

“A brand is not a product. It is the sum total of everything a company does — the good, the bad and even the off strategy — that creates a large context or an identity in the consumer’s mind.”

A Brand is a PROMISE. A Brand is a Mark of TRUST.

2. A.2 BRAND MANAGEMENT (3):

Few brands actually who they are, what they stand for what makes them so unique. Classic marketing tools do not help answer such questions. Every advertising campaign is, of course, based on a copy strategy, which varies from one campaign to the other.

However very few brands actually have a brand charter defining the brands long term identity and uniqueness. Nor can the answer be found in any graphic guidelines, which often focus only on the brands outward appearance. Yet understanding what the brand truly represents is not just a graphic exercise. It is an investigation of the brands inner most substance and of the different facets of its identity.

2. A.3 CONCEPTS (4)

Some people distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product or service.

People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme, as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management.

Careful brand management, supported by a cleverly crafted advertising campaign, can be highly successful in convincing consumers to pay remarkably high prices for products which are inherently extremely cheap to make. This concept, known as "creating value", essentially consists of manipulating the projected image of the product so that that the consumer sees the product as being worth the amount that the advertiser wants him/her to see, rather than a more logical valuation that comprises an aggregate of the cost of raw materials, plus the cost of manufacture, plus the cost of distribution. Modern value-creation branding-and-advertising campaigns are highly successful at inducing consumers to pay.

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it used in the logo for go.com.

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic. From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

2. A.4 BRAND IMAGE AND CONCEPT

Brand Image(5)

A strong brand image is an important contributing factor to any successful company. Only by understanding how your brand is perceived can you develop and implement effective marketing strategies.

Brand image primarily consists of:

- brand awareness,
- brand perception against competitive brands,
- emotional associations towards the brand,
- attachment to the brand,
- the brand’s value for the consumer,
- brand perception versus consumer behavior,
- Changes in the brand-consumer relationship over time.

To investigate the sources of brand image creation, we research all characteristics of the brand (packaging, name, advertising concepts and product prototypes) through consumer opinion research, interviews with experts and Internet word of mouth. We identify those components of the brand’s image that have the greatest power to affect consumer choices and recommend the most effective directions for shaping the brand image.

2. A.5 BRAND IMAGE: DEFINITIONS:

Definition:1(6)

- The impression in the consumers' mind of a brand's total personality (real and imaginary qualities and shortcomings). Brand image is developed over time through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme, and is authenticated through the consumers' direct experience.

Definition:2(7)

- Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand. It can be defined as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers.

Definition:3(8)

- It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand. In short, it is nothing but the consumers’ perception about the product. Brand image is the overall impression in consumers’ mind that is formed from all sources. Consumers develop various associations with the brand. Based on these associations, they form brand image. An image is formed about the brand on the basis of subjective perceptions of associations bundle that the consumers have about the brand.

Definition:4(9)

- Brand image: A consumer‘s perceptions and feelings towards a brand shaped by direct/indirect brand experiences, which captures cognitive, sensory, and emotional aspects. These are reflected by the three dimensions of mystery, sensuality, and intimacy, respectively (Keller, 2001; Roberts, 2004, 2006).

2. A.6 CONCEPT (10):

Brand image conveys emotional value and not just a mental image. Brand image is nothing but an organization’s character. It is an accumulation of contact and observation by people external to an organization. It should highlight an organization’s mission and vision to all. The main elements of positive brand image are- unique logo reflecting organization’s image, slogan describing organization’s business in brief and brand identifier supporting the key values.

The idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing just the product/service but also the image associated with that product/service. Brand images should be positive, unique and instant. Brand images can be strengthened using brand communications like advertising, packaging, word of mouth publicity, other promotional tools, etc.

Brand image develops and conveys the product’s character in a unique manner different from its competitor’s image. The brand image consists of various associations in consumers’ mind - attributes, benefits and attributes. Brand attributes are the functional and mental connections with the brand that the customers have. They can be specific or conceptual. Benefits are the rationale for the purchase decision.

There are three types of benefits:

- Functional benefits - what do you do better (than others ),
- Emotional benefits - how do you make me feel better (than others), and
- Rational benefits/support - why do I believe you(more than others). Brand attributes are consumers overall assessment of a brand.

Brand image has not to be created, but is automatically formed. The brand image includes products' appeal, ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall value. Brand image is actually brand content. When the consumers purchase the product, they are also purchasing its image. Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a product. Positive brand image is exceeding the customers’ expectations. Positive brand image enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization.

To sum up, “Brand image” is the customer’s net extract from the brand.

2. A.7 BRAND IDENTITY VS BRAND IMAGE(11)

Table: 11 Brand Identity vs Brand Image

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. A.8 THE THEORIES OF BRAND IMAGE:

2. A.8. a. The Three Dimensions of Brand Image: Roberts (2004, 2006)(12).

Brand image has been discussed as an important concept in consumer behavior, because consumers‘brand and product choices are based on their assessment of brand image. Traditionally, marketing researchers (Bullmore, 1984; Dichter, 1985; Frazer, 1983; Gardner & Levy, 1955; Keller, 2001, 2008; Newman, 1957; Pohlman & Mudd, 1973) have acknowledged the cognitive and affective facets of experience associated with brand image; however, most studies have not captured the sensory aspect of brand experience.

Specifically, Dichter (1985) and Newman (1957) defined brand image as the total set of impressions shaped by consumer interactions (e.g., observation and consumption) with a brand. Bullmore (1984) and Gardner and Levy (1955) referred to brand image as beliefs, perceptions, feelings, and attitudes towards a brand. Frazer (1983) and Pohlman and Mudd (1973) argued that brand image is more strongly related to intangible aspects, such as social meanings and symbolic value than physical features of products. Similarly, Keller (2001, 2008) defined brand image as a consumer‘s perceptions and feelings associated with a brand, its offerings, and imagery attributes, such as user profiles, purchase/usage situations, brand personality, values, history, heritage, and experiences.

Based on brand image definitions from previous studies and Roberts‘(2004) lovemarks theory, viewed brand image as an encapsulation of a consumer‘s direct or indirect (e.g., through advertising) brand experience, with a focus on intangible aspects of the brand. According to Roberts (2004), three dimensions of brand image mystery, sensuality, and intimacy positively contribute to creating a lovemark experience, which leads consumers to become avid fans of a certain offering by a company.

Mystery

The cognitive experience shaped by past and present interactions with a brand as well as future dreams and aspirations (Roberts, 2004).

The cognitive aspect of brand image reflects mental thoughts of a brand, which consumers establish by considering product attributes, service, performance, and symbolic or psychological meanings of a brand. The personal meanings linked to memory of past brand experiences lead consumers to create a distinct perception towards a brand in their mind.

Mystery captures the cognitive experience, shaped by past and present interactions with a brand as well as future dreams and aspirations reflecting a certain lifestyle. As sub components of mystery, Roberts included the telling of great stories, which taps into a culture‘s myths, iconic characters, and dreams; instills inspiration; and combines past, present, and future. Roberts believes that a firm delivers brand identity by telling a story of the brand. Great stories formed through brand experience may entail favorable myths and iconic characteristics that stimulate positive feelings and perceptions within consumers. Positive associations with the brand may result from the personal dreams, aspirations, or inspirational spirit expressed by the story. Consumers‘past brand experiences may influence their present and future perception towards a brand/firm.

Table: 12 showing Elements of Roberts ‘Mystery Concept

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Summarized from Roberts (2004, pp.134-147)

Sensuality

A pleasant sensory experience (vision, sound, touch, smell, and/or taste) due to branding elements such as product design, packages, displays, and music in a store (Roberts, 2004).

The sensory aspect of brand image refers to brand experiences, shaped through a consumer‘s physical senses (i.e., vision, smell, sound, touch, and taste). Sensuality reflects pleasant sensory experiences (Roberts, 2004). Music in the store or on a Website, a color scheme or design style, and the smell of the store‘s environment are examples of the sensory experiences that may lead to sensuality. Roberts (2004) proposes that visual elements of a product, such as a display, logo design, packages, and beautiful colors, music, olfactory stimulation, and variety in textures, foster emotional experiences. Other practitioners (Gobé, 2001; Schmitt & Simonson, 1997) agreed that providing sensory experience is very important for generating positive perceptions of a brand.

Table: 13 showing Elements of Roberts ‘Sensuality Concept

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Summarized from Roberts (2004, pp.156-194)

Intimacy

Affective and connective experiences between consumers and brands,

influenced by the firm‘s empathy and a consumer‘s commitment, and a consumer‘s enjoyment from owning or interacting with a brand (Roberts, 2004, 2006).

The emotional aspect of brand image refers to brand experiences involved a consumer‘s feelings of interacting with a brand. Intimacy captures the affective and connective experiences between consumers and brands (Roberts, 2004). For example, a firm‘s understanding of consumers‘ opinions and preferences, consumer‘s long-term commitment, and consumer‘s enjoyment of interaction with a brand may foster positive emotions and perceptions towards the firm or its offerings (see Table 2.3). Researchers in psychology (Sternberg, 1986, 1997) and marketing (Fournier, 1998; Shimp & Madden, 1988) have indicated the importance of intimacy in evoking positive emotions and perceptions for a romantic partner or for a brand/firm, respectively.

Table: 14 showing Elements of Roberts ‘Intimacy Concept

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Summarized from Roberts (2004, pp.197-214)

2.A.9 THE IMPORTANCE OF BUILDING A STRONG BRAND IMAGE(13)

1: Introduction

In the modern business world an organisation’s brand image can be as important as the goods or services it produces. A strong brand image is a powerful asset. A recognised and trusted brand identity makes people confident that the organisation is dependable. This is why successful businesses work hard at building their brands and present them in a clear and consistent way.

Corus is the leading international metals producer. Corus is a relatively new company. It was created through a merger in October 1999 between the UK’s British Steel and Dutch company Hoogovens. This merger created an innovative metals company that combines international expertise with local service. The Corus headquarters are in London. Twenty-one businesses are located worldwide.

This case study shows how Corus has set about building a consistent, respected brand identity that can be quickly recognised, with a view to giving the company a worldwide competitive advantage.

2: The importance of brand

We usually associate the term ‘brand’ with a product that has a unique, consistent and well-recognised character eg Coca-Cola, MG, Weetabix. These brands conjure up images in the minds of consumers. Large organisations work hard to raise the power and status of their brands and guard them carefully against unlicensed use or unfair imitation.

A brand usually carries a logo or trade mark by which it is recognised. Many shoppers can easily identify a Heinz can or a Kellogg’s packet, for example, and it is the brand which is drawing them towards the product. Developing a corporate brand is important because a positive brand image will give consumers, and other interested stakeholders, confidence about the full range of products and activities associated with a particular company.

Product range

The product range and service package associated with a company must fit with the corporate brand. This fit will come through product quality and performance, as well as in the consistency of advertising and packaging, and in customer service. Company image is not confined to product branding. All of the organisation’s activities need to be carried outand presented in a consistent and desirable way. This will help to create a strong positive image of the company.

‘Image’ is an amalgam of an individual’s personal experience of a company or product, plus whatever he or she has read or heard from other sources. Advertising can help create or re-shape an image, but personal experience and the comments of other users represent the reality behind the image and, as such, are even more powerful. Organisations therefore need to work very hard to create brand identities which are not only visible in terms of products, logos, company uniforms etc, but which are also built into practical actions of the company and its workforce eg how the company handles and responds to complaints and to crises.

3: Creating a brand identity

After the merger, Corus gave priority to creating a new brand identity. Choosing the new name was a long, careful consultative process. The first step was to identify the values of both companies and to encapsulate them in the name and logo. The consultation established:

- The views of customers, suppliers and employees

- Those aspects of the existing organisation of which they were most proud.

In this way, the best features of the former brands could be fused with new ideas to form a new brand. The new brand would thus reflect and underpin the nature and behaviour of the organisation, with the name and logo being at the forefront of the organisation and its activities. The consultation exercise produced criteria for a new name. It had to be:

- truly international
- easily pronounceable worldwide
- Distinctive within the metals market.

Brainstorm sessions generated a list of 2,000 names which were reduced to 100, then to 10, and finally to 3, from which Corus was chosen. It was chosen because it provided a
fresh, distinctive name that could become instantly recognisable and also pronounceable worldwide. While the name and logo would clearly be the most visible aspects of the new organisation, they would need to be supported by key features of the organisation eg behaviour, attitude, ways of working, to meet the needs of customers.

4: Implementation

The Corus ambition is to build a strong powerful brand that looks and means the same all over the world. A powerful brand must have attention value, whether it be in neon lights or on the side of a vehicle. We notice powerful logos wherever they appear eg on filling stations and fast food outlets. They always look the same and, if we enjoy the associated product, the logo acts as a guarantee of satisfaction.

Branding works because customers’ choices are based on emotion as well as logic. Of course, a chocolate bar or fizzy drink may be an easier image to present than that of a diverse industrial group like Corus. However, the same principles apply. Consistency in how the Corus brand is presented is the key to building a strong brand image. In the same way that the name Apple is used by a computer company to signify knowledge and freshness, the word Corus suggests a united company. It helps to convey the idea that all the operations within Corus have different strengths but are more powerful when their voices join together. Today, the Corus brand stands for one company, with one name and one vision.

Quality

An outstanding feature of the Corus mark is its quality. It comprises two elements, a symbol and a wordmark which combine to be one entity. The large, red ‘C’ (the symbol) is designed to be recognised immediately. The colour hints at a bold business approach, consistent with a new beginning. The name (the wordmark) appears in a contrasting colour and in its own distinctive typeface. The symbol is never used without the wordmark.

The new mark is used in Corus advertising, marketing, promotions, brochures, on uniforms, vehicles, signs, stationery and is even stamped onto products. The intention is to etch the mark into customers’ consciousness. To create this consistency, brand managers at Corus created a set of standard guidelines for the whole organisation covering many aspects of branding eg:

- the exact shade of red to be used
- a housestyle for company literature and stationery
- livery on transport (vans, lorries)
- company workwear
- layout and content of the company web-site
- signs, logos on buildings.

The overall intention is to promote the objective of creating ‘one company with one look’, worldwide.

5: Stakeholders

It was vital to quickly win support for the new brand from all of the organisation’s key stakeholders inside the organisation. On the day Corus was launched, communication packs were delivered to all parts of the business and presentations took place at the same time on the same day throughout the Company. These were to explain the nature and purpose of the new logo and the new brand. Information was also provided for suppliers and customers, and advertisements were placed in national newspapers throughout key areas of Europe – Netherlands, UK, Belgium, Norway, Germany, France, Spain etc. This was followed up with a series of billboard advertisements in the manufacturing towns where Corus has plants.

Corus also produced ‘Merger News’, a series of booklets which it mailed home to all of its employees worldwide to keep them informed of the changes. These were also available to customers, suppliers and others, and were well received. They gave answers to questions such as: ‘Why the new name?’, ‘What does it mean?’. Subsequent booklets were titled ‘Corus News’ and more recently ‘Corus World’. Today they are designed to provide an open channel of communication with employees.

Open communications

Corus has continued the process of open communications eg by running focus sessions with groups of employees to discuss new workwear designs. Employees are invited to comment on what they like and suggest improvements, for example all red for better visibility, reflecting the importance of health and safety to Corus employees.

Brand seminars are held for Corus communication managers to ensure the integrity of the Corus brand is always preserved. In its external communications Corus has concentrated on creating a consistent approach in all of its literature, eg brochures, posters, press releases, education resources etc to reinforce brand consistency.

The strapline associated with the company is ‘Corus the future in metal’. This reflects the confidence and ambition within the company. It is used, with pictures of end products to illustrate the many ways in which customers benefit from Corus products and services eg in high-precision engineering, cars and civil airliners.

6: Conclusion

Establishing a new company and a new brand is a massive undertaking. Its approach has proved highly successful. Today Corus is a widely recognised brand that has quickly developed a strong presence in the international metals industry. Rebranding the organisation has made it possible to open up new opportunities while building on the strengths of the past. Because developing a strong brand depends so heavily on creating appropriate perceptions, the internal and external communication exercises have been vital in quickly building up the confidence of stakeholders. Creating a consistent and well-recognised character to the company throughout the globe based on quality, performance and presentation will have beneficial results, reinforcing the ethos of ‘one company, with one name and one vision’.

2. A.10 BRAND CREATING VALUE(14)

For consumers brands are vital because they provide them information of the product maker and thus allow consumers assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor (Keller 2008, 6).

Brands also ease the consumers’ decisions of which product/brand to use. If the consumers can recognize or recall a brand (brand awareness) it is more likely that they will also use a product of that certain brand. “Awareness refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumers’ minds.” (Aaker 1996, 10)

Being able to identify a brand also reduces the risk of a product being something not wanted and it also reduces the search costs and time. Brands act as a promise of a quality for consumers. Consumers offer their loyalty and trust to a brand possessing a certain understanding of how the brand will act and how its product will perform. If the brand meets these certain assumptions it most probably leads to consumers using that same brand also in the future. Brand can be a signal of quality. Brands can act as symbolic devices, meaning that through brands people can project their self image.

“Certain brands are associated with certain types of people and thus reflect different values or traits.” (Keller 2008, 6-8).

The advantages of brand for companies and manufacturers are that brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. Brands also provide companies legal protection for features and aspects of a product. Brands give consumers a signal of the quality level of its products and brands are powerful tools to secure a competitive advantage. For example the author recalls a study where Coca-Cola and Pepsi were compared. When people were asked which soda they preferred, the majority answered Coca-Cola. However after a tasting, during which the participants were blindfolded, most of them preferred the taste of Pepsi and not Coca-Cola. This indicates that the Coca-Cola has better succeeded in branding itself and thus gained competitive advantage.

Keller (2008, 9) suggests that strong brands result in better earnings and profit performances. This statement is supported by Arnold (1998, 1-5).

“Successful brands can deliver superior levels of profit over the long run.”

“A strong brand can deliver for a company market leadership, a staple or sustainable competitive advantage, international reach, a platform from which to expand activities, and, of course, long-term profit.”

“A strong brand is a big asset for companies and generates profits for years, in brand marketing terms it is equity.”

Figure: 5 Showing of Forming a Brand

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: http:/www.tenayagroup.com/blog/wpadmin/ images/BrandCore.jpg, 12.9.2011

2. A.11 KELLER’S CBBE- MODEL (15)

Keller (2008) presents a CBBE- model (Customer-Based Brand Equity), a four step program to build brands. He uses a CBBE pyramid to demonstrate the four steps and in order to gain significant brand equity the top of the pyramid must be reached. This model is introduced to provide theoretical tools for Bra management.

The pyramid contains six “brand building blocks”. The ones on left represent more realistic brand building where as the ones on right represent emotional brand building. According to Keller (2008, 60)” most strong brands were built by going up both sides of the pyramid.”

Figure: 6 Showing of Customer-Based Brand Equity Pyramid,

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Brand salience measures awareness of the brand, how well is the brand recalled and recognized, what things remind of the brand, can consumers link the brand with the right name, logo and symbol? Brand awareness helps consumers to understand which of their needs the particular brand is designed to satisfy. It also helps consumers to understand what is the category where the brand’s products or services are competig in and what are the products and services that the brand offers. (Keller 2008, 61.)

“Brand performance describes how well the product or service meets customers’ more functional needs” (Keller 2008, 64). Brand performance is an important tool in differentiating its’ products. Keller (2008) has listed five attributes and benefits that support differentiation and thus can create advantage to a brand.

- Primary ingredients and supplementary features
- Product reliability, durability, and serviceability
- Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy
- Style and design
- Price (Keller 2008, 65.)

Brand Imagery deals with the psychological and social needs of a customer. It tells the customer what to expect. Brand imagery tries to arbitrate associations, intangible aspects of a brand, to consumers and the success of a brand relies on how well consumers interpret these intentions. The four main intangibles are

- User profiles
- Purchase and usage situations
- Personality and values
- History, heritage and experiences.

(Keller 2008, 64.)

The most important brand judgments are quality, credibility, consideration, and superiority. Brand judgments are customers’ opinions and perceptions of a certain brand which they form by evaluating the brand’s performance and imagery associations. (Keller 2008, 67-68.)

Brand feelings are the emotional responses of consumers towards a brand. Brand feelings only work favorably if the consumers’ posses positive images of a brand.(Keller 2008, 69-71.)

Brand resonance is the “ultimate relationship and level of identification that the customer has with the brand” (Keller 2008, 72). Keller divides brand resonance into four categories:

- Behavioral loyalty
- Attitudinal attachment
- Sense of community
- Active engagement

(Keller 2008, 72.)

2. A.12 AAKER’S BRAND IDENTITY PLANNING MODEL (16)

David A. Aaker, a marketing professor at the University of California at Berkeley and author of the popular Building Strong Brands (1996), has developed a comprehensive brand identity planning model. At the heart of this model is a four-fold perspective on the concept of a brand. To help ensure that a firm’s brand identity has texture and depth, Aaker advises brand strategists to consider the brand as: 1) a product; 2) an organization; 3) a person; and 4) a symbol. Each perspective is distinct. The purpose of this system is to help brand strategists consider different brand elements and patterns that can help clarify, enrich and differentiate an identity. A more detailed identity will also help guide implementation decisions.

Figure: 7 Aaker’s Brand Identity Planning Model

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Aaker cautions that not every brand identity needs to employ all or even several of these perspectives. For some brands, only one will be viable and appropriate. Each organization should, however, consider all of the perspectives and use those deemed helpful in articulating what the brand should stand for in the customer’s mind.

The following briefly characterizes each of the four perspectives Aaker recommends firms take into account in formulating their brand strategy:

1. The brand-as-product. A core element of a brand’s identity is usually its product thrust, which will affect the type of associations that are desirable and feasible. Attributes directly related to the purchase or use of a product can provide functional benefits and sometimes emotional benefits for customers. A product-related attribute can create a value proposition by offering something extra like features or services, or by offering something better. Aaker argues, however, that the goal of linking a brand with a product class is not to gain recall of a product class when a brand is mentioned. It’s more important, he posits, for customers to remember the brand when there’s a need relevant to the product class.
2. The brand-as-organization. This perspective focuses on attributes of the organization rather than on those of the product or service. Such organizational attributes as innovation, a drive for quality and concern for the environment are created by the people, culture, values and programs of the company. (Some brand aspects can be described as product attributes in some contexts and organizational attributes in others.) Aaker notes that organizational attributes are more enduring and resistant to competitive claims than product attributes.
3. The brand-as-person. Like a person, a brand can be perceived as having a unique personality. The brand-as-person perspective suggests a brand identity that is richer and more interesting than one based on product attributes. Aaker cites three ways a brand personality can create a stronger brand: 1) create a self-expressive benefit that becomes a vehicle for customers to express their own personalities; 2) form the basis of a relationship between customers and the brand (in the same way human personalities affect relationships between people); and 3) help communicate a product attribute and thus, contribute to a functional benefit.
4. The brand-as-symbol. A strong symbol can provide cohesion and structure to an identity and make it much easier to gain recognition and recall. Its presence can be a key ingredient of brand development and its absence can be a substantial handicap. Elevating symbols to the status of being part of the identity reflects their potential power. Aaker highlights three types of symbols: visual imagery, metaphors and the brand heritage.

As suggested by Aaker’s elaborate brand taxonomy, brand identity consists of a core identity and an extended identity. The former represents the timeless essence of the brand. It’s central to both the meaning and success of the brand, and contains the associations that are most likely to remain constant as the brand encompasses new products and travels to new markets. The extended identity, on the other hand, includes elements that provide texture and completeness. It fills in the picture, adding details that help portray what the brand stands for. A reasonable hypothesis, Aaker states, is that within a product class, a larger extended identity means a stronger brand—one that is more memorable, interesting and connected to customers’ lives.

Figure: 8 Modified Brand Image Development Process

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Sometimes it is more purposeful to set a more narrow approach that determines brand essence, which is an idea, entailing brand soul. J Kapferer (2003) states that brand essence originated from a wish to generalize brand identity and positioning. Brand essence includes the principal value that is offered (for example, Volvo is the safest car).

Brand Identities are created for the following situations (17) :
New Product Launches
Product/Brand extensions
New logos
Initiatives with respect to a brand
In order to change brand perception

Creating a brand identity is more than finding out what customers say they want. It must also reflect the soul and vision of the brand, what it hopes to achieve.

2. A.13 WHY DO ENTERPRISES NEED TO DEVELOP A BRAND IMAGE (18) :

The typical reasons as possible that:

- Consumer awareness and thought to the products and services the company needs:

Identification brand system offers customers the value of both the physical and feeling , cause customers to psychological desire to own the product, the service experience the brand name of that Company.

- Advantages for sales, increased sales:

The sales of business will be confidence with customer in a perfectly recognized brand . And increasing confidence of customers using the services and products that they can see the brand name anywhere.

- Increase the value of the Company:

Creating the strength for business to improve and maintain the position and reputation with shareholders, partners, investors. Especially when calling investment, businesses will create an impressive and trust with investors, partners with recognized professional brand.

- Create pride for employees:

Spiritual values, pride when working in a professional environment, which gives customers famous brand that everyone wishes to own it. Contribute to motivation, confidence and enthralled of employees at work, increased sticking and loyalty of employees.

- Competitive advantages:

Profile of the business with all the elements to identify brand will easily beat the competitors in the bidding, and is the basis to easily succeed in negotiating.

- Contributing to promote brand and survive longer than the newspaper ads, radio

- Demonstrate the vision of the enterprise and the power of the brand.

If not building systems brand image:

- Customers difficult to remember the brand name of the business when required because of that brand only
occupied a fraction, even not in mind the customer.

- Lose the opportunity when compete with companies carrying more perfect identification system.

- Your staff will become vague when customers ask about the brand, on the brand identity if the enterprise is not established and built the complete system to identify brand.

- Disunion in the recognized brand name cause companies will lose potential customers, the ability to calling for investment, cooperation is very low.

And there are many reasons for businesses to set up systems to identify the brand.

2. A.14 OBSTACLES TO THE BRANDING PRINCIPLES(19)

In any company amongst the various policies, the brand policy alone stand to be different and conflicts tend to arise. Many of the general policies are implicit and innocuous, but when it comes to brand they pose a hindrance to a true brand policy and the brands are always looked at as unfavorable from the corporate accounting angle.

The prudence principle is applied in accounting standards of a company and hence any investment that may not result in tangible returns will be treated as liability or expenditure rather than an asset. You can take the classic example of communication industry where in investments are made to make the general public aware of the brand’s identity.

There is no possibility of such investment resulting in immediate tangible returns or even in next few years and hence the investments are taken into account as an operating expense and appropriately deducted from the profits of the company for the accounting year. However, investments or expenditure incurred on advertising, talented staff, R&D, and machinery can help in building a brand capital.

The accounting principle is thus responsible in creating a bias that handicaps brand companies because of their projected undervalued image. For example, if you consider a company A where the expenditure towards awareness creation is on the higher side, it will show in its balance sheet a lower annual profit and a lesser assets value. This is very normal for emerging companies and is a part and parcel of the growth cycle of any company.

Now when you compare the company A with company B, where the company B invests a huge amount in its production process and machineries without anything spending on its brand building or image building. All these expenditure or the tangible investments of the company B are valued as fixed assets and hence depreciation was allowed over a period of time there by creating a very profound image about the company. Though the company B may project a rosy picture as per the accounting standards, the real fact in real terms could be that the company A is in better position because of the brand building.

Brand policy also gets affected during the valuation process that is taken up every year, as the product manager’s contribution to the company is judged based on the physical returns or the contribution generated by his products. Though such type of evaluation based on the tangible results are of short term in nature, the real benefits of expenditure or investments made on brand building and image building will be seen or will be visible only after few years.

Further, the product-based accounting principles never encourage product managers to invest in any of the efforts that may lead to additional advertising that in turn may strengthen the brand building effort despite the fact that such expenditure are capable of improving the company’s position in the market.

Hence the product managers are made to focus only on investments with a general interest on their own account statement. For instance, consider the major brand of Palmolive that covers many products such as shampoo, shaving cream, liquid detergent, etc., where the brand name will be able to communicate only one of these products as a prominent image leader.

When it comes to investment made it will certainly get justified primarily by the sales forecast of that product. Though the ultimate purpose of this expenditure is to benefit all the product categories of the company, the expenditure will be shown under one category of the product only for accounting convenience.

Many British companies in order to safeguard their companies’ interest against the bias meted out by the accounting standards have started showing their brands as assets in their balance sheets. This particular practice even questioned the very fundamental of accounting standards, as in any balance sheet only real estate and equipment are considered as capital.

Today, it has become a necessity for companies to somehow represent their brand equity in their balance sheets, as it is one of the beneficial intangible assets in long run. Further, decision-makers, particularly in brand building areas insist on such a provision for providing an asset value for the brand in the balance sheet.

Majority of the successfully operating various types of communication agencies also fails to comply with the requirements of sound brand policy. Many advertising agencies, despite the fact of owning its own network of partner companies that take care of operations such as packaging, name research, graphic identity, were not able to promote itself as an integrated communications group in the crux of the network.

Further, the job of many advertising agencies centers around campaigns that are spread over a very limited period of time, say within a year whereas when it comes to brand policy it is quite different and it needs to be developed over a long period of time with all the sophistication that are needed in the industry.

On many occasions, companies were not able to find the necessary expertise within their communications group for fulfilling the companies’ need for a brand building. Though the communication group of a company is responsible for advertising and strategic thinking, for obvious reasons they are not made use in any brand building process.

As the advertising agencies are also not in a position to address strategic issues such as the ideal number of brands in a portfolio, the very survival of the brand will be under jeopardy and that makes the responsibility of the advertising agency in an awkward position of being judge and jury. And this scenario has resulted in forming a new branch of study or profession by name strategic brand management consulting.

Now with the assistance of the personnel, who are good at strategic brand management consulting, companies will be able to get consistent, integrated guidelines for the development of their brand portfolios with the advantage of multiple techniques.

The brand equity of any company greatly depends on the company’s ability to innovate things and in the absence of any visible innovation, the brand will take a beating.

Even though sales people complain about the restriction on their innovative ideas, the company will jeopardize its interests if any weak brand equity is allotted to such groups especially in a multi-brand scenario.

Attractive pricing always go hand in hand in case of weak brands and the incentives offered to the distributors can serve as a booster in market. But there may be occasions where in the regular customers or the brand’s consumers may not appreciate such type of innovative ideas and that may result in downslide of sales. Furthermore, as the product is not reassuring, the non-buyers also refuse to recognize the product.

In an another scenario of the innovation getting launched after few weeks duly bearing a popular brand name, then the distributors might refuse to part with the differential premium price amount for the valid reason of that they have bought the product at a lesser rate earlier. Hence, even in a circumstance where the brand is strong, the company has to reduce the price so as to avoid the wrath of the principal distributors.

One of the strategies followed by the world’s popular band L’Oreal is that it will allocate its inventions based on its brand potency. The newly innovated product will first be marketed under the prestigious brands that too in selected market channels so as to offset the high production cost of the new product.

The success of communication managers in the field of brand building greatly depends on the usage of words wisely. For instance, with the wordings of “Philips tomorrow is already here!” the Philips Company was not able to reap the real benefits out of the slogan because of improbability of banning all advertising on batteries or electric bulbs that trivialized the assertion. The situation could even been handled better by advertising about the future of bulb types rather than manipulating with the current sales.

Unfortunately, there is no possibility within an organization either to visualize or to restrict such unforeseen circumstances or constraints.

A strong baseline structure of a company always helps in an efficient brand management and any company should possess staff who are capable of appreciating the brand’s intangible attributes and at the same time be able to ensure a continuity in the process of brand building.

The companies are also aware that a given brand can be linked to several different technologies and to understand this concept better consider the case of Buitoni, the brand that sells frozen, canned and vacuumed packed foods, all produced by different companies and marketed by different sales teams. This particular concept has in fact paved a way for a brand new of study or profession that could be aptly referred as Brand management across companies.

2. A.15 Conclusion (20)

Brand is a mental game where each element tells a story about the brand itself and these stories are destined together to a single goal to draw a distinct image in the consumer’s mind. Differentiation is an inevitable part of the brand management, which can be done by positioning and integrated marketing communication. However, this differentiation starts from developing each brand element distinctively to avoid the ‘me too’ approach. Brand was born to separate a group of products from that of others; but nowadays, brand is used by consumers to differentiate them within society. It has become a public property and consumers have the right to know the differentiating quality of the brand during purchase. Consumers depend on the brand so much that even in a grocery shop, brand works as shorthand to full their shopping cart within shortest possible time. Thus, elements of brand need to be visible and memorable to consumers so that they could recognize their desired brand within a crowd. Since brand is not all about exchange, it is about how to create a profound relation with the consumer. The basis of brand equity lies in the relationship that develops between a consumer and the differentiating offerings of a brand. In some cases, product itself is so innovative that brand can easily seek a premium positioning in the market. However, in fast moving consumer goods industry, differentiation is very challenging to create and vital to strike in consumer’s memory. Distinctive approach of each brand element works to portrait an image of the brand in consumer’s memory and later on, acts as clue to recall and recognize the brand under different circumstances. Exploring some successful and strong brands in the market, it can be concluded that collective strength of brand elements always contributes to build as well as reinforce brand equity since the birth of the brand. As a part of the successful brand management, immense focus and research are required to work out clutter breaking image of the brand.

2. B. CORPORATE IMAGE

2. B.1 Introduction (21):

Corporate image, or reputation, describes the manner in which a company, its activities, and its products or services are perceived by outsiders. In a competitive business climate, many businesses actively work to create and communicate a positive image to their customers, shareholders, the financial community, and the general public. A company that mismanages or ignores its image is likely to encounter a variety of problems. "Reputation problems grow like weeds in a garden," Davis Young wrote in his book Building Your Company's Good Name."Direct and indirect costs escalate geometrically."

Some of the warning signs that a business might have an image problem include high employee turnover, the disappearance of major customers, a drop in stock value, and poor relationships with vendors or government officials. If an image problem is left unaddressed, a company might find many of its costs of doing business rising dramatically, including the costs of product development, sales support, employee wages, and shareholder dividends. In addition, since the majority of consumers base their purchase decisions at least partly on trust, current and future sales levels are likely to suffer as well.

In businesses of all sizes, it is vital that managers recognize the importance of creating and maintaining a strong image, and that they also make employees aware of it. Corporate image begins within the offices of a company's managers. It should be based on the development of good company policies, rather than on controlling the damage caused by bad company policies.

2.B.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION:

Corporate image(22)

Consumer perception of the corporate entity behind a brand. In most cases, the corporation has no identity in the mind of the consumer, In a few cases, the corporate entity is known and the image has a positive influence on brand sales. In other cases, the corporate image acquires negative connotations. A positive corporate image can greatly increase the speed of new product adoption because of the credibility of the manufacturer's claims.

Mental picture(23) that springs up at the mention of a firm's name. It is a composite psychological impression that continually changes with the firm's circumstances, media coverage, performance, pronouncements, etc.

Similar to a firm's reputation or goodwill, it is the public perception of the firm rather than a reflection of its actual state or position.

Unlike corporate identity, it is fluid and can change overnight from positive to negative to neutral. Large firms use various corporate advertising techniques to enhance their image in order to improve their desirability as a supplier, employer, customer, borrower, etc. The image of Apple computer, for example, as a successful business has dimmed and brightened several times in the last 30 years. But its identity (conveyed by its name and multicolored bitten-off-apple logo) as an innovative and path-breaking firm has survived almost intact during the same period.

2. B.3 IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE IMAGE(24)

Several factors have contributed to the increasing importance of corporate image in recent years. The acceleration of product life cycles is another vital dimension of the turbulent business environment. Globalization has been still another catalyst in the rise of corporate image programs, as companies have sought ways to spread their reputations to distant markets. A related factor is that as a corporation expands its operations internationally, or even domestically, through acquisitions, there is a danger that its geographically dispersed business units will project dissimilar or contrary images to the detriment of corporate synergy.

A final factor stimulating the current interest in corporate image is society's growing expectation that corporations be socially responsible. Many of today's consumers consider the environmental and social image of firms in making their purchasing decisions. Some companies have recognized this reality and reaped tremendous benefits by conducting themselves in a socially and environmentally responsible manner. Some of these companies act out of genuine altruism, while others act out of a simple recognition of the business benefits of such behavior.

The Importance of Corporate Image(25)

The success of business in the contemporary world depends upon many inter related aspects or reasons. A serious business man always wants to get the required status in his sphere of activity or field of action. This brings a huge amount of respect from the fellow competitors and the person enjoys more reputation among the people of his business class. One of such reasons or aspects of a successful business relationship is to have and maintain a high corporate image.

While making a survey in 1989 in Great Britain, the Market Opinion Research International interrogated a large number of businessmen as if what was the most important aspect of making an international repute in the field of marketing and business. It was found that more than 75 per cent were of the view that the corporate image or identity plays a very significant role in the field of making an international repute. An year later, another research made in the same direction by CBI and Fitch Consultant, said that the views on the previous survey were materialized to a great extent.

The dominant reason behind this change is quite understandable. Today we are living in a age which is very much dominated by those people who do not lose any chance to supersede any other company or individual. Today most of the leading companies and professionals are trying to find out a better place of working where they could get less number of work opportunities. They make more skilled business strategies not only to make a healthy competition among the companies but also to survive on the internet. As a result of this cut throat competition, the incidents like mergers, acquisitions etc take place. These terms are very much known to every component of the business world.

2. B.4 FACTORS OF CORPORATE IMAGE

As discussed above, the corporate image is determined by certain factors, such as corporate policy, corporate culture, operations and design of the organization. The strategy part of the companies is the vital one as it helps the companies to take measures of their plans and programs. The policies of a company determine the way of action of the company and help the company to compete in the market. The company is fully free to take any decision to make its products and services easy and affordable to every consumer.

Corporate cultures are the values or norms that the company takes up while serving the consumers with their products and services. This aspect of the corporate image is very much essential for the companies to maintain a high and world class service to it customers. Their chief motto is the satisfaction of the customers from whom they derive their main income including their profit and fame of a corporate organization.

The organizational design refers to the structure of the company from its management level to its working class level. It also ensures and encompasses the inter-personal relationship among the members of the staff of the company from the top level to the bottom level. It includes the various departments of the company which offer their services to the customers in and united manner. Various entities of the corporate organization work to the highest level of their abilities to maintain a very good and satisfactory status among its customers.

2. B.5 THE ELEMENTS OF CORPORATE IMAGE (26)

A corporate image is, of course, the sum total of impressions left on the company's many publics. In many instances a brief, casual act by an employee can either lift or damage the corporate image in the eyes of a single customer or caller on the phone. But the overall image is a composite of many thousands of impressions and facts. The major elements are 1) the core business and financial performance of the company, 2) the reputation and performance of its brands ("brand equity"), 3) its reputation for innovation or technological prowess, usually based on concrete events, 4) its policies toward its salaried employees and workers, 5) its external relations with customers, stockholders, and the community, and 6) the perceived trends in the markets in which it operates as seen by the public. Sometimes a charismatic leader becomes so widely known that he or she adds a personal luster to the company

Image versus Images

Only in the best of cases does a corporation enjoy a single reputation. Different publics may have different views of the corporation depending on their different interests. A company's brand image may be very good but its reputation among suppliers poor—because it bargains very hard, pays late, and shows no loyalty to vendors. A company may be highly regarded on Wall Street but may be disliked on the Main Street of cities where it has closed plants. A company may be valued for providing very low prices yet disliked for its employment practices or indifferent environmental performance. It is much more likely that a small business will have an all-around reputation for excellence than that a very large conglomerate will merit all-around praise. Smallness has its advantages.

At the Core: Business Performance

The single most important factor in the corporate image is a company's core business performance; performance, by definition, includes financial results. A growing, profitable corporation with a steady earnings history will, for these reasons alone, please its customers, investors, and the community in which it operates. A profitable company that, nevertheless, exhibits huge gyrations in earnings will fare worse: its earnings and dividends will be unpredictable; it will have layoffs; its stock will fluctuate; its vendors will be more uneasy; its employees nervous. When a business fails in its core function, its reputation heads straight south. Enron Corp., an energy trader, had a stellar reputation as the 7th largest corporation measured in revenues. It fell into bankruptcy almost abruptly on December 2, 2001; the Justice Department began to investigate it for fraud. Suddenly every aspect of the company that had been admired and lauded—its audacity, energy, profitability, innovativeness, entrepreneurial spirit, and so on—took on opposite and negative connotations. The core business had failed; Enron's reputation imploded. No amount of corporate image polishing could have saved Enron's reputation after that

2. B.6 BUILDING CORPORATE IMAGE (27)

In building corporate image, company management should carefully approach the issue of conceiving and managing tangible components that influence the formation of image – the array of products and/or services offered their attributes, additional, clearly observable benefits, etc. Attention should also be paid to intangible components that are becoming increasingly important in the process of differentiation from the competition and the building of a distinct corporate image under contemporary market conditions – service before, during and after sales, loyalty programs, specially designed service and benefit packages for specific buyers, etc. The growing importance of intangible image elements points to the importance of employees and their motivation to additionally strengthen the company’s positive image in interactive contact with consumers.

In addition, in a time filled with burning ecologically related questions, clearly expressed and adequately communicated company views on environmental protection policy can significantly contribute to improvements of its image in consumer consciousness.

The following stand out as the most important elements of corporate image28

- Products and/or services – attributes and benefits for consumers

- Quality

- Innovativeness

- People and relations

- Company orientation toward consumers/stakeholders

- Values and programs

- Ecological responsibility

- Social responsibility

- Corporate credibility

- Expertise

- Trust

- General public approval

Image (29) in the domain of products encompasses product attributes, as well as consumer benefits from them (added value). For example, if high quality is one of the associations connected with a company’s products, image relates to a general consumer impression that the company produces quality products. A second association can be innovativeness expressed through the introduction of new products on the market, intense modification and improvement of current products and unique marketing programs developed by the company.

In the formation corporate image, it is important to emphasize the role of people and the predominant relations within the company. Values, ways of internal and external communication and the actions of all company employees reflect on the company’s perceived image.

Values(30) and programs refer to the company’s publicly expressed concern for ecological questions. A company demonstrates its stance regarding environmental protection and improvement through a responsible approach to a sustainable and effective use of resources, as well as through respect for prescribed ecological standards in the entire chain of its business activity. An image of a socially responsible company is also attained through a voluntary, active contribution to and participation in the solution to existing problems within the community in which the company does business. In order to improve their reputation, companies have turned to the concept of socially responsible business. However, the initial stages of the implementation of this concept were not sufficiently understood by a large segment of market participants. Namely, many companies recognized that socially responsible business would positively affect corporate image, and then proceeded to delegate the task to their public relations departments.

This led to numerous instances where reality significantly diverged from the promoted image. In order for the implementation of the concept of socially responsible business to produce good results, it must involve the entire company, i.e., all its business functions. In order for the company to gain integrity and for the practice of socially responsible business to become sustainable within the company, the projected image must be consistent at all levels. Company credibility, as the most abstract image component, encompasses expertise, acquired trust and the company’s general positive public image. Company expertise refers to its ability to produce its products and services and make them accessible. Honesty in business also positively reflects on the entire company image, as consumers gain trust in the company. Attractiveness, credibility, prestige and dynamism are just some of the elements that can significantly contribute to image formation.

2. B.7 THEORY OF CORPORATE IMAGE(31)

In the process of managing corporate image, the fundamental variables are: corporate identity, corporate communication, corporate image, and feedback. Corporate identity is the reality of the corporation—the unique, individual personality of the company that differentiates it from other companies. Corporate communication is the aggregate of sources, messages, and media by which the corporation conveys its uniqueness or brand to its various audiences. Corporate image is in the eye of the beholder—the impression of the overall corporation held by its several audiences.

The objective in managing corporate image is to communicate the company's identity to those audiences or constituencies that are important to the firm, in such a way that they develop and maintain a favorable view of the company. This process involves fashioning a positive identity, communicating this identity to significant audiences, and obtaining feedback from the audiences to be sure that the message is interpreted positively. An unsatisfactory image can be improved by modifying corporate communication, re-shaping the corporate identity, or both.

CORPORATE IDENTITY Corporate identity—the reality and uniqueness of the organization—may be broken down into four component parts: corporate strategy, corporate culture, organizational design, and operations. Strategy is the overall plan that determines the company's product/market scope and the policies and programs it chooses to compete in its chosen markets. Corporate culture is the shared values and beliefs that the organization's members hold in common as they relate to each other, their jobs, and the organization. It defines what the firm's personnel believe is important and unimportant, and explains to a large degree why the organization behaves the way it does.

Organizational design refers to the fundamental choices top managers make in developing the pattern of organizational relationships. It encompasses issues such as whether basic tasks should be organized by function or product division, the company's overall configuration, the degree of decentralization, the number of staff personnel, the design of jobs, and the internal systems and procedures. Operations, the fourth and final component of corporate identity, is the aggregate of activities the firm engages in to effect its strategy. These activities become part of the reality of the corporation and can influence its identity in a wide variety of ways.

CORPORATE IMAGE Corporate image is the reputation of the firm with the various audiences that are important to it. These groups that have a stake in the company are known as stakeholders. Stakeholders are affected by the actions of the company and, in turn, their actions can affect the company. Consequently, its image in the eyes of its stakeholders is important to the company. The principal stakeholders with which most large corporations must be concerned are: customers, distributors and retailers, financial institutions and analysts, shareholders, government regulatory agencies, social action organizations, the general public, and employees.

The image that stakeholders have of the company will influence their willingness to either provide or withhold support. Thus, if customers develop a negative perception of a company or its products, its sales and profits assuredly will decline. Government regulatory latory agencies, another important set of stakeholders, are required by law to monitor and regulate firms for specific, publicly defined purposes. Nevertheless, these agencies have considerable discretion in how they interpret and apply the law. Where they have a positive perception of the firm, they are likely to be much less censorious.

Obviously, each of the various stakeholder groups is likely to have a somewhat different perception of the corporation because each is concerned primarily with a different facet of its operation. Thus, consumers are principally interested in the price, quality, and reliability of the company's products and services. Financial institutions are concerned with financial structure and performance. Employees are mainly concerned with wages, working conditions, and personnel policies. Logically, then, a company should tailor its communication to each stakeholder group individually to address the special concerns of that group.

However, maintaining a consistent image among the several stakeholder groups is also vital. Although it is prudent to stress different facets of the firm's identity to its various publics, the firm should avoid projecting an inconsistent image, because the concerns and memberships of different stakeholder groups often overlap. For instance, the financial community and the shareholders would have many of the same financial and strategic concerns about the company. In fact, many shareholders rely heavily on the advice of experts from financial institutions. Similarly, both employees and the general public have an interest in the overall prestige of the firm and the reputation of its products. A social action group's criticism, whether economically effective or not, is bound to influence some customers and affect the company's public reputation. A regulatory agency such as OSHA would focus narrowly on the firm's safety record and policies, but the company's employees and their labor unions also have a stake in these matters.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Corporate communication provides the link between corporate identity and corporate image. It should be defined in the broadest possible sense, because companies communicate identities in many different ways. Communication can include almost anything the company does, from the way telephones are answered to the involvement of company employees in community affairs. Some of the principal sources of corporate communication include company and product names and logos, formal statements (mission statements, credos, codes of ethics, annual reports, advertising copy, and company slogans), and behavior during important events. These events encompass scheduled events such as open houses and anniversary sales as well as unscheduled events such as lawsuits or negative press coverage.

FEEDBACK Feed-back is essential to the management of corporate image. Business owners and managers need accurate information on how they and their company are perceived if they are to make sound decisions. Ideally, feedback should be continuous. As a practical matter, continuous feedback can be elicited from salespeople, clients, employees, and other local business owners. Based on such input, modifications may be made in the company's communication methods or, if warranted, a formal study of the corporate image may be initiated. In addition to systematically utilizing internal sources, it is prudent to undertake a serious review of the business's reputation (both internally and externally) on a regular basis.

Figure: 9 Corporate Image Index

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. B.8 CREATION OF CORPORATE IMAGE TO DRIVE COMPANY BRAND EQUITY(32)

In modern society there is a popular saying that goes "image is everything". This is true also in the corporate world. In order for a company to grow and be successful, it needs to develop an image and the image needs to be positive. By developing what is called a corporate image, a company can distinguish itself from the competitors in the community and stand out on its merits or reputation. The image is very important because it portrays what the company represents, its values, beliefs and productivity. The corporate image is responsible for increasing sales and business for the company. This kind of image takes some time to build and must be created by experts in marketing and public image development. Critics unfortunately help shape the image of a corporation as well. These people however do not always benefit the company image.

The company should have a phrase or slogan that tells either what it does or what it stands for. The logo should also reflect this phrase. Once this phrase is developed, the company should then deliver on what the phrase says.

Once the company knows what kind of image it wants to portray and the logo and slogan have been developed, marketing and advertising become a very important part of the picture. If the company is a large fashion industry, it needs to have the endorsement of supermodels. If it specializes in athletic wear, a great sports star would be more appropriate for building the image. The company should find retailers that match their image to distribute their product to in order to maintain consistency of the image. The image should continually be critiqued to see if it is still living up to what is says and if it still portrays the image the company wants to portray.

Negative reviews or press can harm a corporate image and thus must be addressed. A few negative words placed in a prominent paper or on television can ruin years of work and development of an image. The company should strive to maintain the image by living up to the image that has been built. If it fails to do so the critics of the company will find out and set about making sure the general public becomes aware.

Once the corporation has developed the image it must be maintained, by creating products that are as good as the image claims, delivering the products, and following through on promises made to the public and others in the industry. A good image is made stronger if the words are backed by actions. If the actions of the company do not live up to the words spoken about it, the actions will then become the image of the corporation and the words will be forgotten.

An image is very important to a company. If a corporation is caught purposely deceiving the public its reputation and sales will be severely damaged. A company must work hard to build and then maintain a positive corporate image in order to compete in any industry successfully and build a reputation of trust among customers.

Brand image strategy(33)

Brand image strategy Refers to Enterprise In order to Brand As the core, and emerge from the corporate image, the full range of operation Brand image, improve enterprise Popularity One of the Strategy. In order to achieve the overall goal of enterprise brand strategy, to the enterprise Brand image Conduct Strategic planning. It is an important part of the overall enterprise brand strategy.

Enterprise brand strategy is a kind of System The brand operation strategy, is the enterprise to establish a good brand image, create brand Competitive advantage the overall design. The cultural features of the enterprise, Management Content, Products The characteristics and The spirit of enterprise, must through the visual system of the whole, especially has strong impact on the visual symbol, feature and the intrinsic specific visual image of the abstract concept of com., to convey the enterprise information, reached with the audience Group The Effective communication, to promote product sales, promotion Brand awareness Create the impression of the brand value.

The cultural connotation of the brand image

Brand culture represents a Enterprise culture, is becoming an industry standard; regardless of national boundaries, regardless of race, breakthrough time and space constraints, even if the carrier of the brand disappeared, or quietly in a culture, a kind of spirit spread through the crowd. Can say Brand culture Is Brand value The inexhaustible source of.

The brand culture is the core of brand gene, it is the connotation of brand value and the emotional content of the natural, is the brand touch Consumer The effective carrier of the soul, it contains the value idea, profound emotional expression, aesthetic taste, taste of life, personality cultivation and spiritual elements. Brand culture through shaping the spiritual realm, to bring consumers emotional high level experience, mental comfort, touch the mind of consumers, stimulate their recognition of the brand culture. Brand culture Value Is it the product, from the cold of the material world, to a rich and colorful spiritual world, flying heart dream, looking for the spiritual home, reflect the quality of life. Future competition is the competition of brand, is the brand culture of competition, cultivate Brand personality And the connotation of brand culture is to keep the secrets of the enduring "brand". The core value of brand Brand is the soul of culture, Advertisement, news, Public relations activities Methods has become the approach of brand culture.

The process of creating brand is actually a will demonstrate the process of brand culture fully, the relentless deduction, advancing with the times, make the brand culture implant the heart. Excellent brand culture abstract human good Values Human emotions, interpretation of the eternal theme, leading the fashion trend, changing people's way of life.

2. B.9 MEASURING THE CORPORATE IMAGE(34)

Corporations evaluate their image, much as politicians do, by survey. They employ the methodology of marketing surveys used both in polling and in support of advertising. The investigators select appropriate samples of the public and interview them; telephone surveys are the most common. They use statistical methods of extrapolation to project from the sample what the public as a whole (or selected publics) think. Corporations, of course, also rely on the much "harder" measures such as sales and stock performance. Surveys of the corporate image are sometimes motivated by sagging sales and a miserable press.

The theory of the corporate image holds that, all things equal, a well-informed public will help a company achieve higher sales and profits, whereas a forgetful or poorly informed public may come to hold negative impressions about the company and may ultimately shift more of its patronage toward competitors

A recent campaign launched by Toyota Motor North America Inc. illustrates measurement and a response to it. As reported by Jamie LaReau in Automotive News, "Toyota periodically surveys U.S. consumers' perceptions of the automaker. The surveys suggested [that] Americans' awareness of Toyota's U.S. presence had declined since 2000 even as the company was building and expanding plants." The company launched a print and TV program to highlight the company's contributions to the U.S. economy.

WORDS AND ACTION

The example of Toyota is a case in which Toyota felt the need to communicate ("words") something about its investments ("action") in the United States. Ideally words and actions are always closely linked in building or repairing the corporate image. Ideally, also, the two will correspond.

To achieve a close alignment of words and deeds is often difficult in practice. Who has not observed with a knowing eye the difference between the cheerful, helpful clerks in the TV ads of a company and the surly indifference of that same company's actual clerks? Expert advisors to the corporate world, such as Roger Hayward writing in Accountancy Age emphasize the need for consistent follow-through—so that employees become "a vast army of goodwill ambassadors."

Whether the objective is to make the most of a good thing or to turn around an adverse situation, good management practice will ensure that action is accomplished before the words are spoken. A case of that sort is presented by the Rite Aid chain store. The company went through a financial scandal in the late 1990s; its former chief executive and others were convicted and jailed. A new management team first turned the chain around before, as reported in Chain Drug Review, it launched a campaign to tell the world that "the turnaround is complete and we are a stable, healthy company focusing on growth," as Chain Drug Review quotes Karen Rugen, Rite Aid's senior vice president of communications and public affairs, a newcomer to the company.

ATTENTION TO DETAIL

The management of the corporate image also involves management of the more mundane side of image, the corporation's logo, its brand images, the look and feel of its retail outlets, its offices, signage, even its stationery and the look of its calling cards. Good management implies ensuring that all spokespersons for the company say the same thing in the same way for a consistent message. Furthermore, in pays attention to consistent self-presentation in the look of its facilities.

SMALL BUSINESS AND CORPORATE IMAGE

Every small business will have the equivalent of a corporate image because it will have a reputation among its employees, customers, vendors, neighbors, and the government agencies with which it deals. The first action of the owner, in choosing the name of enterprise, is an exercise in building a corporate image. The process continues in many ways: in the choice of brand names to be used, the location of leased space, office decorations and/or store equipment selected, the company's Web site design if the business has an Internet presence, its sales literature, and so on. As the business begins to operate, it will build its visibility in its market by outward symbols; the quality of its products or services; the knowledge, skill, and friendliness of its employees; its promptness in paying bills; its effectiveness in mounting promotions; and the list goes on.

By their very nature, small businesses tend to be closer to all of their constituencies. As a consequence, the business will enjoy rapid feedback from the public when it begins to make mistakes or has some bad luck. If that should happen, the small business, like the major corporation, will engage in the actions—followed by words—which will be necessary to recover losses or make the most of unusual success.

References:

1. tutor2u.net/business/marketing/brands_introduction.asp
2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand.
3. Jean Neol and Kapferer, strategic brand management, Published by Kogan Page in 2004.
4. Op-cit-en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand.
5.(http://www.research-pmr.com/brand-image-research)
6. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html
7. www.managementstudyguide.com/brand-image.htm
8. papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?
9. http:// lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2951&context=etd
10. papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?
11. www.managementstudyguide.com/identity-vs-image.htm
12. http:// lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2951&context=etd
13 http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/corus/the-importance-of-building-a-strong-brand-image-introduction.html#xzz20SdopUGT
14. https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/.../Sulkunen Solja.pdf
15. https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/.../Sulkunen Solja.pdf
16. brandnbranding.blogspot.com/.../aakers-brand-identity-planning-model.html
17. fmcg-marketing.blogspot.com/2007_07_01_archive.html
18. www.interbrandmedia.com/.../129-why-do-enterprises-need-to-develop-a-brand-identity.html
19. op-cit- .Jean Neol and Kapferer, strategic brand management, Published by Kogan Page in 2004.
20. www.ifrnd.org/IMBR/vol%204/4(4)%20Apr%202012/9.pdf
21. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html
22. http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/corporate-image/4965442-1.html
23. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/corporate-image.html#ixzz2MkgS49ug
24. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html
25. http://www.articlesbase.com/organizational-articles/the-importance-of-corporate-image-1036411.html
26. (http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/corporate-image.html)
27. (http://www.duplication.net.au/ANZMAC09/papers/ANZMAC2009-390.pdf)
28 K. L. Keller: Strategic brand management, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2003.
29 K. L. Keller, K. Richey: “The importance of corporate brand personality traits to a successful 21st century business,” Journal of Brand management, 14, 2006, p. 74.
30 A. Davies: Best practice in corporate governance: building reputation and sustainable success, Gower Publishing Ltd., England, 2006, p. 105.
31. Read more: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html#ixzz2MkkfzpRE
32. http://voices.yahoo.com/how-create-corporate-image-drive-company-brand-849179.html
33. http://www.wiki86.com/view/2091228.htm
34. http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/corporate-image.html

CHAPTER: 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

Brand Image

Consumers usually develop a brand belief for each brand according to the attributes of its products. Such brand belief will later become a brand image (Kotler, 2000) which consumers associate with brand names. Biel (1992) described that brand image as an association with brand name. Advertisement, packaging, corporate identity, public relations, and information provided in promotional activities can all form certain brand associations on the mind of consumers after cognitive processing. According to Dobni and Zinkhan (1990), brand image is the reasoned or emotional perception that consumers attach to specific brands. Keller (1993) defined brand image as “perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory”. This definition is adopted in this study. Brand associations refer to any idea associated with a brand, including associations with the product, brand preference, brand strength, and brand uniqueness.

Corporate image

The corporate image is determined by certain factors, such as corporate policy, corporate culture, operations and design of the organization. The strategy part of the companies is the vital one as it helps the companies to take measures of their plans and programs. The policies of a company determine the way of action of the company and help the company to compete in the market. The company is fully free to take any decision to make its products and services easy and affordable to every consumer.

Getting the true opinion of the respondents is but a challenge. The comprehensiveness of a brand is unlimited. Any number of parameters that the researcher considers may still be insufficient to decipher the entirety. Further, different respondents may base their core identity of the brand in different parameters. This is true for both brand image and corporate image as well.

The current study is further complicated by the rapid and dynamic nature of the telugu dailies industry that it is in today. The opinions of the respondents keep changing and more and more parameters as the media operators try to differentiate their strategies for sustainable competitive advantage, keep entering and influencing the respondents, opinions on brand and corporate image. This research is an attempt to describe the brand and corporate image of the selected telugu dailies by taking certain parameters which are common in use and which the researcher believes that would comprehensively describe both brand and corporate image.

3.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Unlike the global print industry, which is moving towards digitisation and showing a negative growth year on year, the Indian print media industry is going strong and is expected to continue similarly. The print industry in India, with over 90 million copies in circulation daily, is one of the largest in the world, second only to China (130 million copies). It is not to say that there has been no effort towards digitization and conversion to online readership, but there has not been much progress. Most newspapers have an online presence and a growing view count on their portals, but hard copy still remains the preferred mode to access news. We do not expect any significant change in this trend over the next five years

Overall, the size of this industry was INR 178.7 billion in 2010, registering a growth of 10.7% over INR 161.5 billion in 2009.

The Indian print industry is projected to grow by 9.6% over the period 2010-15 and is projected to reach an estimated INR 282.0 billion in 2015 from the present estimate of INR 178.7 billion in 2010. Newspaper will continue to have a major share in the print market.

Table: 15 Projected Growth of the Indian Print Media Industry in 2010-15

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: PwC Analysis and Industry Estimates

From the review of literature, it makes it clear that the studies on brand and corporate image focus more on durables and specific non-durables and some service industries and hardly any on dailies media. Especially on telugu media, it is observed that the amount of knowledge for conceptual enrichment or for industry analysis is very much restrained. Further in today’s times as the telugu dailies are in such a competitive environment seen never before, such studies are far more relevant and wanting. Hence this particular study has been taken up.

3.3 OBJECTIVES:

1. To study the Telugu customer profile in Telugu dailies.
2. To identify the corporate image of leading Telugu dailies.
3. To asses brand image among leading Telugu dailies.
4. To measure the satisfaction towards the various features of leading Telugu dailies.
5. To suggest specific measures of leading Telugu dailies for improvement in brand and corporate image.

3.4 HYPOTHESES:

1. Age of the customer influences the customer choice of Telugu daily.
2. Qualification of the customer influences the customer choice of telugu daily
3. Income of the customer influences the customer choice of Telugu daily.
4. Customer choice of Telugu daily influences the customer recommendation to a Telugu daily.
5. Customer choice of a Telugu daily influences the corporate image.

Scope of the study

The study is done on Telugu print media customers in Andhra Pradesh.

3.5 DATA SOURCES

Primary data:

Primary data is collected from the Telugu daily readers of Andhra Pradesh through a well designed questionnaire.

Secondary data

Secondary data is collected from books, magazines, company reports, some websites and news papers.

Sampling unit

All the Telugu daily readers in Andhra Pradesh.

Sampling size

150 Telugu readers are taken up for the study.

3.6 SAMPLING METHODOLOGY:

At the first stage the state of Andhra Pradesh is divided in to 3 regions, Telangana, Coastal and Rayalaseema using judgement sampling method such that a well diversified respondents can be taken into the sample. It is also quite logical as the vernacular and the accent of the three regions differ significantly. In the second stage, major cities of these three regions are selected viz., Hyderabad, Vijayawada and Kadapa, once again using judgement sampling method. 50 customers from each region are selected to administer the questionnaire using a convenience samling method, a total of 150 telugu daily readers are selected.

3.7 STATISTICAL TOOLS APPLIED:

Simple ratios, percentages, weighted averages and chi square are used to present the data and test the hypotheses.

3.8 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:

A schedule is administered using a structured questionnaire which include the following sections viz,

1. Customer profile.
2. Corporate image.
3. Brand image.
4. Satisfaction levels of readers with the features of the daily.

Where dichotomous, multiple choice, ranking, likert scale, importance scale etc., are used.

CHAPTER: 4 DATA ANALYSIS

TABLE: 16 SHOWING THE AGE OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 33.4% of the respondents belong to the age group of 26 to 40 years, 28% belongs to 41 to 60 years, 26.6% belongs to 15 to 25 years and 12% belongs to more than 60 years.

TABLE: 17 SHOWINGTHE MARITAL STATUS OF THE CUSTOMER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that 64.7% of the respondents are married and remaining 35.3% are un-married.

TABLE: 18 SHOWING THE QUALIFICATION OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 45.3% are post graduates, 35.3% are in between inter to degree level, and remaining 19.3% are up to the level of SSC.

TABLE: 19 SHOWING THE PROFESSION OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 26.7% are private employees, 22% are government employees, 18% are self employees, 14%are un-employees, 11.3% are students and the remaining 8% are Rtd-employees.

TABLE: 20 SHOWING THE OCCUPATION OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 15.3%of respondents are students, 14.7% own a business, 13.3% are Govt officials, 12.7% are teachers and lecturers and the remaining 44% are doing other forms of jobs.

TABLE: 21 SHOWING THE INCOME OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 37% of the respondents are kept in between 1 lakh but bellow 2 lakhs, 25.3% are in between 51000 to 1 lakh, 15% are above 3 lakhs, 13.3% are in between 2 and 3 lakhs, and 10% are bellow 50 000 Rs.

TABLE: 22 SHOWING THE REGION OF THE CUSTOMERS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 33.3% respondents are from Kadapa, 33.3% are from Hyderabad and 33.3% are from Vijayawada.

GRAPH: 1 SHOWING THE MOST PROMINENT SOURCE OF NEWS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 74% of respondents are feeling that TV as their most prominent source of news and 26% of respondents are don’t so.

- 24% of respondents are feeling that radio as their most prominent source of news and remaining 76% are not so.

- 5.3% of respondents are feeling that internet as their most prominent source of news and remaining is not.

- 100% of the respondents are feeling that their most prominent source of news as News Paper.

GRAPH: 2 SHOWING THE READERS OF DAILIES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE: 72.7% of the respondents are reading Eenadu news daily, 70% are reading Sakshi, 34% are reading Andhra Jyothi, 2.7% are reading Andhra Prabha. While 9.3% are reading Vaartha, 6.6% are reading Surya and no one is reading Praja Sakti daily and Andhra Bhoomi and where as 23.3% are reading Deccan Chronicle and 26% are reading the Hindu daily.

TABLE: 23 SHOWING CUSTOMERS LOYALTY TOWAERDS THE DAILIES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 26% of the respondents are reading dailies since from 11 to 15 years, 22% are from more than 20 years, 18% are 6 to 10 years, 18% are 15 to 20 years, and 16% are up to 6 years.

TABLE: 24 SHOWING PAST READING DAILIES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 56.7% of respondents were reading Eenadu in the past. 28.7% of respondents were reading Sakshi in the past, 69.3% of respondents were reading Andhra jyothi in the past, 23.1%% of respondents were read Andhra Prabha in the past, 60.% of respondents were read Vaartha in the past and 24% of respondents were reading Surya in the past, 8% of respondents were reading Praja Sakti in the past, 14% of respondents were read Andhra Bhoomi in the past, 14.7% of respondents were read Deccan chronicle in the past, 8.2% of respondents were read the Hindu in the past.

GRAPH: 3 SHOWING THE CHOICE OF READERSHIP

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph states that 42.7% of the respondents feel that Eenadu as their choice of readership, 37.3% of the respondents feel that Sakshi as their choice readership and remaining 20% are made Andhra Jyothi as their choice.

Corporate Image

GRAPH: 4 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ AWARENESS OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF BUSINESSES OF EENADU

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 100% of Eenadu readers aware of Ramoji Film City, 86% of Eenadu readers aware of Margadarshi, 34% of Eenadu readers aware of Usha Kiran movies, 67.2% of Eenadu readers aware of Priya foods, 18.7% of Eenadu readers aware of Dolphin hotels, 100% of Eenadu readers aware of E-TV., 15.6% of Eenadu readers aware of Mayuri distributors.

GRAPH: 5 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ AWARENESS OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF BUSINESSES OF SAKSHI

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

100 % of Sakshi readers aware of Sakshi TV, 41 % of Sakshi readers aware of Bharathi Cements.

GRAPH: 6 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT CORPORATE VISION AND DIRECTION

INFERENCE: The above graph depicts that 40.6% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about corporate vision and direction, 34.4% are felt that it is excellent and the remaining 25% as very good. For Sakshi, 48.2% of the respondents are not saying anything about corporate vision and direction, 27% are felt that it is very good, 14% as excellent and the remaining 10.6% as poor. For Andhra jyothi, 76.7% of the respondents are not saying anything about the corporate vision and direction and the remaining 23.3% as very good.

GRAPH: 7 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT THE OVERALL CORPORATE OPERATIONS TO DAY COMPARED WITH A YEAR AGO

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE: The above graph depicts that 36% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about the overall corporate operations to day compared with a year ago, 30% are felt that it is very good, 20% as excellent and the remaining 14% as poor. For Sakshi, 46.4% of the respondents are not saying anything about the overall corporate operations to day compared with a year ago, 26.7% are felt that it is very good, 14% as excellent and the remaining 12.5% as poor. For Andhra jyothi, 46.7% of the respondents are not saying anything about the overall corporate operations to day compared with a year ago, 36.7% as very good and the remaining 16.6 as poor.

GRAPH: 8 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT FINANCIAL STRENGTH OF THE COMPANY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 56.3 of the Eenadu respondents are feeling excellent about the financial strength of the company, 23.4% as very good and the remaining 20.3% as good. For Sakshi, 41% of the respondents are feeling that the financial strength of the company is very good, 35.7% as excellent and the remaining 23.3% as good. For Andhra jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents felt that it is very good, 36.7% as good, 10% as excellent and the remaining 10% as poor.

GRAPH: 9 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT CORPORATE SKILL IN THE MARKETING

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE: The above graph depicts that 39% of Eenadu respondents depicts that corporate skill in marketing as very good, 32.8% as excellent, 19% as good and the remaining 9.2% as poor. For Sakshi, 46.4% are not saying anything about c corporate skill in marketing, 30.4% as excellent, 21.4% as very good and the remaining 1.8 as poor. For Andhra jyothi, 36.7% are depicts that corporate skill in marketing is poor, 23.3% as very good, 23.3% as excellent and the remaining 16.7% are not saying anything.

GRAPH: 10 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT ABILITY TO DEVELOP STRONG CONSUMER PROMOTIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE: The above graph depicts that 39% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about corporate ability to develop strong consumer promotions, 28% are felt that it is excellent, 18%as it is very good and the remaining 14% as poor. For Sakshi, 50% of the respondents are not saying anything, while 30.4% felt that it is very good, 12.5% as poor, and the remaining 7.1% as excellent. For Andhra Jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents do not say anything about while, 36.7% are opined as poor and the remaining 20% as very good.

GRAPH: 11 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT REGULAR INTRODUCTIONS OF NEW INVENTIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 61% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about the regular introduction of new inventions, 25% depicts that it is excellent and the remaining 14% as poor. For Sakshi, 42.9% of the respondents felt that the regular introduction of new invention, as poor, 37.5% as very good, 16% as excellent and the remaining 3.6% are not saying anything. For Andhra Jyothi, 60% are not saying anything about the regular introduction of new invention, 20% as poor and the remaining 20% as very good.

GRAPH: 12 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT THE CORPORATE FOCUS ON IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 40.6% of the Eenadu respondents depicts about the corporate focus on improving customer satisfaction, as very good, 39% are not saying anything, 10.9% as excellent and the remaining 9.5% as poor. For Sakshi, 44.5% are not saying anything about corporate focus on improving customer satisfaction, 37.5% as very good, 11% as very poor and the remaining 7% as excellent. For Andhra Jyothi, 50% are opined about corporate focus on improving customer satisfaction as very good, while 40% are not saying anything and the remaining 10% as poor.

GRAPH: 13 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT THE CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COMMITMENT

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 30% of the Eenadu respondents are felt very good about corporate leadership commitment, 26.5% as excellent, 23.4% are not saying any thing and the remaining 20.1 as poor. For Sakshi, 42.8% of the respondents are depicts very good about corporate leadership commitment, 27% are not saying anything, 17.8% as excellent and the remaining 12.4% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 80% of the respondents opined it is very good, 16.7% as poor and the remaining 3.3% as cant say.

GRAPH: 14 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT COMMITMENT TO THE PUBLIC

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 34.2% of Eenadu respondents felt about the commitment to the public as very good, 32.8% are not saying any thing, 20% as poor, 8% as excellent and the remaining 5% as very poor. For Sakshi, 51.7% of the respondents opined about the commitment to the public as very good, while 35.7% as excellent and the remaining 12.6% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents opined about the commitment to the public as excellent, 23.3% as cant say, 16.7% as very good and the remaining 16.7% as poor.

GRAPH: 15 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts 52% are not saying anything about Corporate social responsibility, 20% as very good, 20% as poor and the remaining 8% as excellent. For Sakshi, 41% are not saying any thing about corporate social responsibility, 30.4% as excellent, 16% as very good, 12.6% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 36.7% are not saying anything about Corporate social responsibility, 23.7% as excellent, 23.7% as very good and the remaining 16.7% as poor.

GRAPH: 16 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT PRACTICING BUSINESS ETHICS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 40% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about practicing of business ethics, 30% as poor, 16% as excellent and the remaining 14% as very good. For Sakshi, 42.7% are not saying anything about practicing of business ethics, 30.4% as very good, 14.2% as excellent and the remaining 12.6% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 36.7% of the respondents are not saying any thing about practicing of business ethics, 23.3% as excellent, 23.3% as very good and the remaining 16.7% as poor.

GRAPH: 17 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT A GOOD EMPLOYER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 45.1% of the Eenadu respondents are not saying anything about Company is a good employer, 30% as very good, 14% as poor and the remaining 10.9% as excellent. For Sakshi, 55% of the respondents felt about Company is a good employer as very good, 27% as not saying anything 16% as excellent and the remaining 2% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 46.7% of the respondents felt about Company is a good employer as poor, 40% as very good and the remaining 13.3% as excellent.

GRAPH: 18 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ABOUT RELIABLITY OF THE COMPANY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 53% are not saying anything about the reliability of company, 26.5% as excellent, 14% as very good and the remaining 6.5% as poor. For Sakshi, 44.5% of the respondents felt about a reliable company as very good, 32% as excellent, 12.5% are not saying anything and the remaining 11% as poor. For Andhra Jyothi, 76.7% are not saying anything about a reliable company, 20% as excellent and the remaining 3.3% as very good.

Brand Image

GRAPH: 19 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ FAMILIARITY WITH DAILIES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 70% of the respondents are regularly reading Eenadu and 30% are reading it sometimes. Regarding Sakshi 69.3%of the respondents are reading Sakshi daily regularly, 26.7% are reading it some time and remaining 4% are heard about daily but never read it. When it comes to Andhra Jyothi 68.7%of respondents are reading Andhra Jyothi daily some times and the remaining 31.3% are regular to it.

And 54% of the respondents are heard about Andhra Prabha but read it, 44% are read it some times and the remaining 2% are never heard of it. For Vartha 66% of the respondents are reading Vaartha daily sometimes, 24% are just heard about the daily and 10% are regular to it. For Surya, 64.7%of the respondents are just heard about the Surya daily, 33.3%are reading it sometimes and the remaining 2% are not even heard of it. For Praja Sakti, 58%of the respondents are just heard about Praja Sakti, 30.7%are not even heard of it and the remaining 11.3% are reading it sometimes And Andhra Bhoomi 68.7%of the respondents are just heard about Andhra Bhoomi, 23.3% are reading it some times and remaining 8% are not even heard of it.

TABLE: 25 SHOWING CUSTOMERS PRIMARIY DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that 68.7%of the respondents are reading the daily primarily at home, 17.3% are in another location, 8%are at office and 6% are at library.

GRAPH: 20 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS DO WAIT FOR THE NEWS PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 76%of the respondents are not waiting for daily and the remaining 24% are waiting for the daily.

TABLE: 26 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “LOOKS GOOD”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of looking good 30% of the respondents are ranked 4, followed by 26% are ranked 2, 15.3% are ranked 3rd , 13.3% are ranked 1st , 8.7% are ranked 5th, 4% for 6th, and 2% are ranked 6th.

TABLE: 27 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “EASY TO READ”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of easy to read 44.7% of the respondents are ranked 3rd, 21.3%are ranked 2nd, 10% are ranked 6th, 8%are ranked 5th and 7th, 6%are ranked 4th and the remaining 2% are ranked 1st.

TABLE: 28 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “PRICE” WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of price of the daily 20%of the respondents are ranked 2nd, 19.3%are ranked 5th, 18% are ranked 1st,16%are ranked 4th, 12%are ranked 8th, 6%are ranked both 4th and 6th,and the remaining 2.7% are ranked 7th rank.

TABLE: 29 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “INFORMATION,” WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of information 43.3%of the respondents are ranked 1st, 24.7%are ranked 2nd, 12%are ranked 3rd, 7.3%are ranked 7th, 6.7%are ranked 4th and remaining 6% are ranked 5th rank.

TABLE: 30 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “AVAILABILITY”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of availability 32.7%of the respondents are ranked 6th, 22%are ranked 7th, 16%are ranked 4th, 12%are ranked 8th, 9.3%are ranked 5th, 4%are ranked 1st and remaining 4% are ranked 3rd rank.

TABLE: 31 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “BEST QUALITY”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it can be inferred that, for the attribute of best quality 30.7% of the respondents are ranked 5th, 28.7% are ranked 6th, 14% are ranked 7th,6.7% are ranked 1st, 6% are ranked 3rd, 6% are ranked 4th, 4% are ranked 2nd and remaining 4% are ranked 8th rank.

TABLE: 32 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “JUST WHAT I NEED”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that for the attribute of just a need 34% of respondents are ranked 7th, 34% are ranked 8th, 11.4% are ranked 4th, 8% are ranked 3rd, 4.7% are ranked 6th, 4% are ranked 1st and 4% are ranked 5th rank.

TABLE: 33 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ATTRIBUTE “ADVERTISING”, WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMERS TO TRY THE PAPER

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that for the attribute of advertising 33% of respondents are ranked 8th, 14% are ranked 5th, 12% are ranked 6th, 10.7% are ranked 1st, 10% are ranked 7th, 8% are ranked 4th, 4% are ranked 3rd and 3.3% are ranked 2nd rank.

TABLE: 34 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (POLITICAL NEWS)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 47.3% of the respondents are ranked political news 1st, 22.7% are ranked 2nd, 14% are ranked 3rd, 7.3% are ranked 5th, 4.7% are ranked 4th, 2% are ranked 6th, 2% are ranked 6th and 2% are ranked 10th rank.

TABLE: 35 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (SPORTS)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 27.3% of the respondents are ranked their priority of sports news with 3rd rank, 20% are ranked 4th, 17.3% are ranked 2nd, 13.3% are ranked 5th, 12% are ranked 6th, 6% are ranked 7th, 2% are ranked 1st and remaining 2% are ranked 9th rank.

TABLE: 36 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (FILMS)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 33.3% of the respondents are made their priority on film news with 5th rank, 22% are ranked 4th, 18% are ranked 6th, 8.7% are ranked 3rd, 6% are ranked 7th, 6% are ranked 8th, 4% are ranked 1st and remaining 2% are ranked 10th rank.

TABLE: 37 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY

(CHILDREN FUN GAMES)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 28% of the respondents are made their priority on children fun games with 7th rank, 20% are ranked 10th, 18% are ranked 8th, 14% are ranked 9th, 12.7% are ranked 6th, 4% are ranked 5th and remaining 3.3% are ranked 3rd rank.

TABLE: 38 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (ENTERTAINEMENT)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 16.7% of the respondents are made their priority on entertainment with 2nd rank, 16.7% are ranked 3rd, 16% are ranked 4th, 14% are ranked 5th, 11.3% are ranked 8th, 10% are ranked 9th, 8% are ranked 7th, 4% are ranked 1st and remaining 3.3% are ranked 10th rank.

TABLE: 39 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (HEALTH)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that16% of the respondents are made their priority on health news with 4th rank, 16% are ranked 10th, 14.7% are ranked 7th, 14% are ranked 9th rank, 12% are ranked 5th, 10% are ranked 8th, 9.3% are ranked 6th and 8% are ranked 2nd rank.

TABLE: 40 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (EDUCATION)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 18% of the respondents are made their priority on education news with 8th rank, 16% are ranked 7th, 14% are ranked 2nd, 12.7% are ranked 6th, 10% are ranked 5th, 8% are ranked 4th, 8% are ranked 9th, 7.3% are ranked 1st and 6% are ranked 3rd.

TABLE: 41 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (ADVERTISEMENTS)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 18% of the respondents are made their priority on advertisements with 6th rank, 14.7% are ranked 8th, 13.3% are ranked 3rd, 13.3% are ranked 7th, 12.7% are ranked 1st, 8% are ranked 9th, 8% are ranked 10th, 6% are ranked 4th, 4% are ranked 2nd and 2% are ranked 5th rank.

TABLE: 42 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (STOCK NEWS)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 36% of the respondents are made their priority on stock news with 9th rank, followed by 24.7% are ranked 10th, 16% are ranked 8th, 10% are ranked 6th, 7.3% are ranked 4th and remaining 6% are ranked 7th rank.

TABLE: 43 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE DAILY (PICTURE & PRINTING)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 24% of the respondents are made their priority on picture and printing with 10th rank, 22.7% are ranked 1st, 17.3% are ranked 3rd, 10% are ranked 6th, 8% are ranked 9th, 6% are ranked 3rd, 6% are ranked 8th, 4% are ranked 5th and remaining 2% are ranked 7th rank.

GRAPH: 21 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ TRUST TOWARDS THE NEWS OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 43.8% of Eenadu respondents are neutral about the trust towards the news of the daily 40.6% are agreeing and the remaining 15.6% are strongly agreeing. For Sakshi, 82% are agreeing the news of the daily, 16% are neutral while the remaining 2% are strongly agreeing. For Andhra jyothi, 40% are agreeing the about the trust towards the news of the daily, 36.7% are neutral and the remaining 23.3% are strongly agreeing.

GRAPH: 22 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS THE COVERAGE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 37.5% of Eenadu respondents are neutral about the coverage of the daily 34.4% are agreeing and the remaining 28.1% are strongly agreeing. For Sakshi, 37.5% are agreeing the news of the daily, 30.4% are neutral while the remaining 32.1% are strongly agreeing. For Andhra jyothi, 93.4% are agreeing the about coverage of the daily, 3.3% are neutral and the remaining 3.3% are strongly agreeing.

GRAPH: 23 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS UPDATES OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 53.2% of Eenadu respondents are agreeing about updates of the daily, 23.4% are neutral and the remaining 23.4% are strongly agreeing. For Sakshi, 30.4% are agreeing the updates of the daily, 37.5%are neutral while the remaining 32.1% are strongly agreeing. For Andhra jyothi, 33.3% are strongly agreeing the updates of the daily, 40% are neutral and the remaining 26.7% are agreeing.

GRAPH: 24 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS PAPER QUALITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 50% of the Eenadu respondents are strongly agreed for the paper quality of the daily is good, 36% are agreed and the remaining 14% are neutral. For Sakshi, 53.5% of the respondents are agreed for the paper quality of the daily is good, 37.5% are strongly agreed and the remaining 9 % are neutral. For Andhra jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents are agreed for the paper quality of the daily is good, 30% are neutral and the remaining 26.7% are strongly agreed

GRAPH: 25 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS FUTURE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 70% of the Eenadu respondents are agreed about future for the daily would be good, 19% are strongly agreed and the remaining 11% are neutral. For Sakshi, 66% of the respondents are agreed about future for the daily would be good, 21.4% are neutral, and the remaining 12.6% are strongly agreed. For Andhra jyothi, 63.3% of the respondents are agreed about future for the daily would be good, 20% are strongly agreed and the remaining 16.7% are neutral.

GRAPH: 26 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION ON WHETHER WORDING OF THE PAPER REFLECTS TRUTH

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that45.3% of Eenadu respondents is neutral about the word reflection is true, strongly agreeing by 28.2% and the remaining 26.5% are agreeing. For Sakshi, 55% are neutral about the word reflection is true, agreeing by 32.4% and the remaining 12.6% are strongly agreeing. For Andhra jyothi, 60% are strongly agreeing towards word reflection is true and the remaining 40% are neutral.

GRAPH: 27 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS THE READABILITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts 61 % of the Eenadu respondents are agreed about readability of the daily is good, 30% are strongly agreed, 4.5% are neutral and the remaining 4.5% are disagreed. For Sakshi, 51 % of the respondents are agreed about readability of the daily is good, 27% are strongly agreed, 11% are neutral and the remaining 11% are disagreed. For Andhra jyothi, 66.6 % of the respondents are agreed about readability of the daily is good, 16.7% are strongly agreed and the remaining 16.7% are neutral.

GRAPH: 28 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS PRICE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 36.6% of the Eenadu respondents are agreed about price of the daily is good, 34.2% are neutral, 20% are dis-agreeing and the remaining 9.2% are strongly agreeing. For Sakshi, 64% of the respondents are strongly agreeing about price of the daily is good, 28% are agreed, and 4%are neutral while the remaining 4% are dis-agreed. For Andhra jyothi, 40% are agreed about the price of the daily is good, 36.7% are neutral, 20% are dis-agreed and the remaining 3.3% are strongly agreed.

GRAPH: 29 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS REACHING TIME OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 37.5% of the Eenadu respondents are strongly agreed on reaching time of the daily is good, 32.8% are neutral, 14% are agreed, 11% are disagreed and the remaining 4.7% are strongly disagreed. For Sakshi, 44.5% are neutral on reaching time of the daily is good, 28.2% are agreed, 23.3 are strongly agreed and the remaining 4% are disagreed. For Andhra Jyothi, 66.7% are agreed on reaching time of the daily is good, 20% are neutral, 10% are disagreed and the remaining 3.3% are strongly agreed

GRAPH: 30 SHOWING THE CUSTOMERS’ OPINION TOWARDS AVAILABILITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

The above graph depicts that 65.3% of the Eenadu respondents are felt that the daily is always available, 19% are felt that very often it is available, 9.2% are not say anything and the remaining 6.5% are felt that it is available only sometimes. For Sakshi, 80% of the respondents are felt that the daily is always available, 10.6% are felt that it is available only sometimes the remaining 5.4% are not say anything. For Andhra jyothi, 53.3% of the respondents are felt that the daily is always available, 26.7% are not saying anything, and the remaining 20% are felt that very often it is available.

TABLE: 44 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN WORDING OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 47.3%of the total respondents are ranked 3 for Eenadu for the improvement of wording, 42.7% are ranked 2 and the remaining 10% are ranked it 1st. 38% of the total respondents are ranked 1 for Sakshi for the improvements of wording, 32.7% are ranked 3 and the remaining 29.3% are ranked it 2nd. 52% of the total respondents are ranked 1 for Andhra jyothi daily for the improvement of wording, 28% are ranked 2 and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 45 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN BIASNESS OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 55% of the total respondents are ranked 2 for eenadu for the improvement of biasness, 25.3% are ranked 1st and the remaining 19.3% are ranked it 3rd. 57.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for sakshi for the improvement of biasness, 34.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 8% are ranked it 3rd. 72.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of biasness, 17.3% are ranked 1st and the remaining 10% are ranked it 2nd.

TABLE: 46 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN PAPER QUALITY OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 63.3% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for eenadu for the improvement of paper quality, 30.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 6% are ranked it 1st. 65.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for sakshi for the improvement of paper quality, 30.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 4% are ranked it 1st. 90% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of paper quality, 6% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 4% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 47 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN REACHING TIME OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 42.7% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for Eenadu for the improvements of reaching time of the daily, 32% are ranked 1st and the remaining 25.3% are ranked it 3rd. 44.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Sakshi for the improvements of reaching time of the daily, 35.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 1st. 48% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of reaching time of the daily, 30% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 22% are ranked it 2nd.

TABLE: 48 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE

IMPROVED IN AVAILABILITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 40% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Eenadu for the improvements of availability of the daily, 34.7% are ranked 1st and the remaining 25.3% are ranked it 2nd. 40% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Sakshi for the improvements of availability of the daily, 38% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 22% are ranked it 1st. 43.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of availability of the daily, 36.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 49 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN PRICE OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 64% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for Eenadu for the improvement of price of the daily, 30% are ranked 1st and the remaining 6% are ranked it 3rd. 88.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Sakshi for the improvement of price of the daily, 11.3% are ranked 2nd. 70% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of price of the daily, 24.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 5.3% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 50 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN READABILITY OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 52% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for eenadu for the improvement of readability of the daily, 46% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 2% are ranked it 1st. 40.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for sakshi for the improvement of readability of the daily, 31.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 28% are ranked it 3rd. 57.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of readability of the daily, 22.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 51 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN LATESTNESS OF INFORMATION OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 52% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Eenadu for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 36.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 11.3% are ranked it 1st. 51.3% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for Sakshi for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 32.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 16% are ranked it 1st. 72.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 15.3% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 12% are ranked it 2nd.

TABLE: 52 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN COVERAGE OF DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 49.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Eenadu for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 32% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 18.7% are ranked it 1st. 42.6% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for Sakshi for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 32.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 24.7% are ranked it 1st. 56.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 25.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 18% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 53 SHOWING THE RANKING OF THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED IN COMPREHENSIVENESS OF

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 53.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Eenadu for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 34.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 12% are ranked it 1st. 36.7% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for Sakshi for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 32% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 31.3% are ranked it 1st. 56.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 28.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 14.6% are ranked it 3rd.

TABLE: 54 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH COVERAGE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 76% of Eenadu respondents are satisfied with the coverage of the daily, 16% are neutral and the remaining 8% are highly satisfied. For Sakshi, 57.2% of the respondents feel about the coverage of the daily as satisfied, while 21.4% are highly satisfied and the remaining 21.4% as neutral. For Andhra Jyothi, 76.7% of the respondents opined about the coverage of the daily as satisfied, 20% are neutral and the remaining 3.3% are highly satisfied.

GRAPH: 31 SATISFACTION WITH COVERAGE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 55 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH PRINTING & PICTURE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 54.9% of the Eenadu respondents are satisfied with the printing & picture of the daily and the remaining 45.1% are highly satisfied. For Sakshi, 68% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the printing & picture of the daily, 16% are satisfied and the remaining 16% are neutral. For Andhra Jyothi, 80% of the respondents opined neutral with the printing & picture of the daily, 13.3% are satisfied and the remaining 6.7% are highly satisfied.

GRAPH: 32 SATISFACTION WITH PRINTING & PICTURE

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 56 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH INFORMATION OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 50% of the Eenadu respondents are satisfied with the information of the daily, 25% are highly satisfied and the remaining 25% are neutral. For Sakshi, 48% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the information of the daily 32% are satisfied and the remaining 20% are neutral. For Andhra Jyothi, 96.7% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the information of the daily and the remaining 3.3% are neutral.

GRAPH: 33 SATISFACTION WITH INFORMATION

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 57 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 47% of Eenadu respondents are highly satisfied with Quality of the daily, 42% are satisfied and the remaining 11% as neutral. For Sakshi, 69.6% of the respondents are highly satisfied with Quality of the daily 21.4% is satisfied and the remaining 20% are neutral. For Andhra Jyothi, 70% are neutral about with Quality of the daily 26.7% are satisfied and the remaining 3.3% are highly satisfied.

GRAPH: 34 SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 58 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH PRICE OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 43.8% of Eenadu respondents are neutral with price of the daily, 37.5 are satisfied, 10.7% are dis-satisfied and the remaining 8% are highly satisfied. For Sakshi, 59% of the respondents are highly satisfied with price of the daily, 30.4% are satisfied, 7% are neutral and the remaining 3.6% are dissatisfied. For Andhra Jyothi, 63.3% of the respondents are neutral with price of the daily, 30% are dissatisfied and the remaining 6.7% are satisfied.

GRAPH: 35 SATISFACTION WITH PRICE

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 59 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH READABILITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 56% of Eenadu respondents are satisfied with readability of the daily, 28% are highly satisfied, 11% are neutral and the remaining 5% are dissatisfied. For Sakshi, 48% are neutral about readability of the daily, 41.3% are satisfied, 7.1% are highly satisfied and the remaining 3.6% are dissatisfied. For Andhra Jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents are satisfied with the readability of the daily, 36.7% are highly satisfied and the remaining 20% are neutral.

GRAPH: 36 SATISFACTION WITH READABILITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 60 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH AVAILABILITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 64% of Eenadu respondents are satisfied with availability of the daily, 20% as neutral, 11% are dissatisfied and the remaining 5% are highly satisfied. For Sakshi, 59% are satisfied with availability of the daily, 33.9% are neutral and the remaining 7.1% are highly satisfied. For Andhra Jyothi, 50% of the respondents are satisfied with availability of the daily, 13.3% are neutral and the remaining 10% are dissatisfied.

GRAPH: 37 SATISFACTION WITH AVAILABILITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 61 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH REACHING TIME OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 47% of Eenadu respondents are satisfied with reaching time of the daily, 43.8% are neutral and the remaining 9.2% are highly satisfied. For Sakshi, 53.5% are neutral about reaching time of the daily, 34% are satisfied and the remaining 12.5% are highly satisfied. For Andhra Jyothi, 43.3% of the respondents are satisfied with reaching time of the daily, 26.7% are highly satisfied, 20% are neutral and the remaining 10% are dissatisfied.

GRAPH: 38 SATISFACTION WITH REACHING TIME

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 62 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION WITH POLITICAL BIAS OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 52% of Eenadu respondents are dissatisfied with political bias of the daily, 28% are neutral and the remaining 20% are highly dissatisfied. For Sakshi, 41% are highly dissatisfied about political bias of the daily, 25% are satisfied, 14.4% are satisfied, 12.5% are neutral and the remaining 7.1% are highly satisfied. For Andhra Jyothi, 56.7% of the respondents are highly satisfied with political bias of the daily, 33.3% are satisfied and the remaining 10% are dissatisfied.

GRAPH: 39 SATISFACTION WITH POLITICAL BIAS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 63 SHOWING WHETHER CUSTOMERS RECOMMEND THIS DAILY TO OTHERS.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

From the above table it is inferred that 31.2% of Eenadu respondents are not sure about to recommendation of the daily to others, 28% are definitely yes, 17.3% are probably yes, 12.5% are probably not and the remaining 11% are definitely not.

For Sakshi, 57.2% are not sure about to recommendation of the daily to others, 19.6% are probably yes, 19.6% are Definitely Yes and the remaining 3.6% are definitely not.

For Andhra jyothi, 63.3% are not sure about to recommendation of the daily to others, 23.3% are probably yes, 10.1% are definitely yes and the remaining 3.3% are probably not.

TABLE: 64 SHOWING THAT THE ADDITIONAL FEATURES TO BE INCLUDED IN THE DAILIES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

Eenadu customers want History and lifestyle of some important people, proper employment news and importance to the literature features to be added in addition to what the daily presently offers. Sakshi customers want to include Day on the Date, Government policies and schemes and Articles about the prophets in addition to the existing. Similarly Andhra Jyothi Customers want to include information about small scale industries, Agriculture and Astrology in addition to the existing.

TABLE: 65 SHSOWING THE CORPORATE IMAGE FOR EENADU

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 66 SHOWING THE CORPORATE IMAGE FOR SAKSHI

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 67 SHOWING THE CORPORATE IMAGE FOR ANDHRA JYOTHI

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference:

The corporate image of Sakshi leads that of Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi with the scores, 8.535, 7.22 and 4.713 respectively.

The corporate image for the Sakshi is good because of its financial strength of the company, commitment to the public and the reliability of the company. The corporate image for the Eenadu is good because of its financial strength of the company, corporate vision and direction and corporate skill in marketing. The corporate image for the Andhra jyothi is because of its commitment to the public, corporate social responsibility and practicing business ethics.

Brand Image:

WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD – 4

TABLE: 68 SHOWING THE BRANDS WHICH CUSTOMERS FAMILIARITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

As for as the familiarity of the daily is concerned, Eenadu tops the dailies with a score of 555 points, very closely followed by the new entrant, Sakshi with 548 points, Andhra Jyothi with 497 points, Vaartha with 414 points etc.,

TABLE: 69 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE ATTRIBUTES WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMER TO TRY THE EENADU PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

Among the Eenadu users it is observed that the attributes information, easy to read and looks good appear to entice the readers towards Eenadu.

TABLE: 70 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE ATTRIBUTES WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMER TO TRY THE SAKSHI PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

Among the Sakshi users, price is the attribute that first has enticed the readers followed by information etc.,

TABLE: 71 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE ATTRIBUTES WHICH ENTICED THE CUSTOMER TO TRY THE ANDHRA JYOTHI PAPER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

For the Andhra Jyothi readers, information followed by looks good and easy to read are the attributes to have enticed them.

TABLE: 72 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE BRANDS OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE EENADU DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE: Eenadu is observed to be giving priority to sports followed by political and films.

TABLE: 73 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE BRANDS OF THE NEWS PRIORITY OF THE SAKSHI DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

Sakshi is observed to be giving priority to political news followed by picture printing, entertainment and sports.

TABLE: 74 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE BRANDS OF THE NEWS PRIRIOTY OF THE ANDHRA JYOTHI DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INFERENCE:

Andhra Jyothi is observed to be giving priority to political news followed by sports and entertainment.

32-40. TABLE: 75 SHOWING THE BRAND IMAGE TOWARDS EENADU

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference: Eenadu’s brand image on paper quality and Readability of the daily is good while the respondents ranked the price and reaching time as poor.

32-40. TABLE: 76 SHOWING THE BRAND IMAGE TOWARDS SAKSHI

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference:

Sakshi’s image on paper quality, Price and Coverage of the daily is good while the respondents ranked the reflection of truth and reaching time as poor.

32-40. TABLE: 77 SHOWING THE BRAND IMAGE TOWARDS ANDHRA JYOTHI

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Andhra Jyothi’s image on reflection of truth and future are good while the respondents ranked the readability and Reaching time as poor.

INFERENCE:

Among the dailies, Sakshi is observed to be having good acceptance from the respondents for its features with a score of 5.2, followed by Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi. Eenadu has got good response from the customers on the features of availability, quality and readability. Sakshi got good response for its availability, price and quality while Andhra Jyothi got it for its wording.

TABLE: 78 SHOWING THE AVAILABILITY OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE: 79 SHOWING THE RANKS FOR THE ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE IMPROVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Among the dailies, pertaining to wording, Andhra Jyothi requires more of an improvement with 347 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 308 and 245 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning the biasness of the information provided in the news paper, Sakshi needs an improvement with 374 points followed by Andhra Jyothi and Eenadu with 277 and 259 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning Quality, Andhra Jyothi needs a lot of improvement with 429 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 263 and 208 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning reaching time, Andhra Jyothi again needs improvement with 328 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 309 and 263 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning Availability, Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 344 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 321 and 255 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning Price, Andhra Jyothi needs more improvement which means to be reduced with 398 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 336 and 166 points each.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

With respect to readability, Andhra Jyothi required more improvement with 356 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 319 and 225 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

When it comes to the updatedness of the information, once again Andhra Jyothi needs more improvement with 386 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 275 and 239 points respectively.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Concerning Coverage, Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 359 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 287 and 254 points each.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

With respect to Comprehensiveness, once again Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 363 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 299 and 238 points.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

On the whole if the areas more than 300 points for improvement are considered, Eenadu requires improvement in Price followed by availability and the reaching time. Similarly Sakshi need improvement in its biasness, readability and the wording. Andhra Jyothi requires improvement in Quality, Price, up-datedness, Comprehensiveness, Coverage etc.,

Satisfaction:

TABLE: 80 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION OF THE CUSTOMERS WITH FEATURES OF THE EENADU DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference:

When satisfaction of the readers is considered, Eenadu readers are highly satisfied with the Printing and the Quality of the daily.

TABLE: 81 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION OF THE CUSTOMERS WITH FEATURES OF THE SAKSHI DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference:

Most of the Sakshi customers are highly satisfied with the Quality followed by Printing, Price and information.

TABLE: 82 SHOWING THE SATISFACTION OF THE CUSTOMERS WITH FEATURES OF THE ANDHRA JYOTHI DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference:

Among the Andhra Jyothi readers, they are highly satisfied with the information followed by the unbiasedness of the daily.

TABLE: 83 SHOWING THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE DAILY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Inference: When it comes to recommending of the daily to others by the regular subscribers of the daily, Sakshi leads with 0.48 points followed by Andhra Jyothi with 0.40 points and then Eenadu with 0.39 points.

Table 84 showing the Additional feature to be included in the daily:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Eenadu customers want History and lifestyle of some important people, proper employment news and importance to the literature features to be added in addition to what the daily presently offers. Sakshi customers want to include Day on the Date, Government policies and schemes and Articles about the prophets in addition to the existing. Similarly Andhra Jyothi Customers want to include information about small scale industries, Agriculture and Astrology in addition to the existing.

HYPOTHESES TESTING

CROSS TABULATIONS

Table: 85 AGE AND TYPICAL USER

OBSERVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

EXPECTED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(O-E)2/E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CV < TV, so Ho is accepted Ha is rejected. Therefore age of the respondents do not influence the choice of the daily.

Table: 86 QUALIFICATION AND TYPICAL USER

OBSERVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

EXPECTED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(O-E)2/E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CV < TV, therefore Ho is accepted and Ha is rejected. Hence Qualification of the respondents do not influence the choice of the daily.

Table: 87 INCOME AND TYPICAL USER

OBSERVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

EXPECTED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(O-E)2/E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

As CV < TV, Ho is accepted and Ha is rejected. Therefore Income of the respondents do not influence the choice of the daily.

Table :88 TYPICAL USER AND RECOMMENDING THE BRAND TO OTHERS

OBSERVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

EXPECTED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(O-E)2/E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CV > TV, so Ho is rejected Ha is accepted. Therefore typical user of the daily with the brand image attributed influences the recommendation of the daily to others.

14&16 to 28: table: 89 TYPICAL USER AND CORPORATE IMAGE

OBSERVED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

EXPECTED

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(O-E)2/E

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CV > TV, so Ho is rejected Ha is accepted. Therefore typical user of the daily with the brand image attributed influences the Corporate image they have.

Inference:

From the testing of Hypotheses, it is observed that there is no significant relationship between Age, Qualification, Income and the typical preference to a Daily. But there is observed to be a strong relationship between the News daily brand and recommendation of the brand to others. This shows that the Brand image plays a significant role in the +ve Word of Mouth which makes the customers themselves as the unpaid ambassadors for the daily. Very similarly, it is also observed that Brand Image also plays a significant role in the formation of the Corporate Image in the minds of the customers.

CHAPTER: 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. 33.4% of the respondents belong to the age group of 26 to 40 years, 28% belongs to 41 to 60 years, 26.6% belongs to 15 to 25 years and 12% belongs to more than 60 years.

2. 64.7% of the respondents are Married and remaining 35.3% are Un-Married.

3. 45.3% are Post Graduates, 35.3% are in between intermediate to degree level, and remaining 19.3% are up to the level of SSC.

4. 26.7% are private employees, 22% are government employees, and 18% are self employees.

5. 15.3%of respondents are students, 14.7% are Owning a business, 13.3% are Govt officials, 12.7% are teachers and lecturers and the remaining 44% are doing other forms of jobs.

6. 37% of the respondents are in between 1 lakh but below 2 lakhs, 25.3% are in between 51000 to 1 lakh, 15% are above 3 lakhs, 13.3% are in between 2 and 3 lakhs, and 10% are below Rs. 50 000.

7. 33.3% respondents are taken from Kadapa, 33.3% from Hyderabad and 33.3% from Vijayawada.

8. 74% of respondents expressed that TV is their most prominent source of news and 26% of respondents disagree.

9. 24% of respondents expressed that radio is their most prominent source of news and remaining 76% disagree.

10. 5.3% of respondents expressed that internet is their most prominent source of news and remaining disagree.

11. 100% of the respondents expressed that their most prominent source of news is News Paper.

12. The readership of the dailies is observed to be as hereunder.

a. 72.7% of the respondents are reading Eenadu news daily.
b. 70% are reading Sakshi.
c. 34% are reading Andhra jyothi
d. 2.7% are reading Andhra Prabha.
e. 9.3% are reading Vaartha.
f. 6.6% are reading Surya.
g. 23.3% are reading Deccan Chronicle.
h. 26% are reading the Hindu daily.

13. 26% of the respondents are reading dailies since 11 to 15 years, 22% since more than 20 years, 18% since 10 years, 18% since 15 to 20 years, and 16% since 6 years.

14. The audience’s earlier readership is presented below.

a. 56.7% of respondents were earlier readers of Eenadu (150)
b. 28.7% of respondents were earlier readers of Sakshi (150)
c. 69.3% of respondents were earlier readers of Andhra jyothi (150)
d. 23.1% of respondents were earlier readers of Andhra Prabha (150)
e. 60% of respondents were earlier readers of Vaartha (150)
f. 24% of respondents were earlier readers of Surya (150)
g. 8% of respondents were earlier readers of Praja Sakti. (150)
h. 14% of respondents were earlier readers of Andhra Bhoomi. (150)
i. 14.7% of respondents were earlier readers of Deccan chronicle. (150)
j. 8.2% of respondents were earlier readers of the Hindu (150)

15. 42.7% of the respondents expressed that Eenadu is their choice of readership, 37.3% of the respondents expressed that Sakshi is their choice readership and remaining 20% expressed that Andhra jyothi is their choice.

1. Eenadu

a. 100% Eenadu readers aware of Ramoji Film City.
b. 86% of Eenadu readers aware of Margadarshi.
c. 34% of Eenadu readers aware of Usha Kiran movies.
d. 67.2% of Eenadu readers aware of Priya foods.
e. 18.7% of Eenadu readers aware of Dolphin hotels.
f. 100% of Eenadu readers aware of E-TV.
g. 15.6% of Eenadu readers aware of Mayuri distributors.

2. Saakshi

a. 100 % of Sakshi readers aware of Sakshi TV.
b. 41 % of Sakshi readers aware of Bharathi Cements.

16. The readership among the telugu dailies is presented below.

a. 70% of the respondents are regularly reading Eenadu and 30% are reading it sometimes.
b. 69.3%of the respondents are reading Sakshi daily regularly, 26.7% are reading it some time and remaining 4% are heard about daily but never read it.
c. 68.7%of respondents are reading Andhra Jyothi daily some times and the remaining 31.3% are regular to it.
d. 54% of the respondents are heard about Andhra Prabha but read it, 44% are read it some times and the remaining 2% are never heard of it.
e. 66% of the respondents are reading Vaartha daily sometimes, 24% are just heard about the daily and 10% are regular to it.
f. 64.7%of the respondents are just heard about the Surya daily, 33.3%are reading it sometimes and the remaining 2% are not even heard of it.
g. 58%of the respondents are just heard about Praja Sakti, 30.7%are not even heard of it and the remaining 11.3% are reading it sometimes.
h. 68.7%of the respondents are just heard about Andhra Bhoomi, 23.3% are reading it some times and remaining 8% are not even heard of it.

17. 68.7%of the respondents are reading the daily primarily at home, 17.3% are in another location, 8% are at office and 6% are at library.

18. 76%of the respondents are not waiting for daily and the remaining 24% are waiting for the daily.

19. The audience’s response towards the wording of the dailies is presented below.

a. 47.3%of the total respondents are ranked 3 for eenadu for the improvement of wording, 42.7% are ranked 2 and the remaining 10% are ranked it 1st.
b. 38% of the total respondents are ranked 1 for sakshi for the improvement of wording, 32.7% are ranked 3 and the remaining 29.3% are ranked it 2nd.
c. 52% of the total respondents are ranked 1 for Andhra jyothi daily for the improvement of wording, 28% are ranked 2 and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

20. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the biasness among the dailies is presented below.

a. 55% of the total respondents are ranked 2 for eenadu for the improvement of biasness, 25.3% are ranked 1st and the remaining 19.3% are ranked it 3rd.

b. 57.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1 st for sakshi for the improvement of biasness, 34.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 8% are ranked it 3rd.

c. 72.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of biasness, 17.3% are ranked 1st and the remaining 10% are ranked it 2nd. From the analysis it is observed that Sakshi requires a greater improvement in the biasness followed by Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi. This could probably be because of the direct affiliation of Mr. YS. Jaganmohan Reddy to the YSR Congress Party and presenting Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy’s photo in its daily issue. Even the association of Mr. Ramoji Rao and Mr. N. Chandra Babu Naidu also is well known.

21. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the paper quality among the dailies is presented below

a. 63.3% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for eenadu for the improvement of paper quality, 30.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 6% are ranked it 1st.

b. 65.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for sakshi for the improvement of paper quality, 30.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 4% are ranked it 1st.

c. 90% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of paper quality, 6% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 4% are ranked it 3rd.

22. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the reaching time of the daily among the dailies is presented below

a. 42.7% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for eenadu for the improvement of reaching time of the daily, 32% are ranked 1st and the remaining 25.3% are ranked it 3rd.

b. 44.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for sakshi for the improvement of reaching time of the daily, 35.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 1st.

c. 48% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of reaching time of the daily, 30% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 22% are ranked it 2nd.

23. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the availabiity of the daily among the dailies is presented below

a. 40% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for eenadu for the improvement of availability of the daily, 34.7% are ranked 1st and the remaining 25.3% are ranked it 2nd.

b. 40% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for sakshi for the improvement of availability of the daily, 38% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 22% are ranked it 1st.

c. 43.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of availability of the daily, 36.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

The promotion strategies of Andhra Jyothi are observed to be very low, because of which the availability rates are quite poor followed by Eenadu and Sakshi.

24. The response of the audience towards the pricing strategy of the daily among the dailies is presented below.

a. 64% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for eenadu for the improvement of price of the daily, 30% are ranked 1st and the remaining 6% are ranked it 3rd.

b. 88.7% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for sakshi for the improvement of price of the daily, 11.3% are ranked 2nd.

c. 70% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of price of the daily, 24.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 5.3% are ranked it 3rd.

Pricing strategy is always related to the perceived value of the product. Concerning this, Andhra Jyothi requires improving its perceived value or lowering its price which is followed by Eenadu and then Sakshi.

25. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the readability of the daily among the dailies is presented below.

a. 52% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for eenadu for the improvement of readability of the daily, 46% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 2% are ranked it 1st.

b. 40.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for sakshi for the improvement of readability of the daily, 31.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 28% are ranked it 3rd.

c. 57.3% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of readability of the daily, 22.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 20% are ranked it 3rd.

The readability of Andhra Jyothi is observed to be very low compared to Sakshi and Eenadu.

26. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the latestness of information of the daily among the dailies is presented below

a. 52% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for eenadu for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 36.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 11.3% are ranked it 1st.

b. 51.3% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for sakshi for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 32.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 16% are ranked it 1st.

c. 72.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of latestness of information of the daily, 15.3% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 12% are ranked it 2nd.

For the improvement of the latestness of the information also Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement followed by Sakshi and then Eenadu.

27. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the coverage of the daily among the dailies is presented below

a. 49.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3 rd for eenadu for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 32% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 18.7% are ranked it 1st.

b. 42.6% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for sakshi for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 32.7% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 24.7% are ranked it 1st.

c. 56.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of coverage of the daily, 25.3% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 18% are ranked it 3rd.

For the improvement of the coverage also Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement followed by Sakshi and then Eenadu.

28. The response of the audience towards the improvement of the comprehensiveness of the daily among the dailies is presented below

a. 53.3% of the total respondents are ranked 3rd for eenadu for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 34.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 12% are ranked it 1st.

b. 36.7% of the total respondents are ranked 2nd for sakshi for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 32% are ranked 3rd and the remaining 31.3% are ranked it 1st.

c. 56.7% of the total respondents are ranked 1st for Andhra jyothi for the improvement of comprehensiveness of the daily, 28.7% are ranked 2nd and the remaining 14.6% are ranked it 3rd.

Concerning the Comprehension also, Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement followed by Sakshi and then Eenadu.

29. The corporate Image of Saakshi leads that of Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi with the scores, 8.535, 7.296 and 4.733 respectively.

The corporate Image for the sakshi is good because of its financial strength of the company, commitment to the public and the reliability of the company. The corporate Image for the eenadu is good because of its financial strength of the company, corporate vision and direction and corporate skill in marketing. The corporate Image for the Andhra jyothi is because of its commitment to the public, corporate social responsibility and practicing business ethics.

Among the dailies, Sakshi is observed to be having good acceptance from the respondents for its features with a score of 5.2, followed by Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi, with scores of 4.7 and 4.22 respectively . Eenadu has got good response from the customers on the features of availability, quality and readability. Sakshi got good response for its availability, price and quality while Andhra Jyothi got it for its wording.

Among the dailies, pertaining to wording, Andhra Jyothi requires more of an improvement with 347 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 308 and 245 points respectively.

Concerning the biasness of the information provided in the news paper, sakshi needs an improvement with 374 points followed by Andhra Jyothi and Eenadu with 277 and 259 points respectively.

Concerning Quality, Andhra Jyothi needs a lot of improvement with 429 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 263 and 208 points respectively.

Concerning resching time, Andhra Jyothi again needs improvement with 328 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 309 and 263 points respectively.

Concerning Availability, Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 344 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 321 and 255 points respectively.

Concerning Price, Andhra Jyothi needs more improvement which means to be reduced with 398 points followed by Eenadu and Sakshi with 336 and 166 points each.

With respect to readability, Andhra Jyothi required more improvement with 356 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 319 and 225 points respectively.

When it comes to the updatedness of the information, once again Andhra Jyothi needs more improvement with 386 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 275 and 239 points respectively.

Concerning Coverage, Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 359 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 287 and 254 points each.

With respect to Comprehensiveness, once again Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement with 363 points followed by Sakshi and Eenadu with 299 and 238 points.

On the whole if the areas more than 300 points for improvement are considered, Eenadu requires improvement in Price followed by availability and the reaching time. Similarly Sakshi need improvement in its biasness, readability and the wording. Andhra Jyothi requires improvement in Quality, Price, updatedness, Comprehensiveness, Coverage etc.,

When satisfaction of the readers is considered, Eenadu readers are highly satisfied with the Printing and the Quality of the daily.

Most of the Sakshi customers are highly satisfied with the Quality followed by Printing, Price and information.

Among the Andhra Jyothi readers, they are highly satisfied with the information followed by the unbiasedness of the daily.

Eenadu requires to focus on Corporate social responsibility, Practicing business ethics, Reliability of the company etc., Sakshi requires to focus on innovativeless, corporate vision and developing strong consumer promotions. Andhra Jyothi requires to focus on corporate vision and direction, corporate skill in marketing, ability to develop strong consumer promotions, reliability of the company etc.,

a. The corporate vision and direction of the eenadu is believed to be excellent while that of sakshi is good and it is neutral for Andhra jyothi.
b. The corporate operations of eenadu, sakshi and Andhra jyothi today compared with a year ago is very good.
c. The company’s financial strength of the eenadu is believed to be excellent while it is very good for the sakshi and Andhra jyothi
d. The eenadu’s corporate skill in marketing is very good, while it is believed to be excellent for sakshi and poor for Andhra jyothi.
e. Eenadu’s ability to develop strong consumer promotions is observed to be excellent, while it is very good for sakshi and poor for Andhra jyothi.
f. No daily is believed to be innovative. Regular introduction of new inventions is neutral for eenadu, poor for sakshi and neutral for Andhra jyothi.
g. The Corporate focus on improving customer satisfaction for eenadu, sakshi and Andhra jyothi is observed to be very good
h. The corporate leadership commitment of Eenadu is very good, while it is excellent for Sakshi and for Andhra jyothi it is very good.
i. Eenadu’s commitment to the public is very good, very good for sakshi and it is excellent for Andhra jyothi.
j. The corporate social responsibility of eenadu is poor, very good for sakshi and excellent for Andhra jyothi.
k. Practicing business ethics for eenadu is poor, which could be probably be attributed to its Margadarsi issue. The same is very good for sakshi and excellent for Andhra jyothi
l. As an employer it is observed that Eenadu is very good, sakshi is excellent and Andhra jyothi is very good.
m. Reliability of the company for eenadu is neutral, very good for the sakshi and for Andhra jyothi it is neutral.

30. As for as the familiarity of the daily is concerned, Eenadu tops the dailies with a score of 555 points, very closely followed by the new entrant, Sakshi with 548 points, Andhra Jyothi with 497 points, Vaartha with 414 points etc.,

a. Among the Eenadu users it is observed that the attributes information, easy to read and looks good appear to entice the readers towards Eenadu.
b. Among the Sakshi users, price is the attribute that first has enticed the readers followed by information etc.,
c. For the Andhra Jyothi readers, information followed by looks good and easy to read are the attributes to have enticed them. Saakshi appears to have the attributes of price and information only, hence has a necessity to improve upon it.
d. Eenadu is observed to be giving priority to sports followed by political and films.
e. Sakshi is observed to be giving priority to picture printing followed by political news, entertainment and sports.
f. Andhra Jyothi is observed to be giving priority to political news followed by sports and entertainment.

31. When it comes to recommending of the daily to others by the regular subscribers of the daily, Sakshi leads with 0.48 points followed by Andhra Jyothi with 0.40 points and then Eenadu with 0.39 points. When customers are ready to recommend the daily to others, they must be completely satisfied with that daily.

32. Eenadu customers want History and lifestyle of some important people, proper employment news and importance to the literature features to be added in addition to what the daily presently offers. Sakshi customers want to include Day on the Date, Government policies and schemes and Articles about the prophets in addition to the existing. Similarly Andhra Jyothi Customers want to include information about small scale industries, Agriculture and Astrology in addition to the existing. The dailies may focus on the above expectations from the customers and incorporate them in their business for tasting success.

33. From the testing of Hypotheses, it is observed that there is no significant relationship between Age, Qualification, Income and the typical preference to a Daily. But there is observed to be a strong relationship between the News daily brand and recommendation of the brand to others. This shows that the Brand Image plays a significant role in the +ve Word of Mouth which makes the customers themselves as the unpaid ambassadors for the daily. Very similarly, it is also observed that Brand Image also plays a significant role in the formation of the Corporate Image in the minds of the customers.

CHAPTER: 6 SUGGESTIONS

1. As it is observed that majority of the audience is moving towards the electronic media from the print media, unless the print media does some thing attractive to arrest the attrition rates, the market for the print media is going to go down further. For this the print media may take specific steps like bringing out special issues on topics of interest for the audience which they can store and refer later, encouraging dialogue with the audience on innovative and latest features etc.,

Some of the topics could be

1. Quality and credible news, which their readers would always appreciate.

2. Innovate with new products and pricing models.

3. In print media stories can be longer and therefore far more detailed informaton is to be provided than on electronic media.

4. To deliver localized news that may interest city or district residents.

5. Reachability has to be increased.

2. As majority of the respondents read the daily at home, the dailies must ensure and concentrate on the subscription of the daily at their home rather than relying on the readership at the office and other locations. The prices of the dailies are already low, still some more features may be added to promote the subscription of the dailies viz.,

1. Make the paper actually, really available at newsstands and convenience stores, at a reasonable price.

2. Allow users to comment on every article.

3. Develop deeper relationships with readers around targeted interest areas.

3. As nearly one fourth of the respondents are waiting for the daily, the dailies must ensure that the dailies reach them at the earliest and concentrate on the proper addresses and timing of the delivery boys. The delivery boys must be given the clear addresses of the subscribers. There should not be frequent shift of the delivery boys from their territories. Even if there is, the delivery boy who is taking over must clearly be communicated about the addresses. The number of the delivery boys may be increased wherever the delivery is taking more time. A specific time schedule must be given to the delivery boys in delivering the dailies. Bicycles are being used by the delivery boys as of now, and as the delivery times become critical, they may have to be replaced by faster moving vehicle like bike. This may add on to the cost of the delivery, but this can still be worked by reducing the number of the delivery boys and by expanding the territory allotted to them.

4. As for as the wording is concerned, Andhra Jyothi has to improve its wording in the daily according to the customers, followed by Sakshi. By wording the audience mean that the language must be easily understandable and the usage of the catchy words and phrases. Already the dailies are using the catchy words in their headings, yet the audience talks about the appropriateness of the word to the situation and the possible expectation of the audience. This may require the employees phrasing the headings to understand the specific expectation of the audience, through certain training which the experience in the trade itself may provide or through people who have the experience, else they need to tour and travel themselves across to get a feel of the audience taste.

5. From the analysis it is observed that Sakshi requires a greater improvement in the biasness followed by Eenadu and Andhra Jyothi. This could probably be because of the direct affiliation of Mr. YS. Jaganmohan Reddy to the YSR Congress Party and presenting Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy’s photo in its daily issue. Even the association of Mr. Ramoji Rao and Mr. N. Chandra Babu Naidu also is well known to the other dailies. The kind of competition among the dailies, which is high among the telugu dailies compared to the other languages and the previous periods, leads to this attitude of the audience towards the dailies. The dailies may innovate ways and means to come out of this image which may see them through as unbiased dailies and thus may in the long run contribute for the greater success of the dailies. Though practically looking at it, it looks impossible, yet, so long as the biased image is there, it is not good for the dailies in the long run and it leaves a very good scope for the new entrants to enter the telugu dailies market.

6. As Brand Image and Corporate Image play a significant role in the success of the daily, the dailies need to concentrate on Brand and Corporate Image. This can be enhanced by enhancing the image of the daily on the various expectations of the daily, public image, corporate social responsibility and spreading information on their various businesses and their success stories. This also can be enhanced by focusing on the physique, personality, culture, self-image, reflection and relationship, which are the essential elements of building a brand Image.

7. Concerning the various elements of the brand Image several items are taken and each one of them is given in the points given below. Concerning paper quality, Andhra Jyothi requires immediate attention to be paid towards it, followed distantly by Eenadu and Saakshi. Paper quality includes the print quality, the colour quality and the impression quality.

8. Concerning the reaching time of the daily among the dailies, Andhra Jyothi requires the maximum improvement followed distantly by Eenadu and Sakshi.

9. The promotion strategies of Andhra Jyothi are observed to be very low, because of which the availability rates are quite poor followed by Eenadu and Sakshi. Hence Andhra Jyothi requires paying immediate attention to the promotion strategies. This is the disadvantage that Andhra Jyothi has being the late entrant. Saakshi could become successful because of its head-on competition with Eenadu. Andhra Jyothi has to shun the me-too strategy and take on the competitors with a completely new positioning which is completely different from Eenadu and Saakshi.

10. Pricing strategy is always related to the perceived value of the product. Concerning this, Andhra Jyothi requires improving its perceived value or lowering its price which is followed by Eenadu and then Sakshi.

11. The readability of Andhra Jyothi is observed to be very low compared to Sakshi and Eenadu. While improving readability, the font type, size, colors and the print quality are to be taken care.

12. For the improvement of the latestness of the information also Andhra Jyothi requires more improvement followed by Sakshi and then Eenadu. This may require Andhra Jyothi to identify issues of public concern and get the information online with the usage of the latest electronic gadgets and by improving the quantity and quality of the reporters.

13. Eenadu requires focusing on Corporate social responsibility, Practicing business ethics, Reliability of the company etc. Sakshi requires focusing on innovativeness, corporate vision and developing strong consumer promotions. Andhra Jyothi requires to focus on corporate vision and direction, corporate skill in marketing, ability to develop strong consumer promotions, reliability of the company etc.,

14. When customers are ready to recommend the daily to others, they must be completely satisfied with that daily. Concerning this factor Eenadu needs to focus more on that followed by Andhra Jyothi. Eenadu requires building an emotional attachment towards it as is developed by Sakshi.

15. Eenadu customers want History and lifestyle of some important people, proper employment news and importance to the literature features to be added in addition to what the daily presently offers. Sakshi customers want to include Day on the Date, Government policies and schemes and Articles of the prophets in addition to the existing. Similarly Andhra Jyothi Customers want to include information about small scale industries, Agriculture and Astrology in addition to the existing. The dailies may focus on the above expectations from the customers and incorporate them in their business for tasting success.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference:

1. www.indianews.in/newspapers.html

2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper

3. wapedia.mobi/en/Newspaper

4. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_India

5. www.allaboutnewspapers.com/march11/article4.htm

6. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper_circulation

7. www.slideshare.net/guestacd5bd/industry-analysis-of-print-media

8 “Update on Indian M&E industry,” CRISIL Research, December 2010.

9 M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.

10 M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011; “More than 74,000 newspapers are registered in India,” The Pak Banker Daily, 29 July 2009, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2009, Right Vision Communications Private Limited.

11 ”Global advertising forecasts,” GroupM, Autumn 2010.

12 “Jagran Prakashan,” Deutsche Bank, 3 December 2010, via Thomson Research.

13 “DB Corp. Ltd.,” J.P. Morgan, 28 January 2011, via Thomson Research; “Jagran Prakashan,” Deutsche Bank, 3 December 2010, via Thomson Research.

14 M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.

15 “Publishing: India remains top outsourcing destination,” Business Standard, 27 January 2010, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2011 Business Standard Ltd.

16 M&E newsreel, Ernst & Young, February 2011.

17 Media industry update, CRISIL Research, December 2010.

18 The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.

19 The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.

20 The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.

21 Sruthijith K.K, “Govt gives green signal to editions of foreign news magazines,” Livemint, 19 September 2008, via Dow Jones Factiva, © 2008 HT Media Ltd.

22 The Indian magazine segment — navigating new growth avenues, Ernst & Young, September 2010.

23. www.newswatch.in/newsblog/19555

24. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_in_Hyderabad,_Andhra_Pradesh

25. op-cit., www.newswatch.in/newsblog/19555

26. NAATI PATRIKALA METI VILUVALU by Pothuri Venkateswara Rao, published by Rachana Journalism College, Kesava Memorial Educational Campus, Narayanguda, Hyderabad-500029. Rs.

27. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Prabha

28. www.andhrajyothy.com/aboutus.asp

29.www.onlinetipsblog.com/read-andhra-bhoomi-newspaper-online-andhra-bhoomi-epaper/

30. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eenadu

31. Newspaper Marketing In India: A Focus On Languages Press by N V R Jyoti Kumar,2005-06-30,Anmol Publisher.

32. www.teluguwebsite.com/Telugu_VaarthaaPatrikalu.html

33.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prajasakti

34.op-cit- Newspaper Marketing In India: A Focus On Languages Press by N V R Jyoti Kumar,2005-06-,Anmol Publisher.

35. www.telugupedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Saakshi_Telugu_Newspaper

36. tutor2u.net/business/marketing/brands_introduction.asp

37. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand.

38.Jean Neol and Kapferer, strategic brand management, Published by Kogan Page in 2004.

39. Op-cit-en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand.

40. http://www.research-pmr.com/brand-image-research

41. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html

42. www.managementstudyguide.com/brand-image.htm

43. papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?

44. http:// lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2951&context=etd

45. papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?

46. www.managementstudyguide.com/identity-vs-image.htm

47. http:// lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2951&context=etd

48. http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/corus/the-importance-of-building-a-strong-brand-image-introduction.html#xzz20SdopUGT

49 . https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/.../Sulkunen Solja.pdf

50 . https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/.../Sulkunen Solja.pdf

51. brandnbranding.blogspot.com/.../aakers-brand-identity-planning-model.html

52. fmcg-marketing.blogspot.com/2007_07_01_archive.html

53. www.interbrandmedia.com/.../129-why-do-enterprises-need-to-develop-a-brand-identity.html

54. op-cit- .Jean Neol and Kapferer, strategic brand management, Published by Kogan Page in 2004.

55. www.ifrnd.org/IMBR/vol%204/4(4)%20Apr%202012/9.pdf

56. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html

57. http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/corporate-image/4965442-1.html

58. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/corporate-image.html#ixzz2MkgS49ug

59. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html

60. http://www.articlesbase.com/organizational-articles/the-importance-of-corporate-image-1036411.html

61. http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/corporate-image.html

62. http://www.duplication.net.au/ANZMAC09/papers/ANZMAC2009-390.pdf

63. K. L. Keller: Strategic brand management, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2003.

64. K. L. Keller, K. Richey: “The importance of corporate brand personality traits to a successful 21st century business,” Journal of Brand management, 14, 2006, p. 74.

65. A. Davies: Best practice in corporate governance: building reputation and sustainable success, Gower Publishing Ltd., England, 2006, p. 105.

66. Read more: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Co-Di/Corporate-Image.html#ixzz2MkkfzpRE

67. http://voices.yahoo.com/how-create-corporate-image-drive-company-brand-849179.html

68. http://www.wiki86.com/view/2091228.htm

69. http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/corporate-image.html

QUESTIONNAIRE

A STUDY ON CORPORATE AND BRAND IMAGE AMONG TELUGU DAILIES.

Customer Profile:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Corporate Image:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Brand Image:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

45. Overall how are you satisfied with the features of the daily?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

46. Would you recommend this daily to others?

1. Definitely Not [ ] 2. Probably Not [ ] 3. Not Sure [ ] 4. Probably Yes [ ] 5.Definitely [ ]

47. What additional features to be included in the news paper

Details

Pages
256
Year
2013
ISBN (Book)
9783656546030
File size
1.8 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v233548
Grade
none
Tags
corporate brand telugu indian print media

Authors

Share

Previous

Title: Corporate and Brand image among Telugu dailies in Indian Print Media