It has been widely accepted that organic materials (plant and animal sources of organic matter) from plants and animals play important role in sustaining and improving soil structure, soil quality, soil function, soil health, soil fertility, and overall crop performance in agricultural production. Organic materials are potential important sources of micro and macro nutrients in agricultural soils environment (Hood, 2001). They affect physical, biological, chemical, and ecological processes in soil. They improve soil structural quality, soil water holding capacity, soil infiltration, soil organism biodiversity, and soil nutrient availability (FAO, 2005). The utilization of the animal and plant materials is not only an economic benefit for soil and crops but also for human being and his environment.
Bio-organic Manure (BOM) is processed from some organic materials (animal or plant or combinations of all). Process of decomposition of homogeneous and heterogeneous organic materials will be rapidly undergoing some changes due to microbial functions, temperature control, and water actions. This is different from fresh organic fertilizer where natural decay process is brought about by the action of heterogeneous microbes present in the organic matter.
Because the animals can only absorb 25% nutrients of the plant and animal feed they eat, 75% of the nutrients is discharged with animal manure which therefore contains many elements like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, zinc, manganese, amino acid, proteins and many others (FAO, 2005). Therefore, to produce quality organic manure, combinations of animal, plant, crop residues, wood, and other organic materials are required. The most available and affordable among the others in some part of Africa are plant materials such as Acacia nilotica, Acacia albida, Azadracta indica; animal materials such as cow dung, goat dung, sheep dung, donkey dung, horse dung, camel dung, poultry dung; crop materials such as rice husks, millet husks, maize husks, sorghum husks, cowpea residues, g/nut husks; wood materials such as wood ash, wood husks; house refuses; and many others.
These materials can be identifying by adapting the field and laboratory test. However, whatever materials are selected, there must be a mixture ration of both animal and plant materials for quality product to be produce.
Generally, the BOM machine produced products that are fresh manures. These manures are raw material which does not contain any chemical composition. The available pure natural nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, amino acids, proteins and other ingredients. The manure machine not only creates economic benefits for the enterprise, but also of mankind made a great contribution to environmental control and protection. The result was environmental safety and friendly, no any risk impact, significant soil quality and health conditions, high crop yield and permanent soil fertility and environmental management.
LISTS OF CATEGORIES OF RECOMMENDED ORGANIC MATERIALS
1. Raw materials and their sources. The amount depends on the desired quantity of:
a. Animals dung – cow, sheep, goat, donkey, camel, horse, poultry
b. Plant residues – leaves, branches, and roots
c. Crops residues – husks of millet, rice, g/nut, sorghum, cowpea
d. Wood materials – wood ash, wood husks
e. House refuses – any available combinations: unwanted food, leaves, fruits, etc
LISTS OF MATERIALS TOOLS
1. Tools and equipment to be use
b. Shovel: metal and woody
c. Metal spoon: long size one
d. Hand gloves, boots, and nose + mouth covers
e. Sprinkler + tank of water
f. Plastic rubber
h. Weighing scale
j. Human supports
The procedures described below followed the same steps as given by Department of Agriculture Philippines Coconut Authority (DAPCA, 2010): Research, Development and Extension, Agronomy and Soils Division, Training Centre.
1. Site selection: The ideal bio-organic manure environmental site should be clean, shaded, well drained and protected from all other air and insect born diseases. Water should be close to the site and regular inspection will be timed by the producer. However, an open area could be used but fencing is important to protect the inner site of the production area. Depending on the quantity and size of the site, as much as many tones can be process at a time.
2. Preparation of raw materials: Required amount of organic materials of various types should be collected as samples. These will be then mixed together in an experimental plastic reservoir or site place. Volume of water will be added regularly to enhance the functional activities of microorganisms and gaseous exchange during the mineralization and humifications of fresh organic materials.
3. Piling of materials: the following steps are required:
a. Step 1. Spread 4/10 of required plant materials as the first layer followed by 2/10 of animal materials, and then 4/10 of different kinds of plant and animal mixtures. Water should be adding equivalent to 70%-80% moisture content. After a period of 10 hours, press the sample in your hand and when the water does not fall freely, then it is almost within the right moisture content. Again, apply the required amount of water hircine (depending on the amount of materials used) to mix the materials thoroughly.
b. Step 2. Spread evenly any of the animal manures (cow dung, goat dung, donkey dung etc) on top and then add water to moist it again.
c. Step 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 but use any house refuse materials instead of animal manure. Apply the rice husk or millet husk on top of the animal manure.
d. Step 4. As the topmost layer, spread evenly wood ash and moist it.
e. Step 5. Cover the materials with plastic sack to conserve moisture and prevent rainwater from getting into the material.
f. Step 6. Maintain regular inspections and observations including moisture and temperature control consecutively up to 15 days.
g. Step 7. Mixing and turning over should also be maintain after 2-3 days. During these exercises, water should be added if needed and always after turning and mixing, return the plastic cover. These should be continuing for up to 5-8 weeks.
h. Step 8. Harvesting and processing of materials should follow after the materials are well decomposed and mixed together properly. The indications of these decomposition and mixing are dark, dark brown to black colors.
i. Step 9. The processed material must be store for one week under room shade.
j. Step 10. Finally, after one week under shade, the materials could be put into machine to produce BOM into different shapes, colors and sizes. Put BOM in 50 kg or 70 kg or 100 kg plastic sack and then seal ready for use.
QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
For good quality bioorganic manure, the following must be observed:
1. Separate the dry materials from wet ones in the first step.
2. Monitor periodically the temperature of the site. It must be within the right temperature range (40oC). Within the first week, desired temperature is 40-50oC. Room temperature must be maintained. This room temperature is apply to all other bioorganic production’s products such as urea, ammonium bicarbonate, chloride, ammonium phosphate, potassium chloride and other materials for the multi-element compound fertilizer.
3. For a product to be registered with the national or international bodies as pure organic manure, it must have 5-10% total NPK with at least 1.5-2.0% N and at least 10-30% carbon or calcium or magnesium.
HOW MUCH BOM TO APPLY IN THE CROP FIELD
The rate of application depends on the kind of soil and crop condition to be improved. However the following should be considered whenever it comes to application in the field:
1. BOM application ranges from 10-60 (small size) bags/ha for cereals crops farms (e.g. millet farm, maize farm), 1–2 bags for irrigation system/bed, and or 1-15 kg/tree for economics trees plantation like mango, guava, orange, and cashew.
2. Initially for degraded soil, annual supply of up to 10–20 bags is important. After this application the farm will maintain its fertility for next 2–3 years without addition of any bag of BOM. However, it is also equally important to add at least half of recommended amount after 2 years to maintain permanent soil quality and fertility for required yield performances.
BIO-ORGANIC MANURE PRODUCTION MACHINE
The descriptions of functional parts of the organic production machine are as follows:
1. Structure: the machine production line mainly includes crusher, disc granulator, rotary dryer, rotary cooler, screening machine, vertical mixer, belt conveyor, packaging machines and fertilizer coating equipment.
2. Pipe line: the pipe line of the machine is used to dry the ordure from pig and chicken which have no any chemical content because the pig and chicken only can digest 75% and 25% is included in ordure so that the fertilizer from them possess of plentiful Nitrogen Phosphorus, Calcium, Organic Matter, Aminophenol, Protein and so on.
3. Materials in machine line component: Organic manure production line use animal dung, poultry dung, plant materials as its raw material which contains no chemical elements.