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Family Friendly Policies and Work-Life Balance: An Explanatory Research on Working Women in the Public Sector Training Organizations in Bangladesh

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2013 38 Pages

Sociology - Work, Profession, Education, Organisation

Excerpt

Table of Contents

List of Charts

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

Abstract

1. Introduction, Research Questions, Objectives and Significance of the Research
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Objectives of the Research
1.4 Problem Statement/Significance of the Study
1.5 Women and FFPs in Public Sector Training Organizations

2. Literature Review and Conceptual Framework
2.1 Literature Review
2.1.1 Training Organizations in Bangladesh
2.1.2 Family-friendly policies
2.1.3 Work-Life Balance
2.1.4 Working culture
2.2 Conceptual Framework and Key Variables
2.2.1 Government initiatives, organizational practices and working women
2.2.2 Relation between dependant and independent variables
2.2.3 Variables and Indicators
2.3 Operational definition of concepts used
2.4 Hypotheses

3. Research Design
3.1 Population and Sampling Frame
3.2 Sampling Frame
3.3 Unit of Analysis and Measurement
3.4 Data Collection Methods
3.5 Analysis of Data
3.6 Schedule
3.7 Budget of the Research
3.8 Limitations of the study

4. Bibliography

Questionnaire

List of Charts

Chart-1: Ratio all employees at different levels

Chart-2: Ratio of Man and Women

Chart-3: Ratio of Woman at different levels

List of Figures

Figure-1: Relation among the government initiatives, organizational practices and working women & organizational output

Figure-2: Conceptual framework and relation between independent and dependent variable

Figure-3: Relation among population, study population and sampling

Figure-4: Population and Sampling of the research in Public Service Training Organizations

List of Tables

Table-1: Variables and indicators

Table-2: Population and sampling

Table-3: Tentative work schedule

Table-4: Budget for completing the research

List of Abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Abstract

The effects of globalisation on gendered division of labour, global market strategies, structural adjustment programmes, use of information technology and changing work organisation, working conditions are changed in different formats and there has been an increase of female participation in employment This change becomes more significant especially for the involvement of female workers at the workplace with a great responsibility at home for family activities. Like their male counterparts women are also earners for their families. However, they have to maintain their family activities such as caring young children, looking after ageing and disabled people that seems women have to do more than their men peers. Having realized this fact, family-friendly policies have been enacted and practised in the organization on the basis of recommendations of policy makers, researchers with an intention to utilize the women capital and play an important role in uplifting living conditions of women. These FFPs serve as the balancing between work and family live. These issues are considered as the benefit for working women with or without children who enjoy the advantage to utilise their time for family responsibilities As these are the concerns, the issue of quality of life has become a new aspect for the increase of female participation in labour force . Bangladesh is waved by the globalisation, internationalisation, pressure of donor agencies and recent change in the growth of female employment. This research has been framed to examine the causal relations between the family friendly policies and working life of women in the public sector training organizations.The population size comprises of all working women of these organizations. The study population (502) is the aggregation of elements from which the sample is selected. The Sample size selected from two strata i.e. managerial level and non-managerial (support staff) level employees are 156 and 249 respectively that calculated using the formula. This is a quantitative research where Family-friendly policies are the independent variables and working life of working women is the dependent variable. Hypotheses taken relating to the independent and dependent variables will be tested using the various statistical methods. The unit of analysis of this study is working women employed in the public sector training organizations. After getting data from the respondents, data will be analyzed using SPSS. Bi-variable multiple regression will be used in this empirical research. This research is expected to finish by the December 2013 with the budget of 74690 baht financed by Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre and National Institute of Development Administration.

1. Introduction, Research Questions, Objectives and Significance of the Research

1.1 Introduction

Due to the effects of globalisation on gendered division of labour, global market strategies, structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), use of information technology and changing work organisation, working conditions are changed in different formats and there has been an increase of female participation in employment (Benach, et al., 2002; Gardiner and Martinez Lucio, 2006; Pyle, J. L., 2002). This change becomes more significant especially for the involvement of female workers at the workplace with a great responsibility at home for family activities. Like their male counterparts women are also earners for their families. However, they have to maintain their family activities such as caring young children, looking after ageing and disabled people that seems women have to do more than their men peers.

Having realized this fact, family-friendly policies (FFP) have been enacted and practised in the organization on the basis of recommendations of policy makers, researchers with an intention to utilize the women capital and play an important role in uplifting living conditions of women (Dye, 2005). These FFPs serve as the balancing between work and family live. These issues are considered as the benefit for working women with or without children who enjoy the advantage to utilise their time for family responsibilities. On the other hand, organizations can also be benefitted from better performance.

Working parents, especially full time employees, have to do a lot as they have to maintain their family lives with home activities and pressure of workplace. And traditionally women are supposed to be responsible for doing their family activities (Zaffarullah, 2000). So if they are engaged in the labour market it becomes difficult for them to maintain their both lives. It becomes complex to balance between work and life. Though male counterparts are now helping their families, still this percentage is very insignificant. For the betterment of quality goods and services, good nation, good working condition, social commitment and social stability, family friendly policies claim urgency to create work life balance.

Family friendly policies are the policy options prepared and maintained by the government or organizations that provide the greater opportunities to working people particularly working women in order to spend more time for their family activities after doing office work. On the other hand, Work-Life Balance is about balancing between work and life. It is something making balance between work and the family responsibilities where the work and working facilities are conducive for the maintenance of family life (Charles and James, 2005). Work may bring positives rather than negatives.

According to the preference theory about 60% women are enjoying working life and performing family activities who are termed as adaptive that proves a significant number of women needs to make balance between work and family life in the UK (Hakim, 2000). However, this is about 22.8% in Bangladesh. Issues of family friendly policies such as leave policy, maternity leave policy, posting policy of couple in the same or near place, pension police caring facilities at the workplace are important elements of ‘current social and political thinking on the workplace and working life’ (Cully, et al., 1999: 144).

As the family friendly policies and work-life balance are the concerns, the issue of quality of life has become a new aspect for the increase of female participation in labour force (Adkere, 2006). Bangladesh is waved by the globalisation, internationalisation, pressure of donor agencies and recent change in the growth of female employment (Ahsan et al, 2002). During the last thirty years there has been a significant growth in the labour market that starts 1980s. The growth of female participation in the public sectors at work increased from 3 per cent in 1980 to 19 per cent in 2000 (Haque, 2005; Kabeer, 1997). Traditionally women in Bangladesh are responsible to do household works which works as a social norm. However, with the increase number of female employees at the workplace it is seen that they have to maintain their family activities and working life (Ali, 2005; Mahmud, 1997; Zafarullah, 2000). So there is a close relation between work and family that claims to maintain balance between them to do both responsibilities smoothly.

This research has been framed to examine the causal relations between the family friendly policies and working life of women. It will also attempt to find out key factors associated with work-life balance and working conditions as well as threats and challenges in order to provide recommendations to the policy makers to be implemented in future.

1.2 Research Questions

The research has been designed to achieve some specific objectives for which the following research questions are set:

- How does the issue of family friendly policies affect the working life of women employees?
- To what extend family friendly policies help working women in creating balance between work and life?
- Are PSTO women-friendly in terms of complying government policy options?

1.3 Objectives of the Research

This research is designed to analyze the family-friendly policies FFPs) in order to examine the positive and negative consequences on working employees, women in particular in the public sector training organizations (PSTO) in Bangladesh. The main objectives of the research are:

1.1. To examine the family friendly policies formulated by the government and practiced in the PSTO in Bangladesh
1.2. To determine the relationship between the FFPs and women employed in different level of the organizations
1.3. To test the effect of FFPs on working women in order to create balance between work and life
1.4. To find out to what extend the PSTO are women-friendly
1.5. To set policy recommendations for the organizations to be followed for the betterment of the organizations as well as employees.

1.4 Problem Statement/Significance of the Study

Traditionally it is a duty of woman to do household activities and caring and rearing young children and elderly people in Bangladesh (Zafarullah, 2000). Still these are considered and practised as the feminine tasks. So if a woman enters job market, naturally she has to perform both the job in home and in office unless very few who can afford domestic help. After doing 9-5 office work, it is really difficult for them to maintain family activities. Working women are facing multi-dimensional pressure from inside and outside the office. Women are now contributing a lot to the economic activities along with the familial and social responsibilities. However, it becomes very difficult to maintain spending more time for family activities after working hard at official activities. There is a conflict between two lives. If the professional life is emphasized, the personal life hampers. Women who think much on their career, they have complete required trainings and academic degree within the five years of their service that brings some negative consequences like late marriage, late children, less time for spouses or elders. If they want to pay attention at home they have to quit the job as well. Necessity of spending time with family members leads to adapt skills and training late, presses not to take better position and subsequently these negative issues create hindrance for hierarchical development. Hence it shows the necessity of brining balance between personal and professional life. However, provisions of family friendly policies make working women more comfortable with the job. FFPs bridge between work and family activities.

1.5 Women and FFPs in Public Sector Training Organizations

Although the rate of male labour force declined during the period of 1984-2000, the rate of female labour force increased from 8.3% in 1984 to 22.8% in 2000.The rate of female labour force in the PSTO is almost the same 22% (Rahman, 2005). As training is generally a full-time job for trainees and have to stay in the campus of the particular organizations, the need 24/7 supervision and guidance unlike other government organizations that follow the 9-5, 5 working-day culture. So those who work in the training organizations have to work or keep busy all time particularly who are directly associated with the course. The schedule of training courses extends untill mid night i.e. 10pm. This full-time business creates pressure on employees especially who have to maintain care works in the family. Since working women have to perform both jobs in home and office, they have match between two jobs. The nature of job in the training organization creates pressure on them and signifies the need of balancing between these two. These training organizations are located in such a place where employees are dissuaded to live outside the campus. This situation brings problem for those whose husbands work outside. For this conditions sometimes women have to maintain two families, one is the on-campus and another one in off-campus. Some female officers are posted in this organization for temporary basis, for 3-5 years (GoB, 2004). They work on deputation. But they are supposed to be back to their parent organization at any time. This creates family shift to two different places. Although PSTOs maintain different working culture, these are run by same government rules and regulations and family-friendly policies. The question is how these FFPs can play an important role in this changing working culture. Since these are issues that bring negative consequences in working life, women in these PSTO are needed to balance working and family life.

2. Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

2.1 Literature Review

The issues of family friendly policies, work-life balance, work culture clearly interrelated and affect a majority of employees particularly working women of public sector training organizations who have to perform their family activities along the with official work.

2.1.1 Training Organizations in Bangladesh

The main role of the public sector training organizations is to build the capacity of public servants of Bangladesh by providing knowledge, skill according to the need of the time so that people can be provided efficient and effective services. There are as many as 28 cadre services and almost every service has its own training organization. However, Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre (BPATC) is for all government employees. Except BPATC all training organizations are maintained by the government rules and regulations. BPATC is the only autonomous organization run by the ordinances. However, regarding the family friendly policies, all options are also applicable for its employees. So there are 29 training institutes established to provide training to the public servants. These have been established in accordance with the need of development of huge number of intake every year. Each training institute has its own set up with a good number of employees. All training institutions have employed 2275 at different levels (chart-1) with a huge gap at every level (chart-1 &2) between man and woman.

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Out of 29 public sector training organizations, there are 23 training organizations where women are employed and the rest do not have any working woman. The ratio of women working in the different levels of 23 organizations appears that more women work in the lower level positions (chart-3).

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2.1.2 Family-friendly policies

Family-friendly policies are defined as the provisions of traditional benefits, such as health insurance and paid vacation, and may even assert that the most important elements of family-friendliness are a secure job and adequate pay (Kingston, 1990). These policies encompass many issues such as maternity leave, paternity leave, dependent care benefits, medical leave benefits, time-off and flexible work schedule benefits. Dependent care benefits are those that help employees with their responsibilities for their children and dependent relatives, like older parents. These include child care resource and referral, elder care resource and referral, on-site or near-site child care, vouchers for child care, and dependent care assistance plans. Other dependent care benefits include consortium child care centres, emergency or sick child care, long-term care insurance, and respite care.

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Details

Pages
38
Year
2013
ISBN (eBook)
9783656421740
ISBN (Book)
9783656422266
File size
763 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v213196
Institution / College
National Institute of Development Administration – Graduate School of Public Administration
Grade
Tags
family friendly policies work-life balance explanatory research working women public sector training organizations bangladesh

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Title: Family Friendly Policies and Work-Life Balance: An Explanatory Research on Working Women in the Public Sector Training Organizations in Bangladesh