TABLE OF CONTENTS
MATERIALS AND METHODS
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic diseases are among the most common diseases globally and for this reason, it is very important to study its occurrence and its degree of risk in contamination. No previous record is available in the municipality of Porto Novo, hence the necessity of this study.
AIMS: To obtain the occurrence of common intestinal parasites among the inhabitants of Porto Novo municipality.
Stool testing performed on 391 subjects between March to June, 2011 age ranging from 11 months to 82 years old, 141 (36.06%) were infected with one or more of the intestinal parasites. Among protozoa, Entamoeba coli (22.51%), Entamoeba Histolytica/Dispar (7.67%) and Giardia Lamblia (5.90%) were the most isolated intestinal parasites and among the helminths, Hymenolepis nana (2.30%), Ancylostoma Duodenale (1.28%) and Trichuris Trichuria (0.51%) were isolated. Age distribution did not show a definite pattern of infectivity rather females (24.60%) were mainly infected than males (11.50%).
Hence, concluded that intestinal parasites pose a serious public health problem in the municipality of Porto Novo and that its degree of contamination is still high, therefore, treatment measures, National deworming programs at schools and sanitary improvement strategies is advocated for the population of the municipality to reduce and or eradicate this sporadic problem.
KEY WORDS: Distribution, Intestinal Parasites, Municipality, Porto Novo, Cape Verde.
A parasite is an organism that is entirely dependent on another organism, referred to as its host for all or part of its life cycle and metabolic requirements. Parasitism is therefore a relationship in which a parasite benefits and the host provides the benefit. The degree of dependence of a parasite on its host varies.
An obligatory parasite is one that must always live in contact with its host. The term free- living describes the non parasitic stages of existence which are lived independently of a host for example, hookworms, have active free living stages in the soil.
Definitive host is the host in which sexual reproduction takes place or in which the most highly developed form of a parasite occurs. When the most mature form is not obvious, the definitive host is the mammalian host. However, the intermediate host refers to the host which alternates with the definitive host and in which the larval or asexual stages of a parasite are found. Some parasites require two intermediate hosts in which to complete their life cycle.
The reservoir host is an animal host serving as a source from which other animals can become infected. Epidemiological speaking, reservoir hosts are important in the control of parasitic diseases. The can maintain a nucleus of infection in an area. The term zoonosis is used to describe an animal infection that is naturally transmissible to humans either directly or indirectly via a vector (insect).
Gastrointestinal parasites are frequently transmitted via food and contaminated drinking water but may also be spread from person to person through faecal- oral contact. It is believed that over 70 species of protozoan and helminthic parasites can infect human through food and water contamination (Pozio 2003).
A third of the world´s population most of them children may be infected with intestinal worms, principal among them are Ascaris Lumbricoides, Hookworms, and Trichuris Trichuria which cause a variety of conditions including malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia, malabsorption syndrome, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation (Allen & Maizel 1996).
The protozoan Entamoeba Histolytica cause of amoebiasis and life threatening liver abscess is a leading cause of death due to parasites second only to malaria (Stanley 2003). Although many intestinal parasites, particularly the geohelminths have virtually disappeared from industrialized countries, screening for parasitic infections remains a public health priority in the United States of America health care settings serving refugees and immigrants(Walker & Jaranson 1999), most of whom may have emigrated from countries where intestinal parasitic diseases are endemic(Larson 2003).
Helminthes and protozoan infections differ importantly both in host immune response and in epidemiology.Helminths are macroparasites that reproduce sexually within the definitive host, where the can persist for many years, whereas protozoa are microparasites that are capable of direct reproduction within the host, often at high rates and cause relatively short lived infection (Maizel 1993).
Helminth infections are well known to elicit a type-2 (th-2) non inflammatory T-cell response, a hallmark of which is IgE elevation with eosinophilia and which may be strong enough to exert biasing effects on concomitant infections (Pit DS 2001), as well as host response to Th-1 mediated chronic infections, including intracellular parasites. By contrast, many protozoa like bacteria act through manipulation of Th-1 pathways.