Conflict between cattle keepers and the surrounding community: A case of Chinangali Street in Dodoma Municipality Tanzania
A survey on the conflict between cattle keepers and surrounding communities was conducted at Maili Mbili-Chinangali street in Dodoma Municipality between December, 2010 and January 2011 to find out conflicts resulted by cattle keepers, as well as to assess factors for incompatible land use in the study area. 100m X 1000m [10hectares] transect walk was employed from Maili Mbili seasonal stream bridge to the end of Chinangali street. Questionnaire forms were used to collect data including three cattle keepers and three non-cattle keepers. Also, direct observation was applied whereby any revealed cattle were identified, counted and recorded. Digital camera was used to take photographs. The found cattle huts were recorded and photographed. Computer packages including micro soft excel, micro-soft word programs and calculator were used during data compilation and analysis. A total of 55 cows and 31 goats were identified. The total available hectares were 10, an indication that at least nine cattle occupy one hectare and practically one cow needs 3.2 hectares, while for the goat 1.2 hectares are required (see Table 1). There were a deficit of more than 70% for both cows and cattle (see Table 1). The factors for the conflicts were poor implementation of laws and bylaws by the government, low education to the community as well as poverty. Resources allocation has to be planned to avoid unnecessary conflicts for sustainable development. It is recommended that town planners and government as a whole should rely on the best quality of land use; also, more research is encouraged to find out the best solution for the existing communities conflicts.
KEY WORDS; Conflicts, cattle keepers, surrounding community
Tanzania is one of the countries with more than 90 percent specialized in crop farming as well as livestock farming. The system of free grazing cattle so far is being challenged to zero grazing as one of the best ways of ensuring environmental conservation, suitable allocation of land use as well as maintaining health of the cattle and human healthy survival. Grazing is the use of land to feed cattle (Horby, 1995). Zero grazing is when cattle are being kept in their huts or huts through out and the owner will have to go out collecting fodder and get them fed without roaming around.
Cattle keeping refer to keeping animals like goats, ships and or cows and other similar animals kept for domestic use, but not as pets”, play an important, if not fundamental, role in human society (UNHCR, 2006). Meat, milk and skins are among the products most readily sought from cattle, while dung, urine and blood are commonly used as fertilizers for gardens, fields and fish ponds.
In many places, cattle have been found to cause severe damage or deterioration of wild biodiversity [plants and animals]. Most of plants tend to die when browsed by cattle, especially goats (Lambrechts et at, 2002). Cattle are the domestic farm animals raised for meat and or milk (Collin, 2001).
The crop and cattle farmers have been found to have a certain belief that they should have to either cultivate or keep cattle regardless of the negative impact encountered, and even foresters have mostly failed to settle this situation (Maunder et al, 2002). In urban areas, still there are people who cannot accept staying without even a single cattle and ready to tolerate any emerging conflict.
Hornby (2000) defined that conflict is a serious disagreement or an argument or a long and bitter argument among people; it is a serious difference of opinions between the achievement of one aim and that of another. It also, means to be very different to something or opposition towards a certain strategy.
Based on the subject matter conflict between cattle keepers and the surrounding community refers to as the disagreement on the individual land use plans whereby many people prefer having silent environment covered by planted ornament plants and well protected soil around homesteads, while the cattle owners strategy is to have well fed cattle to ensure their survival and continuous supply of milk and rarely meat to supplement their other income sources. Supplement is anything added to something else to improve or complete it (Hornby, 2000).
Historical background of Dodoma municipality area
Historically, Dodoma municipality used to be a centre for petty trading, urban farming as well as livestock keeping whereby latter, a number of cattle had been withheld by the municipality on grounds. This is still a major traditional occupation for community in Dodoma municipality up to now relying on semi-zero grazing practiced by a variety of tribes.
Problem statement & justification
Cattle keeping at Chinangali Street are a big challenge to the community and environment in general. The area accommodates an open space with enormous vegetation coverage that is prone to deterioration due to free roaming cattle, especially during weekends and during the dark at working days and hours. Apart from this situation, no documented information is available that explain how the conflict prevails in the Municipality and specifically in this area. Maunder et at (2000) explained that, local communities are very hard to work with and even knowledgeable people fail and even reporting on the matters tend to be a problem. This study aimed to find out the challenges or conflict caused by cattle keeping in Dodoma municipality, as well as the reasons for the persistent keeping and grazing in this urban area while there are no areas set for grazing according to urban development plans. Moore (1996) argued that the conducted research brings about useful information that provides basis for well informed debate and also allows deciding how to set the best courses of action on social and economic services as well as encouraging proper sense of the people’s experience in tackling community’s challenges and avoid or minimize biasness.
The objectives of this work was to find out the conflict resulted by cattle keeping at street in Dodoma municipality. Also, was to assess the reason for incompatible allocation of land use.
METHODOLOGY Study area
The study was conducted at Chinangali street that runs from the Bridge (darajani) which is 150m west of wajenzi town bus station junction towards west, along mud road to Dodoma-Singida tarmac road in Dodoma municipality, located at latitude 60 10I south of equator and 330 46I east of Greenwich meridian with an altitude of 1120m above sea level (United Republic of Tanzania, 2010).
Just like in the whole of Dodoma Municipality including other many areas Chinangali street falls under savanna type of climate, which is characterized by a long dry season lasting between late April and early December, and a short single wet season occurring during the remaining months. In the long dry season, persistent desiccating winds and low humidity contribute to high evapo-transpiration and to soil erosion. The average rainfall of Dodoma town is 570mm, and about 85 percent of this falls in the months between December and April.
Average maximum temperature is 310 C and minimum is 180 C respectively. In June - August, temperatures are at times very high with hot afternoons up to 35oC and chilly nights down to 100 C (United Republic of Tanzania, 2009).