1.1. Purpose of the study
2.1. Indicators of development
2.2. Basics for all
3.0. Characteristics of rural areas in developing countries
3.1. Agricultural transformation and rural development
3.2. Values of development
4.0. Community development
4.1. Role of development workers
4.2. Principles of community development
4.2.1. Mobilisation of local resources
4.2.2. Ensuring sustainability
4.2.3. Doing consultations in a culturally acceptable form
4.2.4. Facilitation of local people
4.2.5. Direct participation
4.2.6. Giving local communities absolute power to make decisions
4.2.7. Sharing equitably benefits of development
5.0. Rural communities
5.1. Poverty in rural and semi urban areas
5.2. Theories of poverty and anti-poverty strategies in communities
5.2.1. Individual deficiency theories
5.2.2. Cultural belief systems’ theories
5.2.3. Geographical disparity theories
5.3. Strategies to transform rural communities
5.3.1. Globalization and integration
5.3.2. The Culture and Education sphere
5.3.3. The economic sphere
5.3.4. Information Communication Technology
5.4. Other notable challenges of rural development
5.4.1. Demographic change/ Population pressure
5.4.2. Food and water scarcity
Rural areas in the developing world have remained unattractive to the local population. Developing communities face a challenge of making the rural areas comfortable for human kind. The youth have a tendency of moving from rural to urban areas for better opportunities in employment, services and lifestyles. Rural areas have been economically inactive despite abundant resources in these areas. They are deprived of labor in form of rural urban migration to the urban areas for better opportunities. Poverty in rural areas is the order of the day and this calls poverty measures to address this problem.
1.1. Purpose of the study.
The study will enable managers to;
- Easily identify the needs of the community and actual indicators of development in the rural communities.
- Introduce students to the important concepts as applied to community based planning and rural development.
- Develop skills to enable the community participate in planning for sustainable development.
Rural development involves improving the general welfare and living of the people that live in rural areas and semi urban areas. It is community development that aims at increasing safe water, food security, health care, road net work and education facilities in marginalized areas. All possible ways and means are sought on how the social economic conditions of the people in these areas are sought by allowing the local population to participate in decision making and implementation in rural development program.
Development is a process of improving peoples’ standards of living and welfare.
It is characterized by raising people’s living styles, improved consumption levels of good quality products, accessing better medical, education, and transport among other services through relevant economic processes.
Development involves creation of the conducive atmosphere where there is growth of people’s self esteem through the establishment of good economic systems and social political institutions that are able to promote human dignity and respect.
Development emphasizes increasing peoples’ freedoms and rights to choose from a wide range of choices for example increasing the variety of goods and services. People have a right to security and the basic needs a reflection of the society transformation. Transformation is also reflected in social and economic institutions especially to match with the changing production for example change in land ownership, having social facilities for instance education, health care services, improvement in transport among others.
Transformation is in changing attitudes and values for example people must accept new sets of norms and must do away with traditional cultures which keep people to resist to progressive change that aim at value production. This transformation creates a set of people that are innovative and creative.
Therefore development involves transformation of a society and transformations are seen in many sectors of the economy for example transformation in Agricultural practices to boost qualitative and quantitative productivity.
Development emphasizes the qualitative change in social and economic growth structure. Societies that are undergoing economic growth for instance the quantitative increased change income but without social transformation cannot be labeled as developed. Therefore development is a wholistic way of change of sectors and the way they impact on human lifestyles.
2.1. Indicators of development.
These include better living conditions, access to health services, and education with the aim of eradicating illiteracy, access to clean water, clean air and environment as well as better living conditions. Equitable distribution of resources among regions and individuals is so paramount since it increases effective demand, consumption and investment multiplier.
Other indicators include attention and care for the vulnerable for example welfare of the people, care for the elderly, sick, disabilities, orphans, poor, and those that are terminally ill. It also entails a corruption free society, democracy, good governance and promotion of freedom of speech and association and fundamental human rights.
- Transport and infrastructural development.
- Improvement in technology and information and communications.
2.2. Basic needs for all-A basis for development.
The basic needs for all emphasizes human development and therefore the human development index is a reasonable good indicator for development basic needs attainments implies complete poverty reduction, and it aims at the society where there is zero tolerance to poverty and where poverty eradication is a public concern.
The aspect of basic needs implies that the country should be responsible for individual welfare. Therefore, this implies that poverty eradication is a public good. Poverty is a matter of public interest at both national and community level. Human needs manifest as both deprivation/deficit but also as potential not yet realized for development of fully functionally of human beings needs. These needs include Survival needs (Food nutrition, shelter, clothing), Protection needs (security), Affection needs’ love, Needs for understanding and enlightenment, Identity, Need for freedom, expression, worship, association, Expression, Worship and Association.
3.0.Characteristics of rural areas in developing countries.
Poor and inadequate housing is very rampant in rural communities of developing countries. This is accompanied by poor hygiene and sanitary services.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Photo 1 (By researcher 0n1/8/2012) Photo 2 (By Fred).
In photograph 1, there is a lot of misery reflected by the type of houses that the rural people have. Such type of housing is characterized by mud houses, old structures, leaking roofs and at times bed burgs and fleas harass the residents. The Photograph was taken in Kyanamira sub county in Kabale district.
Photograph 2 shows the state of affairs at Butalega Primary school. The school does not have enough classrooms and children study under the classroom. In addition children sit in dust since there are no enough seats in school. This situation makes children lose interest in schooling a situation that has always contributed to high school drop outs in rural areas.
Poor health reflected by few doctors, lack of drugs and lack of medical equipment in hospitals. This greatly affects the life expectancy and living standards.
Escalating high rates of population growth which are evidenced by high birth rates and declining death rates.
Low levels of productivity in form of subsistence production in the primary sector.
High rates of unemployment that is both voluntary and non voluntary is a problem especially to the youth.
Dependency on other economies where there is high dependence for capital and human resource for development.
Technological backwardness where traditional technology dominates production processes. There is hardly any research that is applied to increase technological know- how.
Substantial dependency on agriculture and low levels of service sector and industrial development that results into low incomes to the population.
High infant mortality rates due to poor medical care, poor nutrition and general poor welfare of the population. Presence of imperfect market and incomplete information affects the trade patterns and the trading position of these countries.
Low levels of education in the rural environment affect the productivity of labor. This is especially true in the developing communities where illiteracy rates are rather still high.
Political instability in some parts of the world has been marred with turmoil, a situation that antagonizes the well being of the population.
The condition and availability of infrastructure is still poor in rural areas. This is shown by the available schools, health centers, and recreation facilities for the youth. The situation is still wanting in the rural communities.