An Empirical study on the Effectiveness of Training at a Biscuit Manufacturing Factory in Bangalore, India.
Investing in people today through training has become very valuable for an organization’s success in their industry. Today employee training has become critical to create a culture in which employees feel valued and entrusted with the organization’s success. The objective of the paper was to analyse the various factors which contributes to effective training in the organization. The paper also analyses the relationship between training and organizational commitment of employees in a manufacturing unit of a national biscuit and confectionary brand. A questionnaire was developed which contained questions on the training conducted , how the training received by employees contributed to their performance in job, confidence level and taking up of higher responsibilities .This questionnaire was administered to 75 employees who are in the lower and middle managerial levels of a manufacturing Unit . A factor analysis was conducted to understand the major factors which contributed to the effectiveness of training. Also statistical tools like correlation was conducted to understand whether there is any relation between effectiveness of training conducted with organizational commitment .Analysis reveals primarily four factors like Organizational support in conducting training, Personal and professional development, Pre and Post training support, Training needs assessment and evaluation .It is also found that there is a positive relation between effectiveness of training and organizational commitment.
Key words : organizational commitment, Training , effectiveness
Today, the corporate world has become increasingly knowledge based that investing in intangible assets of an organization has become a strategic source for competitive advantage. Increasing competition, globalization and environmental changes have made learning an ongoing process in the corporate world. It has become a success factor more important than ever in any organization. Research suggests that workplace learning not only contributes to improvement of employees skills and abilities but also enhances their satisfaction with the job and to organizational commitment (Barlett 2001, Rowder 2002, Conine 2005).Researchers have also found out that overall job satisfaction contributes to higher organizational commitment (Iverson and Roy, 1994).Further organizational commitment has been identified as a predictor for employee workplace performance and organizational success ( Bateman and Strasser, 1984, Brooks 2002,Samad 2005, 2006).Despite the considerable amount of money and resources organizations spent on training and development, it has yet to be determined to examine to what extent these investments have been successful for the employees and the organizations. It was found that only a fraction of the skills and abilities learned from a training program has been transferred to the job (Baldwin and Ford, 1988; Broad and Newstrom, 1992; Burke and Baldwin, 1999).Most research on training effectiveness consists of gathering data regarding trainee reactions towards the training program and how much learning has taken place (Axtell, Maitlis, and Yearta, 1997). Further research have often asserted the fact that research on training effectiveness has been very a theoretical and non empirical ((Baldwin and Ford, 1988; Clark, Dobbins, and Ladd, 1993). Tracey, Tannenbaum and Kavanagh (1995) stated that ‘signiﬁcantly less research has examined the transfer of trained skills to the job, and even fewer studies have examined how the work environment inﬂuences such transfer. Thus from a theoretical stand point a more comprehensive conceptual framework can be developed by including factors outside the training context. Tracey etal emphasized that despite the potential importance of the work environment little research has been conducted to operationalise and empirically assess training- Speciﬁc situational factors that either facilitate or impede the application of newly learned skills on the job.
The lack of research in the training effectiveness area can be attributed to the fact that many organisational variables that can inﬂuence employee performance have yet to be identiﬁed and measured. Furthermore, the lack of research on training effectiveness can be attributed to the difficulty in measuring such result outcomes as productivity and quality which aside from the immediate training environment are also inﬂuenced by the broader organizational environment (Kirkpatrick, 1987; Macy and Izumi, 1993; Phillips, 1997).
Review of Literature:
A comprehensive study on training transfer was made by Baldwin and Ford (1988) the authors deﬁned positive transfer of training as the degree to which trainees effectively apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in a training context to the job’ (p. 63). Baldwin and Ford (1988) emphasised that from the estimated $100 billion American industries spend on training, only about 10 per cent of these expenditures actually result in transfer of newly learned skills and knowledge to the job. Newstrom (1986) for instance, when analysing the perceptions of HRD professionals on the transfer of content of management development programs back to the work environment, reported that the surveyed HRD professionals believed that only 40 per cent of the content of programs they conducted was transferred back to the work environment immediately after training, about 25 per cent was still being applied 6 months later, and only 15 per cent was still being used by the end of the year. Similarly, Hoffman (1983) estimated that only about 10 per cent of training expenditures result in observable behavior change on the job. Baldwin and Ford (1988) study was that the effectiveness of a training intervention is contingent upon many variables, some of which fall outside the training system. Training design, trainee characteristics, and work environment characteristics were cited as the most important sets of variables. Baldwin and Ford (1988) further attributed that the expectancy model can be used as a framework for further understanding the motivational factors that can affect the process of transfer of training. Baldwin and Ford (1988) assert that a researcher will be able to identify such environmental factors as organisational procedures, reward systems, and acceptance of new skills by supervisors and peers, that can inﬂuence an individual’s motivation to transfer the newly learned skills back to the workplace. Clark et al. (1993) conducted a structural equations modeling study which was built upon expectancy theory and explored the effects of several contextual factors on training motivation. The survey instrument used was designed to measure training motivation, expected job and career utility of training, peer and supervisor training transfer climate, involvement in decision to be trained, and decision-maker credibility. The underlying premise for the model of the Clark et al. (1993) study was that training motivation is a direct function of the extent to which the trainee believes that training will result in either job utility or career utility. Career utility was deﬁned as ‘the perceived usefulness of training for attainment of career goals, such as getting a raise or promotion, or taking a more fulﬁlling job’). Job utility at the same time was deﬁned as ‘the perceived usefulness of the training course to facilitate goals associated with the current job, such as increased productivity, reduced errors, or better problem-solving skills’ (p. 294). In short, this study revealed the following important ﬁndings: (a) perceived job and career utility of training signiﬁcantly predicts training motivation, (b) involvement in the decision to be trained results in higher perceptions of job and career utility, (c)the credibility of the individual recommending or requesting training affects job and career utility, and (d) perceived supervisory support for training transfer affects anticipated job utility and thus motivation to learn during training. The relationship between peer support and job utility was found to be non-signiﬁcant. Clark et al. (1993) suggested that peer support could be an important factor during training transfer when the job requires more interaction with others, as in the case of selfmanaged work teams.
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- Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering – Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering
- empirical effectiveness training biscuit manufacturing factory bangalore india