TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Design and Appropriateness
Significance of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Significance of the Study to Leadership
Nature of the Study
Overview of the Research Method
Overview of the Design Appropriateness
Definition of Terms
Scope and Limitations
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Articles, Research Documents, and Journals Researched
Emotional Intelligence Gaps
Germinal Research Findings
The Concept of Emotional Intelligence
Management and EQ
The Effect ofEQ on Management.. The High Price of Bad Management
Theories, Definitions, and Measures
Learning Emotional Intelligence
Directions for Future Research
Opposition to the Concept of EQ
CHAPTER 3: METHOD
Research Method and Design Appropriateness
Validity and Reliability
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS
Panel Personality and EQ Profiles: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Consensus on Specific Questions From EQ Survey and Rounds 2 and 3
Modified Delphi Round 1
Modified Delphi Round 2
EQ Training Is Necessary
EQ Is Effective With Decision Making
EQ Should Be Measured and Evaluated
EQ Should Be a Policy
EQ Is Important for Building Teams and Trust
EQ Makes Better Managers and Performers
Modified Delphi Round 3
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Overview of the Study
Results of the Study
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Summary of Findings
Implications and Conclusions
Recommendations and Future Research
APPENDIX A: LETTER OF INFORMED CONSENT
APPENDIX B: PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCE
APPENDIX C: SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SUCCESSFUL LEADERS
APPENDIX D: MYERS BRIGG ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX E: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX F: MODIFIED DELPHI ROUND 1 QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX G: MODIFIED DELPHI ROUND 1 RESULTS
APPENDIX H: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE RESULTS
APPENDIX I: MODIFIED DELPHI ROUND 2, AND 3 RESULTS
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 MBTI Category Results
Table 2 MBTI Letter Category Definitions
Table 3 Percentage MBTI Breakdown
Table 4 Round 3 Responses
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
The emotions spinning around rational and irrational thinking are interconnecting and play an important role in making decisions regarding personal and professional questions (Donaldson-Feilder & Bond, 2004). Emotions indicate the thoughts and intents of others more powerfully than words (Perkel, 2004). LeDoux (1996) provided strong evidence that emotions are essential to human existence and effective managers rely on their ability to access personal and interpersonal emotions.
Effective management, according to Bennett and Langford (1983), is the achieved success of measured goals and productivity using the ability to manage people, get along with people, and manage emotions (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). Competent managers with strong leadership skills are scarce (Cafolla, 2008). One of the biggest challenges organizations face is the proper training of effective managers (Miller, 1999). Miller noted managers often fail because they have poor communication skills and an inability to set up strong relationships. Managers may be unable to adapt to changes in organizational culture and the work environment. Miller demonstrated some managers alienate people, are insensitive and untrustworthy, and cling to autocratic and outdated methods of decision making. Miller explained managers who strive to become masters of emotions are more effective in controlling emotions and are more successful in managerial roles.
The results of a study (Kallestad, 2007) of more than 700 people within various industries and at different employment levels indicated some interesting facts. Almost two of five bosses (39%) failed to keep their word, 37% failed to give credit when due, and 27% of supervisors insulted the people they supervised. The results of the study also indicated more than one in five (23%) blamed others for their mistakes, 31%used the silent treatment to show displeasure, 24% invaded employees’ privacy, and 23% blamed others to cover up their own mistakes (Kallestad). An examination of managerial behaviors described by Kallestad in the study indicated managers lacked the personal values and ethics needed to perform at a high level. Stensgaard (2006) showed managers lacked emotional intelligence (EQ) skills and indicated a relationship might exist between poor ethical behavior and low EQ skills. Since 2007, corrupt managers and leaders have received a lot of national attention, and the results of the study are not surprising. Effective leaders stand out because they possess a high degree of EQ. Leaders who have first-class training, a high IQ, an incisive mind, and excellent ideas but lack EQ will not be great leaders (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2009).
Research indicating the influence of EQ on leadership success and effectiveness also indicated moderate organizational and leadership support (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2002; Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000; Bar-On, 2005; Boyatzis & Sala, 2004; Brown, 2005; Byrne, Dominick, Smither, & Reilly, 2007; Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Cherniss, 2001, 2003; 2004; Kopelowitz, 2009; Shapiro, 2009). Organizational planning does not often include support for EQ as a leadership strategy (Fineman, 2006) and formal policies and procedures that integrate, improve, and sustain EQ in mid- to high-level leaders are lacking (Byrne, Dominick, Smither, & Reily, 2007). The issues introduced in chapter 1 include the background of the leadership problem; historical references to EQ, leadership, and organizational performance; the reason behind the selection of the methodology; and the significance of the problem within the context of policy and procedures to integrate EQ as a theoretical framework of leadership.
Background of the Problem
Many business studies included a focus on the effect of EQ on leadership (Bradberry & Greaves, 2003; Cavallo & Brienza, 2002; Cherniss, 2003; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001; Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2009; Ruane, 2008). A study of515 senior executives indicated executives strong in EQ were more likely to succeed than executives or potential executives with stronger or relevant experience (Cherniss, 2003). Bradberry and Greaves (2003) conducted an AT&T study on leaders with high EQ and reported leaders with high EQ were 20% more productive. The results of a global study measuring 358 managers at Johnson & Johnson indicated the existence of a relationship between specific competencies ofhigh performers and average performers (Cavallo & Brienza, 2003). Cavallo and Brienza contended high performers had a higher level ofEQ than low performers.
The ability to use EQ might influence the performance of leaders and management (Ruane, 2008). Cherniss (2003) posited leaders and managers with a high EQ might improve organizational performance more than managers with lower levels of EQ. Goleman (1998a) discussed EQ as a necessary, critical part of an organization’s management process. If a leader is to guide an organization, the emotions of the leader and subordinate require effective management. Great leaders manage emotions effectively (Goleman et al., 2002).
According to Goleman (1998b, 2004), using EQ in the workplace might help to insure success, especially in individuals in management and leadership roles. The results of a study of over 2,000 supervisors and middle and senior managers indicated EQ is the most significant predictor of success and a differentiator for average and top performers (Goleman, 1998b). In a study of Fortune 500 companies, academic and health care institutions, and government agencies, Goleman et al. (2002) reported EQ competencies were 85% better for top performers compared with average performing managers.
A manager’s ability to understand emotions and accurately perceive and respond to individual emotions might help the manager to gain respect from subordinates (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Salovey and Mayer contended managers have a higher inclination to lead and manage better when they possess an understanding of the emotions and feelings of others. The ability to use EQ might aid in the understanding of emotions and emotional reactions and might result in improved decision making. The ability to understand emotions is a form of critical thinking because of the cognitive creative process that takes place in using EQ (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2008). The combined use of EQ and critical thinking might result in the emergence of effective management skills (McEnrue & Groves, 2006).
In research on EQ and management performance, Byrne, Dominick, Smither and Reilly (2007) indicated a positive correlation exists between measurement, development, and implementation ofEQ in the workforce, which improves management skills. Management skills and EQ might comprise the heart of leadership and play a critical role in leadership development (Whetten & Cameron, 2006). Kluemper (2008) posited effective management involves the understanding and use of emotions in a cognitive process of decision making. Individuals with high levels of EQ have a confidence rooted in self-knowledge and self-honesty (Byrne, Dominick, Smither, & Reilly, 2007). Happiness is controllable, and it is up to an individual to be happy. Using EQ allows individuals to balance work life and home life, preserve confidence, inspire, lead, and make others feel good.
Individuals experience emotions every day, even in dreams (LeDoux, 1996). Le Doux demonstrated individuals can stop rational and analytical thinking, but not emotions. The ability to harness emotions might inspire leaders to act, react, and lead intelligently. LeDoux inferred emotions and EQ have a positive effect on a healthy, successful life. Emotions are an important part of people, and the understanding of emotions requires further research to determine the impact of emotions on leadership. Emotions develop in the interconnection of rational and irrational thoughts and in the decision-making process with regard to personal and professional issues (Donaldson- Feilder & Bond, 2004). More than words, emotions reveal the thoughts and intentions of others (Perkel, 2004). LeDoux provided strong evidence that emotions are essential to human existence.
According to Aristotle, human emotion is an occurrence linked to human existence and cognition. Aristotle purported emotions bridge the gap between the keen sense oflogic and rational being. As early as the late 1800s, the studies of Aristotle resulted in awareness that emotions are a valid indicator of success. Heidegger (1962) noted,
It is not an accident that the earliest systematic interpretation of affects that has come down to us is not treated in the framework of psychology. Aristotle investigates the pathe (affects) in the second book ofhis ‘Rhetoric’. Contrary to the traditional orientation, this work of Aristotle must be taken as the first systematic hermeneutic of the everydayness of being with one another.
Publicness, as the kind ofbeing which belongs to the ‘they’ not only has in general its own way ofhaving a mood, but also needs moods and ‘makes’ them for itself. It is into such a mood and out of such a mood that the orator speaks. He must understand the possibilities of moods in order to rouse them and guide them aright. (p. 178)
Organizational turnover is costly and affects almost every aspect of the success of an organization (McAran, 2008). Using EQ might influence organizational retention of valued employees and leadership effectiveness. Employees are likely to stay with leaders who control and manage emotions. People leave managers, not organizations. Employees with good managers are four times less likely to leave an organization compared with employees with poor leaders (Goleman, 2004). Emotional intelligence is an important and effective leadership strategy for all organizations and all levels of management.
Statement of the Problem
According to Goleman (2001), EQ might predict up to 90% of the variance in leadership effectiveness by uncovering strong positive effects of leadership commitment and effectiveness that support strong influences on leadership effectiveness. Research indicated the influence of EQ on leadership success and effectiveness resulted in moderate organizational support for the identification and development of EQ (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2002; Barling et al., 2000; Bar-On, 2005; Boyatzis et al., 2000; Boyatzis & Sala, 2004; Brown, 2005; Byrne, Dominick, Smither, & Reilly, 2007; Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Cherniss, 2003; 2004, Shapiro, 2009). The general problem is organizations do not support EQ as a leadership strategy (Fineman, 2006). The specific problem is leaders in business, health, and education do not have recommendations for policy and procedures to integrate, improve, and sustain EQ in mid- and high-level leaders (Goleman, 2000). To understand how to nurture and sustain EQ in leaders throughout organizations, a panel of individuals experienced and successful in leadership engaged in a best practice approach to reach consensus for leadership incorporating EQ. Tobe considered a successful and experienced leader required a combination of personal qualities as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and El, recommendations from peers, and the individual must be an experienced leader who has held a title of director or above for a minimum of 5 years and managed a minimum of 20 subordinates.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the qualitative research study using a modified Delphi design was to explore future possibilities of improving leadership success at mid- to high-level management tiers. The study resulted in consensus regarding the recommended policies and procedures that incorporate knowledge, application, and awareness of management personalities and EQ levels. The study involved surveying a selection of directors, vice presidents, and executives using the MBTI and the EI 360 (ECI-360) EQ test. The MBTI was used to determine personality traits in each successful leader. The EQ test was used to determine the level of EQ each participant held. The data from the MBTI were compared to literature about leadership personality profiles (Schott, 1992), the EQ test was used to determine whether the potential participants qualified as proficient in using EQ and management practice as assessed by a score of 7 or above. Managers with high levels ofEQ and at least 5 years of senior- or mid-level management experience participated in the modified Delphi questionnaire. The survey of 20 directors, vice presidents, and executives from the United States who met criteria for study participants involved a modified Delphi design.
Research Design and Appropriateness
Using a Delphi method was appropriate for exploring the questions of the current study, where insider knowledge was an important element in gaining insights into how EQ and EQ training might support leadership. After obtaining academic and institutional review board approval, participants gave informed consent before data collection commenced. Using the Delphi method in conversation allowed divergent opinions to emerge and be resolved within several rounds of inquiry. The next step involved preparation for coding. Sorting and categorization of input from respondents helped to gain consensus (Edwards, 2003). Edwards explained using the Delphi method allows the assembly of a group of participants; using the Delphi method also controls access, guarantee anonymity, invite discussions on a given topic, and quickly gather responses. The design of the modified Delphi technique helped to gather input and reach consensus without face-to-face interaction.
The Delphi method involved using open-ended questions as the primary source with 20 successful leaders in the United States. Using several rounds of questions and responses refined the group’s discussion, while moving toward reach consensus with regard to factors that influence leaders’ decisions about EQ as a leadership strategy. According to Creswell (2002), “To learn about this phenomenon, the inquirer asks participants broad, general questions, collects the detailed view of the participants in the form of words or images, and analyzes the information for descriptions and themes” (p. 58). Using the Delphi method may help to discover what is important and why through the identification of themes.
The main data collection method of the modified Delphi method included obtaining the most reliable consensus of a group of leaders through a series of intensive surveys with controlled methods for collecting, exchanging, and forecasting future outcomes. Drawing on experience and personal views, the panel ofleaders contributed experienced opinions on the complex issues surrounding performance and EQ. The Delphi research method and design was appropriate for the study because the method involved using leaders’ knowledge and expertise by combining and applying feedback, which resulted in recommendations (Simon, 2006).
Significance of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Learning the behavior of managers is a complex emotional task that needs more research with regard to the level of emotions managers control (Pirola-Merlo, Hartel, Mann, & Hirst, 2002). Emotional skills are cognitive skills (Yukl, 2002) and an understanding of the value of managers’ emotional processes has been neglected within organizations (Lord & Brown, 2001). Research indicated a low level ofEQ might limit managers’ use of rationality in effective decision making and result in increased management failure (Albrow, 1992). Rational decision making requires the need to be consciously aware of emotions and impulse (Sotres-Bayon, Bush, & LeDoux, 2007).
The response of the emotional brain results from impulsive and reflexive stimulation from the environment and aids in individuals’ rationalization and wise decision making (Goleman, 2000). Individuals with low levels ofEQ lack the emotional response necessary to manage and communicate effectively (Goleman, 2000; LeDoux, 2000, 1996). With the advances in technology, researchers have taken a greater interest in EQ and the process of interpreting emotions (Sala, 2005). Massey (2002) posited rational decision making is influenced by unconscious emotional thought.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A greater awareness of EQ might contribute to both research and practice through a focus on learning the initiatives needed to improve management effectiveness. Awareness of EQ is an advantage that guides leaders to come together and improve management effectiveness. Greater awareness ofEQ might also encourage leaders to consider areas in which to improve management performance and make changes to policy and future hiring and training practices. Leadership levels ofEQ help to explain, predict, and improve organizational leadership and management effectiveness. The current study might have a direct impact on leadership awareness and effectiveness through the creation of a set of recommendations for policy and procedures. Policies and procedures established from the modified Delphi study might help to support the development of more sophisticated EQ in leaders and managers at all organizational levels.
Nature of the Study
The qualitative study included the investigation of a consensus of experienced successful leaders on the complex issues surrounding the performance and future ramifications of EQ as a leadership strategy through a modified Delphi method using surveys. Using the Delphi method allowed a group of successful leaders to discuss and reach consensus on the effect ofEQ on leadership strategy. Using a modified Delphi method, in which seed questions or surveys comprise the starting point (Hanafin, 2004; Simon, 2006) rather than open-ended discussion, helped to anonymously reach consensus among a group of successful leaders and allow for objectivity and group consensus (Underhill, 2004). The modified Delphi technique was appropriate for the study because of the uniqueness in reaching consensus while completing surveys and answering questions. Using the Delphi method met the needs of the study as an exploratory method that allows the study of a complex situation. A quantitative method includes using numerical evidence to evaluate hypotheses based on theoretical understanding, which would have been inappropriate because the goal of the study was to gain understanding (Simon).
A group of 20 leaders from health, education, and business from the United States who met the criteria for study participants served as successful leaders in the Delphi study. Data collection from the successful leaders took place over a series of three surveys. The analysis and compilation of each survey helped to build the next round of surveys. The calculation of median score ranges as measures of central tendency occurred for each survey. The data recovered from the three surveys helped to determine the degree of consensus and importance of each response. The results obtained through the Delphi study helped in the development of recommendations for a best practice approach in policy, procedures, and leadership strategy. The maintenance and measurement of anonymity helped to ensure individual contributions to the survey.
Overview of the Research Method
The main objective of the modified Delphi method was to obtain the most reliable consensus of a group of leaders who have established levels of EQ and management experience through a series of intensive surveys with controlled methods for collecting, exchanging, and forecasting future outcomes. Using the modified Delphi method was an effective technique to collect data using questionnaires that required a response to a Likert-type scale question. Three rounds of survey questions were interspersed with specific feedback about consensus or reasons offered by nonagreeing or agreeing participants for supporting or deviating from the larger group. Feedback was anonymous and allowed participants an opportunity to reconsider issues.
Overview of the Design Appropriateness
Through analyzing and expressing personal views based on experience, the panel of leaders contributed their opinions on the complex issues surrounding performance and EQ. The Delphi research method and design were appropriate for the study because they included the knowledge and expertise of leaders through combining and applying feedback, which resulted in the generation of viable recommendations (Simon, 2006). The modified Delphi method was also appropriate because the Delphi technique is an effective and efficient process that helps to maintain anonymity and reduce distractions that can occur in face-to-face interaction. The Delphi method begins with an open-ended questionnaire given to selected successful leaders to yield consensus. The modified Delphi technique allows successful leaders to express their views, opinions, and judgment using a controlled feedback mechanism (Adamowski, Piotrowski, Cialkowska, & Kiejna, 2008). The survey of a panel of successful leaders in health, education, and business helped to achieve a consensus on the compilation of experienced opinions and judgments obtained in the study. The results from the modified Delphi study might help future leaders better manage and lead organizations through using EQ as a leadership strategy.
The intent of the qualitative study using a modified Delphi technique was to explore the impact and implications of EQ as a leadership strategy. The framework of the study helped to identify weaknesses in leadership strategies and inquire into strategies that are more efficient and ideas to implement leadership strategies for business executives. The following questions served as the guidelines for the study. The questions were the basis and direction for the inquiry of the successful leaders who participated in the study.
1. How does EQ affect leadership decisions and strategy in the corporate executive rank?
2. What specialized professional development training for EQ in leaders is necessary to facilitate the development ofhigher levels ofEQ in managers and leaders?
3. How should business policies and procedures be specifically directed to recognize and support individuals with high levels of EQ in leadership positions?
4. What strategies can leadership use to identify and promote individuals with high levels of EQ into positions that require managerial or leadership skills?
The study included a focus on increasing concerns regarding the lack of leadership facing organizations (Brightman, 2004; Cherniss, 2003; Goleman, 2000). The study fit into the theoretical framework of using EQ theories as described by Goleman and Mayer as a leadership strategy. The research was limited to the needs of EQ as a leadership strategy. Emotional intelligence receives little emphasis as a defined business strategy (Miller, 1999; Zeidner et al., 2004), although successful managers understand and relate to others through strong emotional skills. Cherniss (2003) indicated managers are unlikely to reach their full potential without strong EQ.
The study resulted in insights on the effects of leadership behaviors in leaders who lack the personal values and ethics needed to perform at a high level. Insights about leaders who lack EQ skills resulted from the responses of a panel of leaders who met the criteria for high levels of EQ. The data indicated a relationship exists between poor ethical behavior and low EQ skills. The study fits into the framework ofbusiness ethics as a theoretical frame for business practices. Using the theory and practice of ethical business, benefits organizations through developing and refining more ethical practices and integrating ethically based policies and procedures throughout the organization. Corrupt managers and leaders are receiving national attention. A study including the examination of more than 700 people within a variety of industries and at different employment levels indicated over 20% of employees consider their managers failures (Kellett, Humphrey, & Sleeth, 2006).
Salovey and Pizarro (2003) concluded high levels ofEQ have a positive effect on individuals’ skills and successes. The modified Delphi study highlights effective leadership that might serve the needs of organizational leaders within the theoretical framework of leadership concepts and best practices for differentiation and practices of EQ. Using the theoretical leadership model as a point of comparison helped to gather data that affect and promote emotional and intellectual growth in organizational leaders and their employees. The Delphi study involved collecting data from leaders to understand and analyze emotions in using EQ as a leadership strategy. The data from the study helped to identify the effectiveness of EQ in an organizational setting.
The modified Delphi study encompassed the philosophies, ideas, suggestions, strategies, and recommendations in the consideration ofEQ as a business strategy for enhanced leadership effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to use EQ as a theoretical framework to identify leadership best practices for improving leadership success at mid-to high-level management tiers (Boyatzis et al., 2000; Donohoe, & Greene, 2009). The theoretical framework of the study helped to measure social and emotional competencies to determine levels ofEQ, the ability for individuals to learn EQ, and whether EQ is a strong predictor ofjob performance.
The study involved using terms related to EQ as a leadership strategy and entailed the exploration of the ramifications ofEQ on successful leadership. Some terms have more than one definition and application to EQ as a leadership strategy. The study included using the following terms and their functional definitions with cited references.
Emotional Competency Inventory version 2.0 (ECI v. 2.0). The ECI v. 2.0, developed by Boyatzis et al. (2000), measures EQ generated from a 72-question survey.
Emotional intelligence. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2009) defined EQ as managing one’s emotions, recognizing the emotions of others, and the ability to perceive emotions. Mayer and Salovey (1997) defined EQ as the ability to perceive emotions, create emotions, comprehend emotions, control emotions, and promote intellectual emotions.
Empathy. Empathy is the ability to understand others’ emotions without reprise (McMullen, 2003). Having empathy means having a social understanding of others’ feelings (Goleman, 1998a).
Leadership. Bass (1990) defined leadership as a form of persuasion that induces followership while influencing powerful relationships. Effective leaders create more opportunities with better results and have visions to meet objectives more quickly than ineffective leaders (Bass, 1990). Leadership includes the skillful ability to guide and inspire groups and individuals (Boylan and Loughrey, 2007). Leaders with high levels of EQ foster a nurturing learning environment (Langley, 2000).
Learning. Learning includes the specific ability to guide leaders and individuals who desire to gain new skills and knowledge through education focused on EQ. In the present study, learning is confined to the specific and unique application of learning to EQ. Enhanced EQ might result in higher levels of productivity and stronger leadership skills (Ciarrochi & Scott, 2006). Goleman (2004) contended the best way to improve shortcomings in EQ is to place great importance on teaching EQ to children.
Managing relationships. Managing relationships involves the ability to handle interpersonal interaction, resolve conflict, and negotiate successfully (McMullen, 2003).
Mood management. Mood management includes managing and handling feelings relevant to the current situation and the ability to react to a situation appropriately (Goleman & Boyatzis, 2008).
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI is a psychometric questionnaire that helps to identify psychological differences and improve work and personal relationships, identify leadership abilities, and increase performance (Wall, 2008).
Poor leadership. Managers with poor leadership skills alienate people, are insensitive and untrustworthy, and cling to autocratic and outdated methods of decision making (Miller, 1999). Miller noted managers fail because they possess poor communication skills and have an inability to establish strong relationships. Poor mangers are unable to adapt to changes in organizational culture and work processes.
Self-awareness. Self-awareness includes the ability to recognize and understand one’s emotions, the effect emotion has on others, and emotional self-awareness (Goleman et al., 2002). Self-awareness effectively allows an individual to be aware of how emotions affect performance.
Self-motivation. Self-motivation is directing emotions toward a goal (McMullen, 2003).
An assumption of the study was leaders need a better strategy to manage organizations. Successful leadership is important in organizations and is the heart of a successful organization (McAran, 2008). Another assumption was the successful leaders who complete the three rounds of surveys would further their understanding and business strategy around EQ through gaining a shared understanding with other successful leaders. A further assumption was the sample of 20 successful leaders who met the criteria for participating in the study would possess high levels of EQ and experience in leadership positions.
An additional assumption was the responses provided by the panel of successful leaders in the Delphi study would offer insight on EQ as a leadership strategy, and responses would be based on the experiences, perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding ofEQ from the panel of successful leaders. A platform of suggestions, ideas, and strategies might aid in the identification of effective EQ as a successful business strategy. A methodology assumption included the organizational concern related to EQ as a leadership strategy among successful leaders. A second methodology assumption was the modified Delphi method would be appropriate for the qualitative design strategy.
Scope and Limitations
The extent of the study was to examine EQ as a leadership strategy. The primary goal of the study was to examine the effect of EQ on an organizational environment with an attempt to implement and promote EQ as a leadership strategy. The scope of the study was to research and examine the potential relationship between business strategy and EQ. The participants for the study were successful leaders in health care, education, and business organizations. Using a modified Delphi method facilitated examining and making recommendations for policy and procedures to identify, integrate, improve, and sustain EQ in mid- and high-level leaders.
The modified Delphi study confined the method of data collection through responses to Delphi inquiry to successful leaders in health care, education, and business organizations. The intent of the study was to examine future ramifications ofEQ as a leadership strategy. A limitation of the study was the candor of the successful leaders’ responses to the survey questions. The validity of the responses was limited to the reliability of the modified Delphi methodology and the size of the study.
The study was confined to the modified Delphi methodology of surveying successful leaders from health care, education, and business organizations. The intent of the study was to implement and promote findings that will help to support and develop leaders with high levels of EQ as a leadership business strategy. The study included a focus on the topics outlined in the research questions, including the identification of individuals with high EQ; supporting higher levels ofEQ through development; and developing strategies, policies, and procedures to support leaders with high EQ. A delimitation of the study was the lack of potential to survey other fields and industries beyond health care, education, and business organizations.
The study included an examination of the need to conduct research on EQ as a leadership strategy. Many leaders appear unaware of their own EQ and do not use EQ as a leadership strategy (Miller, 1999; Zeidner et al., 2004). Understanding, recognizing, and managing emotions is important to building a leadership strategy around EQ.
The modified Delphi study encompassed the philosophies, ideas, suggestions, strategies, and recommendations for considering EQ as a business strategy to enhance leadership effectiveness. Using EQ as a theoretical framework to identify leadership best practices for future business strategies defined the purpose of the study (Boyatzis et al., 2000; Goldenberg, Matheson, & Mantler, 2006). Additionally, using EQ as the theoretical framework of the study helped to obtain consensus among successful and experienced leaders about social and emotional competencies and determine levels of EQ and the effect of EQ as a leadership strategy.
The modified Delphi method used for the study is an effective and efficient process that helps to capture anonymity and reduce distractions that might occur during face-to-face interactions. The Delphi method began with an open-ended questionnaire given to selected successful leaders to yield consensus. Using the modified Delphi technique allowed successful leaders to express their views, opinions, andjudgment within a controlled feedback mechanism (Adamowski, Piotrowski, Ciafkowska, &
Kiejna, 2008; McCampbell & Stewart, 1992). Using a survey with a panel of successful leaders in health, education, and business helped to find consensus based on compiling experienced opinions and judgments obtained in the study. The results of the modified Delphi study might help future leaders better manage and lead organizations through using EQ as a leadership strategy.
The study included a consensus about the effects of leaders who lack the personal values and ethics needed to perform at a high level. Panelists agreed that many leaders lack EQ skills, resulting in poor ethical behavior. The literature review in chapter 2 helped to build on the historical and current literature available with regard to EQ and leadership. Examining discussions, debates, articlesjournals, documents, and other research results in an overview ofEQ, leadership failure, and gaps in the literature. The literature research is from 1867 to 2009, with the focus between 2003 and 2008. The dependent and independent variables include a theory on a relationship between EQ and leadership strategy.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Chapter 1 included an introduction to the subject ofEQ and the effects ofEQ on leadership. The intent of the qualitative modified Delphi research study was to explore recommendations for policy and procedures that integrate, improve, and sustain EQ in mid- and high-level leaders (Goleman, 2000). The modified Delphi study also included an exploration of the influences of EQ on leadership success and leadership effectiveness and the promotion ofEQ as a leadership strategy (Bar-On, 2005; Boyatzis & Sala, 2004; Brown, 2005; Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Cherniss, 2003; Goleman, 2000, 2004). The review of literature indicated organizational leaders do not support EQ as a leadership strategy (Fineman, 2006).
The literature review included articlesjournals, and research documents to help in analyzing the available literature, contrasting different viewpoints, determining existing gaps in the literature, and generating discussion with regard to the fact that leaders do not use EQ as a leadership strategy. The primary objective of the literature review was to explore the effect of EQ on leadership strategy. The purpose of the literature review is to provide data on the theory that EQ can be a leadership strategy. The study included an analysis of prior studies within the conceptual framework and the primary focus of the study.
Articles, Research Documents, and Journals Researched The literature review included the identification and use of peer-reviewed journal articles; books; research documents; University of Phoenix Library Internet search engines EBSCOhost (MasterFILE Premier, Academic Search Premier), InfoTrac, ERIC, OneFile, Sage full-text collections, and ProQuest; online news; educational magazines; and digital dissertations. The focus of scholarly research in the literature review was the context of the independent and dependentvariables. Peer-reviewedjournals and articles were the most helpful research documents used in the literature review. Additional research sites included the Web sites of Saulk Valley Community College (http://www.svcc.edu), George Washington University (http://www.gwu.edu), and James Madison University (http://www.jmu.edu). Searched titles related specifically to EQ and poor leadership. Limited information existed with regard to EQ as a leadership strategy.
Research indicated emotions and EQ have a healthy positive effect on a successful life (Byrne, Dominick, Smither, & Reilly, 2007; Goldenberg, Matheson, & Mantler, 2006; Goleman, 2000, 2004; Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Hartel, 2002; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004; Perkel, 2004; Sivanathan & Fekken, 2002; Solomon, 2002; Wong & Law 2002; Zeidner et al., 2004). Charles Darwin experimented with emotions and purported children began to understand compassionate emotional expressions at 5 months of age. Darwin conducted a study on 6-month-old children in which the children responded to emotions of grief, sympathy, and excitement. Darwin explained emotions are a part ofhuman nature, start within the first year of a child’s life, and end at death.
LeDoux (1996) provided compelling evidence that emotions are essential to human existence. Emotions cause rational and irrational thought, are interconnected, and are necessary for personal and professional decision making (Donaldson-Feilder & Bond, 2004). In 1966, Leuner first used the term EQ in a German publication called Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie. Leuner used the concept ofEQ to discuss social roles of women separated from their mothers at an early age. Leuner contended the women had a low EQ and used the drug LSD as a treatment method. Leuner indicated low levels of EQ could cause social disconnections that might result in medical conditions such as depression.
Aristotle considered human emotion a phenomenon linked to human existence and cognition. Aristotle purported emotions help to bridge the gap between the keen sense oflogic and rational being. As early as the 4th century BC, Aristotle indicated that emotions are a valid indicator of success. Heidegger (1962) described emotions as the systematic interpretation of affects Aristotle identified as a framework of psychology. Aristotle purported being with other individuals is common and will occur every day, resulting in emotions and moods. Moods are an effect of one’s emotions and understanding one’s moods might help to identify self-awareness (Heidegger).
Researchers have long examined leadership throughout the world. Bass (1990) claimed 7,500 references on leadership exist. Bass (1990) also noted, “There are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who attempted to define the concept” (p. 11). Competent managers with strong leadership skills are scarce (Cafolla, 2008).
Kotter (1990) demonstrated management is about order and consistency, and leadership is about “constructive or adaptive change” (p. 5). According to Kotter (1990), management and leadership are very different, with some similarities. Management and leadership involve decision making, relationship building, creativity, and influencing people to do theirjobs (Kotter, 1990). Managers generally aspire to become leaders and seek to gain the qualities and skills needed to be a leader (Goffee & Jones, 2005).
Since the 1990s, the number ofbooks and articles about leadership has skyrocketed. In 1981, according to Fiedler and Garcia (1987), 5,000 articles were written about leadership. In 1989, according to Yukl (2002), 10,000 books and articles were written. Many of the articles and books indicated managers must learn new skills to be successful (Bower, 2007), although Bucero (2007) purported management includes too much emphasis on changing who managers are and how they manage, which results in poor management abilities. In the early 1990s, Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey engaged in significant research about EQ (Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2001). Goleman (1998b) popularized the term EQ in the late 1990s and continued to research and write about EQ. Emotional Intelligence Gaps
Learning more about the relationship and the effect of EQ on management effectiveness helped address existing gaps in the literature. An understanding ofEQ will better inform leaders to develop management programs that focus on EQ. Emotions and EQ are not much more than a reformulation of personality scales. The theories that include attempts to prove otherwise are more hype than substance (“Briefly Noted,” 2007).
Defining the role of emotions in EQ and the effectiveness of EQ on improving performance might help to improve the strategic competence of organizational management (Savanevicienè, Stukaitè, & Silingienè, 2008; Singh, 2008). Organizations are complex and diverse and influence all levels of performance and productivity. According to Goleman (2000), EQ accounts for 20 to 30% of organizational performance and organizational intelligence. Strategic organizational management in combination with EQ competencies might make a big difference for both individual and organizational effectiveness.
Shapiro (2009) contended emotionally intelligent people are happier, are more committed to their organization, and achieve more promotions. Emotionally intelligent people also perform better (Watkin, 2000) and are more successful (Miller, 1999). Decision making improves with high levels of EQ (Kluemper, 2008). Kluemper contended interpersonal relationships result in a sense of enthusiasm when individuals have a high level ofEQ.
Individuals with high levels of EQ have a confidence rooted in self-knowledge and self-honesty (Goleman, 2000). Happiness can be controlled and it is up to individuals to be happy. The ability to use EQ allows individuals to balance work life and home life; maintain confidence; and inspire, lead, and support higher self-esteem in others. Psychologists typically focused on reasons humans are unhappy in their lives and why humans are depressed, such as emotional disorders and high levels of anxiety (Seligman, 2003). The correlation of predictors ofhappiness began to emerge through the measurement of an individual’s happiness over a specific period (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Happiness is associated with the positive effect ofEQ on an individual’s performance and success (Furnham & Christoforou, 2007). Furnham and Petrides (2003) compared 88 individuals (11 males and 77 females) and reported EQ has a strong correlation to happiness. Workplace happiness might have a positive impact on productivity, turnover, and the number of missed workdays. Furnham and Petrides contended individuals with high EQ are in touch with their own emotions and capable of regulating emotions to promote a feeling of well-being, leading to higher levels of individual happiness, success, and productivity.
Germinal Research Findings
Gaps exist in the literature revolving around EQ as a leadership strategy. Early pioneers who researched EQ as a business tool influenced the characteristics of EQ as a leadership strategy. The end of the literature review will include a discussion of the gap in the literature.
The Concept of Emotional Intelligence
The EQ concept derived from research conducted by Thorndike (1920b). Thorndike (1920a) demonstrated EQ develops from social intelligence, which includes levels of intelligence organized around mechanical, social, and abstract skills. Thorndike (1920a) defined intelligence as “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls—to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). Ciarrochi and Scott (2006) posited intelligence may be grouped and described as abstract, concrete, and social. Ciarrochi and Scott contended abstract intelligence includes understanding and manipulating mathematical symbols. Hoffman, and Frost, (2006) concluded concrete intelligence is the ability to manipulate and understand objects. Zeidner et al. (2004) reported EQ correlates to social intelligence because both forms of intelligence relate to people. As EQ competencies expand and grow, so will social intelligence (Boyatzis & Sala, 2004).
An unpublished dissertation in 1985 included a focus on EQ (Hein, 2003). The dissertation included an attempt to measure the emotional capacity of individuals and their ability to identify with their own feelings and recognize and work with others’ emotional issues (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Salovey and Mayer concluded social intelligence develops into EQ and allows individuals to measure emotions, guiding thought and action. Individuals considered to have high EQ are skilled in the process of recognizing others’ emotional reactions, allowing an empathetic response that is more appropriate to their own emotions and that appears more genuine (Goleman, 2000). Individuals with low EQ appear impolite or diffident.
Salovey and Mayer (1990) reported emotionally competent individuals are better able to problem solve. Positive emotions and moods enable strategies and creative thinking to blossom. A negative mood will have the opposite effect on strategies and creative thinking (Salovey & Mayer). Goleman (2000) concluded emotionally intelligent people have an advantage in solving problems throughout their personal and professional lives.
Emotional intelligence is the convergence of skills and abilities to understand personal feelings, act responsibility, establish strong relationships, get along with others, work with others, and handle the pressure and demands that daily life brings (Nelson & Low, 2005). Nelson and Low contended EQ skills help to develop strong communication skills, leadership, and self-management. Understanding the traits might help in the formation of leadership skills.
White (2005) reported the universal emotions, as identified by Mayer and Salovey, are the six emotions recognized around the world as anger, sadness, grief, fear, joy, and happiness. According to Nelson and Low (2005), anger, fear, and sadness are the worldwide-recognized emotions that cause the most problems for human beings. Nelson and low demonstrated individual feelings are important sources of mental information that help individuals control their emotions. Boyatzis et al. (2000, 1999) measured EQ as how others perceive a person. Boyatzis et al. (2000, 1999) contended EQ is a core competency people acquire to manage emotions while effectively managing and working with the emotions of others.
Goleman’s (1995) book Emotional Intelligence includes a debate on whether EQ is a stronger indicator of success than an individual’s IQ. Goleman (1995) contended individuals with a high level of EQ would likely be more successful at home, at school, and in the workplace. Goleman (1995) hypothesized EQ improves with age and is learnable. Goleman (1995, 2000) indicated the skills most important to an individual’s success include self-awareness, empathy, and sociability. In a study conducted over 40 years on 450 Massachusetts-raised boys, Cherniss (2000) reported IQ has little impact on success later in life. Cherniss (2000) indicated EQ, consisting of childhood abilities to handle frustration and get along with playmates, was more critical for success later in life.
Between 1998 and 2008, researchers and scholars have considered the effect of EQ on performance, productivity, and getting along with others (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2005). An individual’s EQ skills are different from their IQ (Mayer et al., 2004). Scott- Ladd and Chan (2004) described social intelligence as “the ability to understand and relate to people” (p. 95).
Hein (2003) discussed EQ as revolving around emotional sensitivity, emotional processing, emotional memory, and the ability to learn and control emotions. Hein indicated EQ develops both positively and negatively through enhancing or damaging life experiences. Individuals learn emotional lessons throughout life, including the early lessons learned during childhood. Children learn emotions through interacting with and modeling parents, teachers, care providers, family, playmates, and peers (Hein). Emotional intelligence can be taught, developed, practiced, and mastered.
Competent managers must be able to recognize and eliminate destructive situations and destructive moods; the ability to do so requires EQ (Brown, 2003). Goleman (1998b) purported EQ is necessary and essential for individuals who want success. Goleman (2004) noted, “Leaders need to use emotional intelligence, because without it, a person can have the best training in the world, an incisive, analytical mind, and an endless supply of smart ideas, but he still won’t make a great leader” (p. 2). According to Cafolla (2008) competent managers with high levels of EQ are in short supply.
Goleman (2004) and Donohoe and Green (2009) contended EQ alone is not the best predictive tool to measurejob performance. The foundations for emotional competencies revolve around EQ. Goleman (2000) attempted to link emotional competencies to EQ. According to Goleman (2004), emotional competence leads to strong work performance. A level of emotional competencies is necessary to achieve a high level of EQ. The measurement of social and emotional competencies might help determine levels of EQ, as well as the ability of individuals to learn EQ, and become a strong predictor ofjob performance.
Scott-Ladd and Chan (2004) discussed social intelligence as a quality belonging to people and managers who have high levels of social intelligence and the ability to understand people. In the business world, social intelligence is an importance aspect of improving organizational leadership and performance. In a study of 205 students, Douglas, Frink, and Ferris (2004) reported a link among EQ, increased performance, and the ability to influence behavior. The ability to use EQ might help leaders better manage their employees and help in improving organizational and employee productivity and performance.
Gordon and Yukl (2004) inferred leadership and management are complementary. Separating management from leadership is a mistake; the skills should be interchangeable in the workplace (Kotter, 1990, 1999). Debates on management versus leadership exist within empirical research and within the workplace (Gordon & Yukl). In the current study, the terms management and leadership were interchangeable.
Management and EQ
The study of management originated with the writings and work of Frederick W. Taylor around 1900 (Kotter, 1999; Massie, 1979). Before World War II, management aroused little interest (Drucker, 1973). Drucker showed management only had the interests of professors and consultants in mind. After World War II, the Marshall Plan was enacted with the intent to help rebuild allied countries. The British wanted to learn about the U.S. manufacturing industry, productivity, and performance through using the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan was successful. Management became a household word and attracted frequent study (Management; tasks, responsibilities, practices, Nov 2007). The U.S. method of management spread to Japan and other countries and even to the Soviet Union. The field of management consulting grew, management teams and management schools formed, and management became a focus for business and government throughout the world (Drucker).
Sala (2002), in a study of college principals in the United Kingdom, examined the relationship among management style, organizational climate, EQ competencies, and academic retention rates. Sala noted principals’ years of experience, self-awareness, and social awareness affected college retention rates. Sala also determined principals with high social and self-awareness competencies created a flexible, reward-driven organizational environment. Sala assumed the existence of significant relationships between EQ and the organizational environment.
Attempts to identify distinct psychological and physical characteristics of management behaviors related to personality characteristics, personal talents, and skills resulted in the identification of unique qualities among leaders, managers, and followers (Brouthers, Lascu, & Werner, 2008). As far back as 1948, Stogdill (1948) contended the foundation of successful management qualities included (a) physical characteristics, (b) intelligence, (c) social skills, (d) task abilities, and (e) social background. Bensimon, Neumann, and Birnbaum (1989) examined Stogdill’s conclusion and identified physical characteristics, social background, ability, and personality as the four traits of successful leadership.
Bass (1990) contended people who exude appealing personalities are more prone to be successful managers and leaders. Bass (1990) concluded the leaders hold innate qualities that distinguish them from their followers and demonstrated leadership is a oneway effect of management. High levels of EQ distinguish good managers from others (Goleman, 2000).