Table of Contents
1.1. What is a project?
1.2. Project Cycle
PROJECT PLANNING AND ANALYSIS
2.1. Planning for Project Implementation
2.2. Key issues of Planning for Implementation
2.3. Project Organization (structure).
2.4. Project Implementation plans
2.5. Functions of Planning
2.6. Areas of Planning
2.7. Role of Plans in the implementation activity
2.8. Factors that affect plan implementation
2.9. Why is Planning important
3.1. Major goals Project Management
3.2. Types of Management in the Project Cycle
3.2.1. Integration Management
3.2.2. Scope Management
3.2.3. Time Management
3.2.4. Cost management
3.2.5. Quality Management
3.2.6. Project Communication Management
3.2.7. Project Human Resource Management
3.2.8. Project Risk Management
3.2.9. Project Procurement Management
3.3. Logical Framework Matrix
3.4. Feasibility and Viability Analysis and Decision making
3.5. Feasibility Study
3.6. Feasibility Analysis and Appraisal of Projects
3.7. Needs Analysis
3.8. Problem/ Needs Analysis
3.9. Need and Needs Assessment
3.10. Capacity Assessment
3.11. Traditional and New Project Cycle
5.1. Importance of Information gathering & Analysis
5.2. Project Information System
5.3. Information Users
5.4. Kind of Information needed for Monitoring & Evaluation
5.5. How to ensure that Information is accurate and reliable
5.6. How to ensure that information is relevant to user needs
5.7. How to ensure that information is available on time.
6.1. Data Collection
6.2. Data Analysis
6.2.1. Analysing Data for Monitoring & Evaluation
6.3. Report Writing
1.1.1 . What is a project?
A project comprise a series of activities (investments) that aim at solving problems within a given time frame with a clear set of objectives for man’s benefit. It is an undertaking that involves the commitment of scarce resources in the expectation of future benefits. According to Heagney (2012: 2), a project should have a definite starting and end point (time), a budget (cost), or a certain magnitude of work and specific performance. Before achieving the objectives, a project goes through several stages of a project cycle.
The Project life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. The first stage is the birth phase or Identification. In this stage the outputs and critical success factors are defined. This is followed by a Planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks. In the Execution phase, the project plan is executed, and lastly a Closure or Exit phase, marks the completion of the project. The project cycle has seven stages, each stage links with the preceding one and leads forward to the next one. These include Identification, Preparation, Appraisal, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation and winding up.
1.1.2 Project Life Cycle.
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Identification: This involves the conceptualization of the project ideas. The ideas may be triggered by some need or demand that becomes obvious to an entrepreneur, organization or institution. Heldman (2011 : 2) says that projects are meant to produce a unique product or service that has not been produced before. It therefore requires innovativeness and creativeness.
Who identifies projects?
- Government ministries
- Development government institution
- Local government
- AID agencies
- Other NGO’s
- Private sector companies
- Politicians or other individuals.
Means of identification of projects
- Government development planning
- Program developed by donors
- Surveys by organizations
- Reviews of part policy or projects
- Private sector cooperate planning
Preparation (design): This phase of the cycle requires leaders and managers to research both the needs and the impact of the project. The design involves spelling out the objectives of the project. It is the planning stage and refers to the formulation and design of the project. It involves the detailed articulation of the project ideas into a project proposal. The initiation stages are sometimes referring to prefeasibility studies. This way then can be followed by feasibility studies and finally project proposal.
Appraisal: Appraisal gives stakeholders an opportunity to review the project design in detail and resolve any outstanding questions. The appraisal of the project is a critical and systematic review of all the aspects of the project with the aim of providing reliable information to proceed or not to proceed with the project (is it a good idea? Is it going to work?). This involves checking estimates of project’s costs of resource and the expected flow of benefits from the project along with possible financiers and beneficiaries. The appraisal report and revised project proposal may be used in soliciting funds for the project. Project appraisals critically examine the technical, financial, economic, social, institutional, environmental, legal “feasibility of the project”.
Implementation: This stage involves the carrying out of the most activities of the project. Most of the project funds are disbursed at this stage. Fixed assets are obtained and production or service delivery is undertaken at the implementation stage. As problems often occur in implementing projects, it is normally essential to monitor the implementation of the project. It involves the continuous assessment of the performance of the project to find out if it is working according to plan. Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project’s requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.
Monitoring. Monitoring is performed while a project is being implemented, with the aim of improving the project design and functioning. Regular observation to find out and follow up of the project implementation to find out if project is on track with respect to objectives, budget, time and other criteria. Monitoring helps to troubleshoot for antilogies cost over runs etc.
Evaluation. It may be midterm or end term evaluation. Evaluation involves systematic assessment of the performance of the project with respect to the goals and objectives set originally. The performance of the project in respect of financial budget, timeliness, benefits of cost projections and other aspects are examined and suggestions for any necessary adjustment improvements or control are made. Bamberger describes evaluation as “mainly used to help in selection and design of future projects. Evaluation studies can assess the extent to which the project produced the intended impacts (increase in income, better housing quality, etc.) and the distribution of the benefits between different groups , and can evaluate the cost effectiveness of the project as compared with other options.”
Winding up: The final project process phase is the wrap up process. In this phase of project process, the project comes to an end. The project manager is responsible here to for wrapping up the entire process.
2.0 PROJECT PLANNING AND ANALYSIS
This refers to the design of the project and involves the gathering of relevant information through feasibility studies and market research and carrying out preliminary cost benefit analysis to find out if this project will be sufficiently beneficial to target group, owners or country at large. The output of the planning process will be the project proposal. Project analysis and planning are normally undertaken during the design and preparation stage and involve;
- Analysis of Market Proposals
Analyses the demand for the projects output.
- Analysis of technical feasibility
Analyses technical feasibility in terms of inputs, technique, scale, engineering, machinery, treatment of waste and others.
- Analysis of financial feasibility
Analyses the financial viability by looking at projected outlay and receipts among others.
- Analysis of Economic feasibility
Analyses the benefits of the project to the nation, National resource, allocation and distributional effects.
- Analysis of Ecological effects -
Analyses the environment through environmental impact assessment.
2.1 Planning for Project Implementation.
Planning is an arrangement for doing something which is considered in advance. It means determining what is to be done how, when and by whom. It lays down the objective of pursuit and a specific course of action to achieve it.
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen.
2.2 Key issues of Planning for implementation.
2.2.1 Project organization (structure).
Bureaucracy and other forms of traditional organizational structures are not suitable for projects management. A project call for different forms of organizations, sharper tools of planning & control and improved means of accommodating human resource.
A project may take the following forms of organization:-
- Line and staff organization (with a project coordinator who facilitates the coordination of line management in functional departments). This is suitable for small projects.
- Divisional organization (where a separate division is set up to implement the project headed by a project manager suitable for big projects).
- Matrix organization; where responsibility is shared between the project manager and line managers.
2..2 Project implementation plans.
Projects require formal plans. Plans are required for effective planning for smooth flow of the project cycle.
2..3 Functions of planning.
An implementation plan is a vital aspect of management and serves several important functions;
- It establishes a basis for monitoring and evaluation.
- It provides a basis for organizing work in a project and allocating responsibilities.
- It instills a sense of time consciousness.
- It provides a means of coordination and control of a project.
2..4 Areas of planning.
A project plan must incorporate the following
- Work plans (planning project work), the activities of the project must be properly scheduled and sequenced.
- Planning the manpower and organization. Manpower for the project must be estimated (don’t under estimate or over estimate).
- Planning for money (budgeting).
- Expenditure and income must be time phased and budgeted.
- Planning the information system, the information required for managing and monitoring the project must be defined.
2.5 Role of the planner in the implementation activity.
- Monitoring, mobilizing, organizing and management of resources to ensure that they are incorporated in the planning activities.
- Coordinate, assemble, control and manage resources to achieve what is required.
- Analyses, determine and communicate to management, anticipated existing project needs.
2.6 Factors that affect plan implementation.
- Timely availability of funds
- Nature of the planning process
- Proper implementation planning; (systematic, sequential).
- Sound project organizational structure.
- The human resource (unskilled)
- Content of plan/adequate formulation
- Management of the implementation process
Lewis, (2011: 189), emphasizes that failure to properly define the problem and establish vision and mission of the project will make the project fail to achieve the intended objectives.
2.7 why is planning is important.
- Planning guides implementation of the project.
- Motivates staff through proper resource planning and management.
- Planning ensures smooth running of projects.
- Planning helps to think a head and prepare for the future.
- It ensures the right direction.
- Identifies issues that need to be addressed
- Allocates resources and responsibilities
- It helps stakeholders to choose between options.
3.0 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
According to encyclopedia, project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
Project management is largely required during implementation stage of the project.
Project management covers; integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communication management and procurement management.
Project management requires that one apply their personal knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques towards an activity in order to meet the requirements of a project assigned. Project management involves planning, organizing, decision making, directing, coordinating, monitoring, scheduling and controlling of all the combined activities in order to ensure successful completion of the project objectives. Melton, T.(2008 : 6), stresses that a project is construed to mean an independent undertaking with a unique purpose and conditions to be managed by artificial structures or technical systems.
It is effectively working to coordinate and manage individuals to work towards a common goal or objective to complete a task.
3.1. Major goals in project management.
- Attainment of objectives.
- Financial sustainability.
- Maximizing the beneficial impact.
- Efficiency of the project.
- Social sustainability.
According to Ian Dorton (1998: 198), the there are two main objectives of project management. These include;
- Finishing the project within the agreed available time.
- Finishing the project within the planned budget.
All the intended objectives are meant to increase efficiency reduces the costs of production, increase transparency, and achieve the best out of the available scarce resources.
3.2 Types of management in the Project Cycle.
3.2.1 Integration management.
Describes the process required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of the project plan development, plan execution and overall change control. The project integration ensures that the project is managed as a unit of related activities.
3.2.2 Scope Management.
The project scope is the definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish and the budget (time and money) that has been created to achieve these objectives.
Describe the process required to ensure that the project activities include; All the work required to successfully complete the project and realize the objectives specified for the project. It involves the scope definition, scope planning, scope benefaction and scope change control. Grundy (2001: 26) emphasizes the need of scoping the project through identifying the key project objects for effective project management. This may be in form of identifying the size of the project, the stakeholders among other factors needed to bear in mind for effective project management.
3.2.3 Time management.
Relates to the management process required to ensure that the project is completely timely (in time). It involves the definition of the activities the estimation of the duration of the activities developing the schedule for the activities of the project and controlling that schedule.
3.2.4. Cost management:
Involves the process required to ensure that the project is completed within the stipulated budget. It consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting and cost control.
3.2.5 Quality Management:
Involves the management processes in ensuring that the project delivers outputs that meet the quality specifications set in order to satisfy stake holders. This consist quality planning, quality assurance and quality control.
3.2.6 Project communication management:
Includes processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information. It provides the initial links among people, ideas and information that are necessary for the files of the projects. It includes communication planning, information distribution, performance reporting and administrative closure processes.
3.2.7. Project Human resources management.
Includes processes required to make the most effective use of people involved with the project. It includes all the project stakeholders, the sponsors, staff, customers, individual contributors and others. David, N (1999:356), stresses that human resource management not only is important for human resource issues but also vital for total integration within corporate objectives of the enterprise. It involves organizational planning, staff acquisition and team development. Kendrick (2011:83) stresses that building a high performing team involves brainstorming planning and embarking in team building activities that helps to achieve good working relations and mutual trust. Team work helps to assist even the less skilled workers through mentoring and guidance that generally lead to increased labor productivity.
3.2.8 Project risk management.
It involves the process of identifying, analyzing and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing results of positive events. It includes risk identification, risk qualification, risk response development, risk response control etc. Kendrick (2009:2) shows that effective project risk management is needed to understand the challenges ahead so as to anticipate the possible risks. Past failures can be used to avoid future problems through planning for risk management.
3.2.9. Project procurement management
Involves the processes required to acquire goods/service from outside the performing organization. It includes the processes of procurement planning, solicitation, source selection contract administration, contract close out etc.
A successful manager must effectively manage the resources assigned to the project. (Reh ,1997). This includes the labor hours of the designers, builders, the testers and the inspectors of the project team. It also includes managing any labor subcontracts. Managing the people resources means having the right people, with the right skills and proper tools, in the right quantity at the right time. It also means ensuring that they know what needs to be done, when and how. And it means motivating them to feel a sense of belonging while at work.
Project management means effectively working to coordinate and manage individuals to work towards a common goal or objective to complete a task. The project management requires that one apply their personal knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques towards an activity in order to meet the requirements of a project assigned. Project management involves planning, scheduling, and controlling of all the combined activities in order to ensure a successful completion of the project objectives. There are three concepts that are part of any project no matter what type of project is being worked on. These three concepts include project processes, project life cycles, and project management systems.
3.3 Logical Framework Matrix.
This is usually a 4 x 4 matrix in which the first column summarize the activities, output, objectives and goals in a hierarchical order as delivered from the objectives analysis.
- Second column defines objectively verifiable indicator (OVI) required to be able to determine whether the objectives and goals are being attained.
- Third column describes the practical steps involved in estimating or means of verifying (MOV) of the objectively verifiable indicators in column three.
- The 4th Column represents all those factors assured given but not part of the project intervention, i.e. Assumptions. They are therefore external factors. If they not hold, then they constitute risks.
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What is a logical frame work?
This is a tool used to strengthen project design, implementation and evaluation. Although it is constructed during the prime stage of the project, the logical framework is a living document that should be constructed and altered throughout the project’s life cycle.