Is development of Dodoma Municipality sustainable? How sustainability is?
The study was conducted at the area from Institute of Rural Development Planning and Management to Dodoma Municipality centre to assess whether development can be sustainable and how this sustainability is maintained. An organized walk was set along the road and plot was designed at an interval of 200 meters. Any observed condition leading to unsustainability was recorded, settlement type, vegetation types, drainage systems at IRDP and roads, livestock and crops found were recorded. Computer programs including macro-soft excel, macro-soft word were used during data collection and analysis. The study revealed that even the drainage systems and roads around higher institutions like IRDP were not well maintained. The road maintenance including concrete and tarmac road had some implications of not encouraging sustainable development as drainage systems were not directed and maintained properly, off roads were prominent at the earth road from IRDP to Mwisho wa Lami around Miyuji area. The area was also, occupied by mostly exotic trees and indication that the natural vegetation scenery is no longer existing. Overgrazing around settlement and open spaces found along the whole road distance of 5km was very alarming done mostly during weekends, after office working hours and night hours, an indication that land use suitability is not implemented and hence not sustainable development. Sewage systems are not constructed around Miyuji area and thus the community is vulnerable to deadly diseases like diarrhea and Typhoid.
The municipality is expanding rapidly through buildings, industrial construction and more traffic emitting deadly gases also, contributing to global warming. This research recommends that more survey should be conducted to reveal more human actions that lead to an alarming negative effects resulted by development, indigenous trees should be planted to maintain natural vegetation scenery, drainage systems at homesteads should be constructed and this can be done involving the local people and government through sharing costs and again must be implemented as soon as possible, institutions which are the areas believed to accommodate knowledgeable people should be a model to the community, grazing at the municipality centre should be discouraged to rescue the ornamental plants that also, play a role as carbon gases sink and maintain the municipality beauty, regulate temperature, encourage reliable rainfall, prevent erosion and provide oxygen of which without, human survival is impossible.
KEYTERMS: Development, Sustainable, Surrounding community
This is a social, political and economic growth of the present generation in the way that does not compromise the needs of future generations. Sustainable development should value the none living component, scenery as well as the richness of biological diversity. Members of living organisms have strong effect on each other (Castro & Huber, 2005), and none of them can survive by its own. Sustainable development embraces everything surrounding human beings (Dupriez & Leener, 2003).The living environment includes plants and animals which their existence are mostly dependent on the human’s generosity (Dupriez & Leener, 2003).
Worldwide, the human population is competing for resources as well as improved life through advancement of settlement, roads, industries and food supply. Environmental crisis has been experienced all over the world since the second world war when several damage on environment was experienced. After the war, the only left struggle was for resource accumulation (ReVelle & ReVelle, 1988), to fill the social and economic satisfaction needs.
Tanzania is one of African countries with a large number of people facing severe poverty rate and thus depending to a large scale on any abiotic and biotic resources available around them. Also, the fast emerging implementation of infrastructure like roads has been found to bring about more negative effect than the positive part of it. Development lead to pollution of water, deforestation as a result of land use dynamics and human pressures; most people depend on woody materials for fuel (Assefa, et al, 2001).