TABLE OF CONTENT
2.0 The Existing Supply
3.0 Substation Feeder and Cost Analysis
4.0 Analysis of Feeder/Load Consumption
4.1 Calculation of Voltage Drop for Feeder
OVERVIEW ON THE PROBLEMS OF RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN BAYELSA STATE
Rural electrification is a global challenge especially in the developing countries. The problem of rural electrification is acute in Nigeria because the country has not been able to provide adequate supply to the connected consumers. The case of Bayelsa State is peculiar because the geographical position of the state offer various problems to rural electrification. The state is bounded by rivers, estuaries, creeks and stagnant swamps that pose problems to rural electrification in terms of settlements, accessible roads, good available means of transport etc.
The climatic conditions and flooding are factors militating against the rapid growth of this area. Lack of industrial customers, low load forecast and very long distances from the grid with huge cost of installation, maintenance and operations are key factors.
Bayelsa State is dissected centrally by longitude 6° East and latitude 4.5° North. Bayelsa State with a population of 1,121,693 spread over a land area of 12,000 sq kilometer most of which is water or wet lands. Its definitive boarder is the 185 kilometer of coast line through which its many rivers issue into the Atlantic Ocean (Adekpoju et al 2007, ECN 2004 Sambo 2006). There are few big cities due to the flooding and erosion and some are almost cut off from the capital due to the area of settlement.
Bayelsa State is located in the heart of the Niger Delta and is one of the central areas that produce the resources (Oil and Gas) which account for about 97 percent of the National total earning (Sambo 2008, Igbinovia and Orukpe 2007). The operational base of the oil companies are not located within the source of the revenue, thereby making the place poor, rejected with no impact of such huge revenue taken out of this areas. These areas of Bayelsa State was regarded as rural areas before the creation of the state, therefore it has little or no development. The Oil Companies contributed to the level of poverty because the administrative headquarter of these companies are out of state and are far from the source of the oil deposit. The outcome of this was denial of the people from all social amenities, unemployment, rejection, poverty and devastation of the ecological sources due to spillages and gas flaring (Igbinovia Orukpe 2007).
Due to the outcry, the government is trying to put certain things in place for the development of the Niger Delta, therefore it is necessary to study the problems facing the environment so that policies, designs and construction will be based on facts concerning the development of the area.
The socio-economic development processes revolve around suitable and sustainable power supply. In fact, it is the nucleus of operations and subsequently the engine of growth for all sector of the economy. It also determines the living standard of the people and as well stop the immigration to urban areas. It is therefore necessary to study the factors militating against the rural electrification project, using the existing one as a case study.
2.0 THE EXISTING SUPPLY
Prior to the existing Kolo gas turbine most of the Towns were supplied by the diesel generators through the rural electrification scheme by the Rivers State utilities board. These systems were inadequate and far from been efficient.
Betwe4en 1980 – 1983, the Kolo creek gas turbine was constructed and commissioned. This gas turbine was intended for rural supply and at that period served only three local government areas. The installed capacity was 40MW with two 11KV plants.
From the creation of Bayelsa State in 1996, due to resettlement in the capital (Yenagoa), the need for power supply increased, with the Kolo Creek gas turbine as the only source of supply (Idoniboye-Obu and Odubo 2010, Pabla 2006) .The power station operates on 33kv busbar at the Kolo Gas turbine. The distribution prior to the intervention of the National Electric Power Authority is in fig. 1.
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Fig. 1: Power system layout of Kolo Creek Gas Turbine
From the completion of the Gbarain Toru Gas turbine in the state about 20MW power was interconnected through the main Busbar of Kolo Gas turbine. The upgraded grid is shown in fig 2.
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Fig. 2: Post grid connected power system