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Indigenous Technology of Water Management in the Historic Settlement of Bhaktapur City, Nepal

Master's Thesis 2013 58 Pages

Pedagogy - Science, Theory, Anthropology

Excerpt

CONTENTS

CHAPTERS

COPYRIGHT

LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION

APPROVAL LETTER

ABSTRACT

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

GLOSSARY

LIST OF FIGURES

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.4. Conceptual of Frameworks

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Theoretical Reviews

3. RESEARCH METHODS
3.1. Rationale of the Selection of the Study Area
3.2. Research Design
3.3. Nature and Sources of Data
3.4. Universe and Sampling
3.5. Data Collection Techniques
3.6. Reliability and Validity of Information
3.7. Interpretation of Information
3.8. Limitation of the Study

4. INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY OF WATER MANAGEMENT
4.1. Tun
4.2. Hiti
4.3. Pukhu
4.4. Water Management Through Other Indigenous Practices
4.4.1. Feasting Culture
4.4.2. Cultural Milieu
4.4.3. Recycling and Sustainable Use of Water
4.4.4. Water Storage
4.4.5. Recharge Scenario

5. JUXTAPOSITION OF INDIGENOUS FEATURES WITH SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS

6. CONTEMPORARY WATER SCENARIO

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS

8. RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

© Copyright by DIPENDRA GAUTAM, 2013

All Rights Reserved.

TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

TRICHANDRA MULTIPLE CAMPUS

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY/ANTHROPOLOGY

RECOMMENDATION LETTER

This is to certify that Dipendra Gautam has prepared this dissertation entitled “INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE HISTORIC SETTLEMENT OF BHAKTAPUR CITY” under my guidance and supervision. This dissertation is prepared for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology. To the best of my knowledge, the study is original and pioneering one. I therefore recommend this dissertation for final approval and acceptance.

Mr. Chiranjivi Acharya

Lecturer

Department of Sociology/Anthropology

Tri-Chandra Campus

Ghantaghar, Kathmandu

Date:

TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

TRICHANDRA MULTIPLE CAMPUS

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY/ANTHROPOLOGY

APPROVAL LETTER

It is certified that the dissertation entitled ‘INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE HISTORIC SETTLEMENT OF BHAKTAPUR CITY’, submitted to the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tri-Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF ARTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY is a bona fide record of the research carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

Dissertation evaluation committee

Coordinator: Chiranjivi Acharya

Supervisor: Chiranjivi Acharya

External Examiner: Bimalesh Thakur

Date:

Dipendra Gautam (MA Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal)

Indigenous Technology of Water Management in the Historic Settlement of Bhaktapur City

Dissertation Supervised by Mr. Chiranjivi Acharya

ABSTRACT

Indigenous technology has formulated after unrelenting `trial and error for the sustainability of indigenous communities. Indigenous technology stands for the non-documented practice accompanied by culture and hence is transferred to the pedigree through the participatory milieu. The indigenous technology of water management has been dealt with the research carried out in field and getting information through key informant. The scientific aspects have been formulated by juxtaposing the traditional features along with the modern approaches of water management, quality, and dynamics. As many as 87 Hitis, 220 Tuns and 32 Pukhus are there in Bhaktapur city; however most of these are nowadays being depleted due to the anthropogenic activities, encroachment, and the depletion of Raj Kulo. The field study has been performed in the city collecting information regarding the construction, supply, drainage, and conveyance scenario of more than 30 Hitis, 20 Tuns, and 10 Pukhus, thereby the water conveyance amongst the various water resources is formulated and presented.

This research discloses the relevance of the indigenous technology of water management in the historic settlement of Bhaktapur city. The Hitis constructed from the Tantric aspects have shown the enhancing water quality through higher period of oxygenation, and baffling action while reaching up to the discharge point. The construction scenario of Hitis has led the researcher to conclude that the gravity flow has been well accomplished in this indigenous technology; moreover this technology has shown due acquaintance with the ground water table dynamics too. The establishment of holy figures beside the water bodies not only enhances the religious and cultural aspect rather the cleaning and sanitation is geared through this too. So the community has better assurance over the quality water. The distant source of water i.e. Mahadev Pokhari, Nagarkot and the subsequent gravity supply to the city is completely scientific in that period where there was not power generation.

The overflow from Tuns has been found to be subjected to the Hitis, thus the water has been found to be used sustainably in this city. The modern filtration with the clinkers is well practiced through the use of a layer of Salli, Pala, Gapacha, Vingat layer in the traditional Tuns. The festival of Sithi Nakha is especially celebrated for the cleaning of water bodies assuring better quality of water. The irrigation system through Raj Kulo has sustained the city to be dependent over the local production because majority of the city inhabitants are the peasants. Ultimately an integrated system of irrigation, water supply, and sanitation was achieved in this city. The cultural practices like Byancha Ja Nakegu, has the greater importance over the connectivity of the water with the traditions and religion. The water is inseparable component of every Newari settlement and thus the indigenous water management system has been found to be efficient too. The use of Lapte in the feasts, paving of streets with bricks, brick masonry for the construction of Tuns, linkage between Hitis and Pukhus for the surplus water are remarkable practices for the water management practiced over there. Beside this, the manufacture of clay tanks/pots [by Prajapatis ] for the water storage might be possibly the preparedness for the water scarcity. The construction of Pukhus in the outskirt as well as the inner core of city has led to amplify the beauty of city fascinating the rest of the world.

Present context of the traditional means of water supply is disastrous in this city. Primarily, the failure of Raj Kulo system after 1934 has traduced this city as the water scarce city due to the growing population and lowering water table. The indigenous technology of water management might be still functional if it is revitalized and brought into function. The indigenous water management system has been found to be scientific due to proper implementing the terrain characteristics, sewerage network up to the water bodies, in terms of constructability, water quality and maintenance too, so the revitalization might be better than searching the alternative water supply and irrigation system.

Keywords: Indigenous Technology, Bhaktapur city, Water Management

Illuminance…

For the hurried passing by,

And navigating horizon,

For the erratic milieu,

In the utopian memoirs,

Though the sky was far…too far!!!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am extremely grateful to my supervisor Mr. Chirinjivi Acharya ‘Kiran’ for his guidance in undertaking this research and his kind appreciation and motivation towards this innovative research topic. I am thankful to the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tri-Chandra Campus.

I am indebted to my key informant Mr. Om Dhaubhadel, culture expert/freelance cultural researcher for his time devotion, motivation, and genuine information. His is the effort of invaluable price while carrying out this research.

While formulating the research panorama the motivation from Ar. Rajanai Shrestha Joshi, Mrs. Jastara Koju, Mr. Surendra Duwal, Mr. Bharat Chandra Hada, and Mr. Kavin Duwal has enhanced the panorama of this research so my acknowledgement goes to them too.

I couldn’t have undergone with this research without Jyoti’s kind motivation and concern, so I am thankful to Ms. Jyoti Prajapati.

Sincere thanks go to Mr. Prit Bahadur Bist, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Mr. Sandesh Danekhu and Mrs. Anita Duwal (Danekhu) for the information and suggestions.

My colleagues Mr. Niraj Raj Thapa, Mr. Sahadip Panta, and Mr. Dhira Phadera have contributed their best in providing various resources while undertaking this research, so I am grateful to my guys.

Finally, I wouldn’t be here without the eternal inspiration, motivation, and love of my parents by keeping aside their pain and ageing, so with love, I express my sincere thanks to my family too.

Dipendra Gautam (strdyn@yahoo.com )

GLOSSARY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig.1. Conceptual of framework

Fig.2. Flowchart of research design

Fig.3. Indigenous water conveyance system of Bhaktapur

Fig.4. Tun beside Tachapal square

Fig.5. Hiti at S uryamadhi

Fig.6. Three components of Hiti

Fig.7. Access to Hiti: The Stone steps

Fig.8. Ta Pukhu

Fig.9. Traditional water fetching technique from the Pukhu

Fig.10. Traditional pottery industry: Manufacture of storage clay tanks/pots

Fig.11. Brick pavement and water supply to Pukhu

Fig.12. Present scenario

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study

Indigenous knowledge refers to the unique traditional knowledge existing within and developed around specific conditions of women and men indigenous to particular geographical area (Grenier, 1998). Indigenous technologies are never documented rather transferred to the next generation through field practices. The traditional Newari settlement of Bhaktapur municipality has adopted peculiar cultural panorama and in this panorama the water management technology has been identified as the peculiar one. The management of ground water, surface as well as rain water has led the city to be sustainable till date for the water supply. The indigenous technology of water management has not been quarried out hitherto, though it has to be excavated duly because of its relevance till date, which dates back to be established for some centuries. The traditional settlement of Bhaktapur city, established by the Malla dynasty has been still implementing and consuming the same technology as well as the established sources of water as Tuns, Hitis, and Pukhus, etc. The recharge of ground water, harvesting of rainwater, and somehow the management of surface water, their managerial practices and consumption is still in the mystery and such abundant technology has to be analyzed in terms of their technology of managing this, as indigenous technology. The quasi-technical research hinged with the cultural practices and the technology adopted is most for understanding the water management panorama of Bhaktapur city.

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Details

Pages
58
Year
2013
ISBN (eBook)
9783656489412
ISBN (Book)
9783656493037
File size
1.5 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v232888
Grade
Tags
indigenous technology water management historic settlement bhaktapur city nepal

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Title: Indigenous Technology of Water Management in the Historic Settlement of Bhaktapur City, Nepal