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Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning in Business Organisations and Biological Systems

Diploma Thesis 2000 53 Pages

Business economics - Didactics, Economic Pedagogy

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

Technical remarks

Preface

Introduction

I. Management Theories on Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management
1.1. A Company’s Driving Forces: The Seven-S-Model (McKinsey & Company, Inc.)
1.2. The Structure of Organisations (Henry Mintzberg)
1.3. The 5th Discipline – Innovating the Learning Organisation (Peter M. Senge)
1.4. The „Peak Performance Organisation“ (PPO)– what Management can learn from Sports Organisations (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
1.5. Workgroups and Virtual Organisations: Fashion or Future?
1.6. The 21st century: „Collaborating to Compete?“
1.7. Drivers for Excellence
1.7.1. Leadership
1.7.2.1. Knowledge Management
1.7.2.2. Information Technology as supporting tool for Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning
1.9. Summary and Key Findings

II. Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management within Natural Systems
2.1. Organisational Excellence – Biological Networks (Santa Fe Institute of Technology)
2.2. Natural Systems
2.2.1. Honey Bees
2.2.2. Leaf-cutter ants
2.2.3. The African Locust
2.3. Organisational Excellence and Knowledge Management within Natural Organisations: Summary and Key Findings

III. Management Literature linked with Natural Systems
3.1. McKinsey’s 7-S-Model within Natural Organisations
3.2. Mintzberg: Situational factors as determinants of organisational structure and strategy
3.3. The 5th Discipline – Ants, Bees and Locust Populations as Learning Organisations
3.4. Leaf-cutter Ants – a Peak Performance Organisation?

IV. Conclusions
4.1. What is Knowledge?
4.2. Prerequisites for Learning
4.3. When does Knowledge Management really work?
4.5. How does Organisational Learning function?
4.6. How to enforce Organisational Learning
4.7. What are the benefits of Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning?

Appendix

Appendix to 1.7.2.2. Information Technology as supporting tool for Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning

Honey bees

Leaf-cutter ants

The African locust

Glossary

1. Management Terminology

2. Systems Terminology

Bibliography

1. Management

2. Biology

3. Systems

Space for reader’s comments

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the following persons for their ideas on knowledge management and organisational learning and the great conversations we had about these topics:

- Diane Davidson, the Dean of European Business College Munich,

- Alan Diffey, Human Resource Management Professor at European Business College Munich and main promoter of this thesis,

- Dr. Gerd Hoffmann and Prof. Gerhard Seeger of European Business College Munich

- Prof. Dr. Ronald Bordelon, University of Dallas, Texas, USA

- Michael Meindl, my grandfather, who cultivated bees and taught me about them

- Edmundo Ruiz (Siemens AG) and Martin Luckfiel (Siemens Business Services GmbH & Co. OHG)

Technical remarks

To enhance the structure as well as comprehensiveness, colours have been used in the text:

§ Questions are marked in green.

§ Hypothesis formulated by the author are put in blue.

§ Keywords, conclusions and summaries are marked in red.

Some slides have been directly implemented in the text. The slides mostly summarise ideas which are formulated in the text.

Pictures of the examined species can be found in the appendix.

Preface

Writers on management and organisational excellence today provide a set of prescriptions which they argue will lead to healthy, well functioning firms.

Within the management sciences there has been a growing tendency to view organisations as complex systems, that is, to describe them as organisms.

Increasingly the hard sciences are being used to describe and analyse organisations.

In the field of creative problem solving several systems authors have advocated the use of metaphors to describe certain aspects of organisations.

In reviewing much of today’s management literature we are exhorted to use benchmarks, for a variety of management tasks. In reviewing organisational excellence we are duty bound to find a measure that will be relevant tomorrow as well as today.

Conjoining these current themes in management, this thesis seeks to review what we know about the effective collective functioning of selected species and to compare these natural systems with organisational systems.

We posit the question: Can an understanding of the functioning of natural systems help us to understand how organisations function. If so, what can we learn about the effective functioning of organisations.

Firstly we will review common management theories, with a focus on organisational learning and knowledge management.

Secondly we will look at three natural organisations: Honey bees, leaf-cutter ants and the African locust. We want to find out how these organisations function, and specifically search for knowledge management and organisational learning within these biological systems.

Then we will try to link management theories with our findings in natural organisations.

This approach will finally deliver some interesting hypothesis about knowledge management and organisational learning – both valid for human and natural organisations.

Introduction

Knowledge management and organisational learning have become keywords of today’s management literature. Various theories and mental models have been well researched and developed to capture these disciplines.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

To gain a deeper insight into these disciplines and their effect on a system, critically reviewing some of the most relevant management theories first seems appropriate:

I. Management Theories on Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management

1.1. A Company’s Driving Forces: The Seven-S-Model (McKinsey & Company, Inc.)

McKinsey & Company, Inc. have identified seven interacting elements which shape an organisation[1]. If one „driving force“ is changed, all the others are effected.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source of Picture: McKinsey & Company, Inc.[2]

McKinsey’s „7S-framework“ talks about company internal forces to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Organisations could be seen as complex systems, where sophisticated information-processing techniques are applied to achieve a common goal. Skills are important: Most consultancies select their professionals according to a formalised and well-defined skill-set to ensure common values and thinking.[3]

Shared values:

Sustainable competitive advantage can only evolve in an organisation which lives as part of a shared value system. Values can be defined as “priorities that impel our actions or behaviour”[4].

The driving force „shared values“ might become more important in the future as opposed to today: Based on many isolated national sub-cultures within an international corporation, one corporate culture, consisting of a corporation-wide shared value system could be focused on. Such an international belief system could be a key prerequisite to (global) success.

Many successful organisations have worked on a shared value and belief system which provides a high level of motivation through long-term goals. The German technology company Siemens AG for example has built workgroups in various countries to come to a corporation-wide accepted value system. This shared value system shows common values and goals as well as long-term beliefs and values (e.g. innovation, learning, teamwork, customer orientation). Within Siemens AG a value group had been doing a benchmark between other multinational technology companies. The result was that many corporation-wide value systems have been rather similar. Knowledge management, customer orientation, teambuilding and quality learning are focal points of modern value systems.[5] However, it’s always the same species human corporations are based on.

“Acting from a conscious priority values cluster results in an accelerated capability to co-ordinate behaviour and achieve intentional results.”[6]

1.2. The Structure of Organisations (Henry Mintzberg)

In his book „The Strategy Process“ Henry Mintzberg has analysed which factors determine the structure of organisations.

„Structure should reflect the organisation’s situation – for example, its age, size, type of production system, the extent to which its environment is complex and dynamic.“[7]

According to Mintzberg[8], any organisation consists of six basic parts:

§ The operating core (= „the people who perform the basic work of producing products and rendering services“),

§ The strategic apex (= position / group to oversee the organisation),

§ A middle line (= „hierarchy of authority between the operating core and the strategic apex“),

§ A techno-structure (= „analysts, who, themselves being outside the hierarchy or line of authority“),

§ Support staff (= „units to provide various internal services“) and

§ Ideology (= „traditions and beliefs of an organisation that distinguish it from other organisations and infuse a certain life into the skeleton of its structure“)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source of picture:[9]

Common sense suggests that the better the various organisational parts work together, share knowledge and expertise, the better the organisation works. Organisational learning is thus improved.

1.3. The 5th Discipline – Innovating the Learning Organisation
(Peter M. Senge)

Peter M. Senge’s text „The 5th Discipline“ revolutionised conceptions about organisational learning. He defines learning organisations as „organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together.“

Innovating learning organisations depends on five component technologies:[10]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Personal mastery is „the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively“[11]. It enables individuals to „consistently realise the results that matter most deeply to them.“[12]

Mental Models are „deeply ingrained assumptions, generalisations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action.“[13]

Building Shared Vision – as the core leadership ability of holding „a shared picture of the future we seek to create.“[14]

Team Learning „starts with dialogue, the capacity of members of a team to suspend assumptions and enter into a genuine thinking together.“[15]

Systems Thinking „is a conceptual framework, a body of knowledge and tools that has been developed over the past fifty years, to make the full patterns clearer, and to help us see how to change them effectively.“[16]. Systems Thinking is the 5th discipline „which integrates the disciplines, fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. [...] By enhancing each of the other disciplines, it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts.“[17]

The 5th Discipline – Overcoming Learning Disabilities

Peter M. Senge further writes about the laws of the 5th discipline:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

source of picture:[18]

Some interesting aspects of this viewpoint are:

§ ‚Compensating feedback usually involves a delay, a time lag between the short-term benefit and the long-term disadvantage.‘ – This could also be true for quality learning, knowledge sharing and organisational learning.

§ ‚We all find comfort applying familiar solutions to problems, sticking to what we know best‘ – Do we (human beings) hinder ourselves from learning because we too easily apply our old patterns and ways of thinking?

§ ‚Virtually all natural systems, from ecosystems to animals to organisations, have intrinsically optimal rates of growth. The optimal rate is far less than the fastest possible growth.‘ – Does our permanent restructuring, merging and splitting of organisations lead more to slowdowns than sticking with existing structures?

§ ‚The root of our difficulties is neither recalcitrant problems nor evil adversaries – but ourselves. There is a fundamental mismatch between the nature of reality in complex systems and our predominant ways of thinking about that reality. The first step in correcting that mismatch is to let go of the notion that cause and effect are close in time and space.‘ – Does even small organisational change have a fundamental long-term effect? Does change in general hinder or enhance learning organisations?

Source of citations:[19]

1.4. The „Peak Performance Organisation“ (PPO)– what Management can learn from Sports Organisations
(University of Waikato, New Zealand)

Slive Gilson, Michael Pratt and Ed Weymes of the Management School at the University of Waikato in New Zealand, and Kevis Roberts, Chief Executive of Saatchi & Saatchi Worldwide, have conducted a study of the world’s 10 most successful sports organisations to discover what they could teach companies about success in business. The authors‘ theory of Peak Performing Organisations (PPO) claims that in sports, sustained contention is the key motivator of winning teams.

„Sustained success in modern-day professional sport – the most competitive domain of all human activities – requires not necessarily the best players and coaches, but the best organisation.“[20]

Gilson, Pratt, Weymes and Roberts describe the peak performance progression as a curve, not greatly interested in individuals. Instead, PPO theory is about three principles: Peak purpose, peak practices, peak flow – and the concepts that support them.[21]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

„Peak practices involve, among other things, organisations „sharing the dream“ with their stakeholders, „creating the future“ through good recruitment and investment, and „fostering community“ inside and outside the workplace. Peak flow involves everyone within the organisation „exceeding their personal best“, „imagining game-breaking ideas” and „catching the last detail“[22].

The authors argue these principles and concepts could be readily applied to business life. They refer to Procter & Gamble as a peak performing company for almost 50 years and Saatchi & Saachi which had been applying successfully PPO theory – as their share price quadrupled within 2 years.

Comparing the PPO model with the concept of a learning organisation described in „The 5th Discipline“, the importance of organisational learning becomes evident.

„Team learning is vital because teams, not individuals, are the fundamental learning unit in modern organisations.“[23]

We posit the question: Is team learning the key to the success of a workgroup?

1.5. Workgroups and Virtual Organisations: Fashion or Future?

In today’s business environment traditional organisational patterns, which mainly focus on similar tasks and a function-oriented, hierarchical structure, will gradually lose more importance. The willingness to change, flexibility, innovation and the alignment towards a common goal seem to be the only means to grant success in such an environment.[24]

Flexibility and efficiency - as well as the ability to adapt to change - are becoming a crucial factor for sustainable competitive advantage in today’s complex and dynamic business environment.[25]

Virtual Organisations – trendy but nothing new!

Since virtual organisations have become fashionable in 21st century management theories, one might believe they derived from globalisation, networks, technology and innovation. However, virtual organisations have already been well established in different businesses at a time where telecommunication didn’t yet exit. Showmen in the middle age, circuses or event management agencies, they all successfully practise virtual organisations.

Mental networks:

Mental networks are the ability of employees and managers to think, feel and act in the same direction, towards a common goal. The more an organisations‘ mission, vision and values are lived by all members of the organisation, the better mutual understanding, thinking and acting there is. Mental networks create an atmosphere of common orientation, communication and trust.[26] Obviously, such an open learning environment enables creativity and team spirit.

1.6. The 21st century: „Collaborating to Compete?“

Recently, the idea of collaborations with direct competitors has become fashionable in management literature.[27]

„In businesses as divers as pharmaceuticals, jet engines, banking and computers, managers have learned that fighting long, head-to-head battles leaves their companies financially exhausted, intellectually depleted and vulnerable to the next wave of competition and innovation.“[28]

Forty or thirty years ago, it would have been impossible to think of a joint cross-border effort in developing and marketing a new super-technology as e.g. the super chip jointly developed by Siemens, IBM and Toshiba in 1996.

„Multinationals can create highest value for customers and stakeholders by selectively sharing and trading control, costs, capital, access to markets, information and technology with competitors and suppliers alike.“[29]

In theory it may seem easy to bundle efforts, share best practices and build strategic alliances with competitors. Yet, this completely new approach for organisational excellence requires new strategies and corporate thinking:

- „[...] companies are learning that they must collaborate to compete. This requires different measurements of „success“ from those used for traditional competition.“

- „[...] alliances between companies that are potential competitors represent an arbitrage of shills, market access, and capital between the companies. Maintaining a fair balance in this arbitrage is essential for success.“
- „[...] it is important for managers to develop a vision of international strategy and to see cross-border acquisitions and alliances as a flexible sequence of actions – not one-off deals driven by temporary competitive or financial benefit.“[30]

Obviously, the approach „collaborating to compete“ is relevant for knowledge-intensive industries. Joel Bleeke and David Ernst even compare such global, highly flexible corporations, who constantly evolve in new dynamic alliances with the amoeba, a single-celled aquatic animal. The amoeba, which is among the most ancient life-forms on earth, interacts with its environment through permeable outer walls, which allow constant out- and inflow while maintaining its integrity and identity as unique creature.

„To be truly global and not merely „big“, organisations of the future must hold this permeability as one of their highest values. [...] Truly global organisations must entertain two seemingly contradictory aspects – a strong identity, along with an openness to different ways of doing business, to the values of different cultures and localities.“[31]

Again, we should look at natural systems: Co-opetition is not an invention of 21st century management. Co-opetition has always existed in nature. Natural systems mainly have two forms of co-opetition:

- Symbiosis and
- Parasynthesis

Obviously, natural systems wouldn’t do so if not at least one natural „organisation“ would profit from co-opetition.

We posit the question: Is symbiosis in business organisations a key driver for success?

1.7. Drivers for Excellence

1.7.1. Leadership

Today’s‘ management literature suggests leadership to be a key prerequisite for organisational excellence. Obviously, leaders aim at motivating and inspiring subordinates, at aligning constituencies, building win-win relationships and setting goals. For various reasons, real leaders are outstanding personalities who delegate through motivating. Therefore, I believe a closer look at the key components of leadership theory shall help us find further components of organisational excellence.

Leaders know how to play the game.

Even if not longing for power, many effective leaders actively participate in power play or at least know the rules. Sun Tzu, who was an expert for military strategy in China more than 2,500 years ago, claims that -

„... the ideal leader has already won the war before the battle has started.“[32]

It can be derived from this that leaders set directions.

A broad viewpoint and the ability to permanently question the current status help leaders to come up with innovative, challenging directions and strategies. Leaders create visions and define goals with which subordinates can identify. Outstanding examples in history are e.g. Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi or the Dalai Lama. All of them so clearly set their direction that they did not need a formal position to convince people.

Leaders communicate their message well.

Leaders communicate their ideas and plans to everyone relevant. They keep the message simple and above all want to be understood well. As said Jack Welch, CEO of General Electrics:

„The best business leaders today have the courage to keep the message simple, in a world in which we expect more profound and complicated things from people in leadership positions.“[33]

Leaders see the bigger picture and long for the final goal.

Many business writers have tried to characterise competent leadership. I personally like the following characteristic best:

„Leadership can be judged by seven factors: self esteem, goal orientation, willingness to perform, responsiveness, knowledge, willingness to co-operate, and the ability to be an active example.“[34]

Leaders motivate and inspire.

From my own experience, the best leaders act as a personal coach. A coach is a person who sees ones’ hidden talents much earlier than you could ever see them yourself. Coaching goes hand in hand with delegating responsibility, making people aware of possibilities and expanding their energy. At the same time, leaders treat subordinates more like friends and create an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding.

Leaders align constituencies.

A good example for leadership is the army: Soldiers fighting battles don’t simply do a job, but risk their lives. They would not follow stupid orders unless they are convinced of the final goal. In any time, those generals with great leadership skills have won battles and wars, not because their formal position gave them power and influence, but because every soldier identified with the common goal – winning the war. As said Antoine de Saint-Exupéry:

„If you want to build a ship, don’t form workgroups and delegate tasks. Simply inspire your people to long for the big, wide ocean.“[35]

Obviously, real leaders motivate rather than delegate. From my own experience, leaders are people with charisma and visions, with a strong value and belief system.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

„Leaders who commit people to action, who convert followers into leaders. Because leadership drives change, therefore change requires leadership. No effective organisational change will take place without leadership.“[36]

1.7.2.1. Knowledge Management

Management theories have exploited the topic “knowledge management” at large. Managing a corporations’ knowledge seems to become the most important issue of today’s business world.

„In such a world, the capacity to ignore selectively becomes ever more valuable.“[37]

According to Daniel F. Muzyka, MBA professor at INSEAD, ‚the new corporations‘ are focused on the creation and exploitation of knowledge. Creating, collecting, communicating and capturing knowledge corporation-wide are the key elements for success.[38]

1.7.2.2. Information Technology as a supporting tool for Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning

Most professional consultancies have developed IT-based tools to share and manage their knowledge. Some factors as well as results are outstanding:

- Develop a centralised knowledge management solution.
- unify the various existing internal messaging systems and
- allow consultants to create a dynamic knowledge management system that would leverage the expertise and skills to all consultants everywhere and anytime.

However, having a perfectly organised tool for knowledge management is not enough to build a knowledge sharing culture.

We posit the question: When do people voluntarily share their ideas, best practices and knowledge?

Team spirit and the feeling to belong to a community might be further drivers for knowledge sharing. As writes Peter M. Senge: „The team that became great didn’t start off great – it learned how to produce extraordinary results.“[39]

„Team learning develops the skills of groups of people to look for the larger picture that lies beyond individual perspectives.“[40]

1.9. Summary and Key Findings

Management literature and research on organisational behaviour show that knowledge management and organisational learning do mainly depend on culture and systems. Systems which allow criticism and open dialogue are more likely to enforce knowledge management and learning.

What hinders knowledge management and learning? If an organisation’s leadership does not permanently enforce and attract team learning and open dialogue, individual members as well as the organisation itself are less likely to learn.

To gain a deeper insight into organisational learning and knowledge management, detailed analysis of natural systems may help.

We posit the question: Do natural systems practice knowledge management? Do natural systems learn on an organisation-wide level?

II. Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management within Natural Systems

2.1. Organisational Excellence – Biological Networks (Santa Fe Institute of Technology)

The Santa Fe Institute of Technology is a research centre focused on systems dynamics. Experts of various disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics, management, ecology, systems dynamics, psychology) work together to examine the behaviour of systems:

[...]


[1] Text reference: referring to McKinsey, the 7S Model, taken from Ronald Rosen, „Strategic Management“, pages 49f, 110f, 186, edition 1998, Financial Times Pitman Publishing

[2] Referring to McKinsey, the 7S Model, taken from Ronald Rosen, „Strategic Management“, pages 49f, 110f, 186, edition 1998, Financial Times Pitman Publishing

[3] Own assumption based on recruiting brochures of PriceWaterhouse Coopers, Ernst & Young Allgemeine Deutsche Treuhand AG and McKinsey & Company, Inc.

[4] taken from homepage of Values Alignment http://www.valuesalignment.com/BusinessCulture.htm

[5] conversations with Mrs. Astrid Heckmann, Siemens Corporate Human Resources, „Unternehmensleitbild“, company internal material, Siemens intranet

[6] taken from homepage of Values Alignment http://www.valuesalignment.com/BusinessCulture.htm

[7] „The Structure of Organizations“, page 332, by Henry Mintzberg, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999

[8] [8] „The Structure of Organizations“, page 333, by Henry Mintzberg, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999

[9] „The Structure of Organizations“, page 334, by Henry Mintzberg, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999

[10] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990

[11] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 7

[12] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 7

[13] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 8

[14] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 9

[15] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 10

[16] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 7

[17] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 12

[18] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 57 - 67

[19] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 57 - 67

[20] „Winning ways to stay at the top“, article by Patrick Harverson, published on Feburary 23, 2000 in the Financial Times, refering on a new management publication „Peak Performance – Business Lessons from the World’s Top Sporting Organisations“, Harper Collins, www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/ppo/

[21] „Winning ways to stay at the top“, article by Patrick Harverson, published on Feburary 23, 2000 in the Financial Times, refering on a new management publication „Peak Performance – Business Lessons from the World’s Top Sporting Organisations“, Harper Collins, www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/ppo/

[22] „Winning ways to stay at the top“, article by Patrick Harverson, published on Feburary 23, 2000 in the Financial Times, refering on a new management publication „Peak Performance – Business Lessons from the World’s Top Sporting Organisations“, Harper Collins, www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/ppo/

[23] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 10

[24] translated and quoted from speach „Siemens im globalen Wettbewerb – Personalstrategie im Wandel“ by Mr. Peter Pribilla, (HRM Board representative at Siemens AG, Munich), at Siemens Europe Committee April 2, 1998, Vienna

[25] summarized from speach „Siemens im globalen Wettbewerb – Personalstrategie im Wandel“ by Mr. Peter Pribilla, (HRM Board representative at Siemens AG, Munich), at Siemens Europe Committee April 2, 1998, Vienna

[26] summarized from speach „Siemens im globalen Wettbewerb – Personalstrategie im Wandel“ by Mr. Peter Pribilla, (HRM Board representative at Siemens AG, Munich), at Siemens Europe Committee April 2, 1998, Vienna

[27] „Collaborating to compete“, by Joel Bleeke and David Ernst, McKinsey & Company, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999

[28] quote from „Collaborating to compete“, by Joel Bleeke and David Ernst, McKinsey & Company, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999, page 353f.

[29] quote from „Collaborating to compete“, by Joel Bleeke and David Ernst, McKinsey & Company, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999, page 354

[30] quote from „Collaborating to compete“, by Joel Bleeke and David Ernst, McKinsey & Company, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999, page 354

[31] quote from „Collaborating to compete“, by Joel Bleeke and David Ernst, McKinsey & Company, taken from „The Strategy Process“, Henry Mintzberg, James Brian Quinn, Sumantra Ghoshal, Prentice Hall , 1999, page 357

[32] Taken from Donald G. Krause, „The Art of War for Executives“, Überreuter Publishing House, 1995

[33] Taken from interview with Jack Welch on leadership and management skills, video provided by EBCM

[34] Donald G. Krause, „Die Kunst des Krieges für Führungskräfte“, Überreuter Verlag, 1995

[35] quote by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

[36] quote from speach „The MBA2K – key to a successful career in the 21st century“ by Dr. Gerd Hoffmann, European Business College, Munich at Technische Universität Munich, June 30, 1999

[37] „Learning how to control complex systems“, by Seth Lloyd, taken from homepage of Santa Fe Institute, http://www.santafe.edu/ , section publications

[38] speach by Daniel F. Muzyka, (MBA professor at Insead) at the Babson College, spring term 1998

[39] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 4

[40] [40] „The 5th discipline – the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization“,
Peter M. Senge, Century Business, 1990, op. cit. page 12

Details

Pages
53
Year
2000
ISBN (eBook)
9783656980162
ISBN (Book)
9783867464055
File size
968 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v185516
Grade
1
Tags
knowledge management organisational learning business organisations biological systems

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Title: Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning in Business Organisations and Biological Systems