Port Security - A successful Development?

by Lennart Burggraf (Author) Jana Langbehn (Author) Anne Schröder (Author)

Project Report 2011 43 Pages

Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics



1 Introduction

2 Port of Southampton
2.1 Port Facilities/Commodities
2.2 Port Security in Southampton
2.2.1 Port Security
2.2.2 Ship Security
2.2.3 Cargo Security 10

3 International Maritime Organization
3.2 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS-Code)
3.2.1 Objectives
3.2.2 Area of Application
3.2.3 Agents for averting of Danger
3.2.4 Risk Assessment for Port Facilities
3.2.5 Security Plan of the Port
3.2.6 International Ship Security Certificate
3.3 ISPS Code in Germany
3.4 Further Measures of the IMO
3.5 Port Security in the Port of Hamburg
3.5.1 Levels of Danger
3.5.2 ISPS- Code in Hamburg (HHLA)

4 Development of Customs in Europe
4.1 The EU Customs Security Programme
4.2 AEO- Certification
4.2.1 Definition AEO: Authorized Economic Operator
4.2.2 Different Status Cases
4.2.3 Benefits
4.2.4 AEO Application
4.3 Risk Management

5 Container Security Initiative
5.1 CSI Ports
5.2 Core Elements of CSI
5.3 Minimum Standards for CSI Participation
5.4 24-Hour Advance Vessel Manifest Rule (24-Hours Rule)
5.5 Agreement between the EC (European Community) and the USA
5.5.1 Realisation of this Agreement

6 Summary

7 Conclusion

Statutory Declaration



1 Introduction

For centuries trading has been one of the most important elements of every country in the world.

People profit from new sale markets for their domestic products and from a huge variety of products from other continents and countries. Trading stands for an increasing quality of living.

The progress in globalisation causes an extending volume of trading. Since Malcolm McLean1 developed the container in the middle of the 1950s the volume of worldwide trading increased enormous.2 The idea to ship cargo in standardised containers saves a lot of time and money ever since.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The bar chart3 below shows the number of containers (TEU4 ) which were handled worldwide from 1988 to 2008. The vertical axis shows the number of containers (TEU) in million. The horizontal axis shows the time period in 2-years-steps. In 1988 about 76 million containers were handled in worldwide trade. 20 years later in 2008 this number is about 7 times higher: 525 million. In the Ports all over the world enlarge, shipping lines order new vessels and the market suffers container shortage. Furthermore the global population is continuously growing which steers to a worldwide necessity for more products and more trade.

Another important aspect of worldwide trade is that its volume exceeds the volume of production.5 The reason is that many products have different production centres all over the world. The production of jeans is a good example for this matter of fact: Cotton, the basic element of a jeans, only grows in warm countries such as Kazakhstan or Egypt. Because of the low wages the production takes place primarily in Eastern Europe, India and China. That is why a jeans could cover a distance of more than 50,000 kilometres before its final disposal occurs in a rich industrial country in Western Europe.

Nowadays about 90 percent of the whole world trade is covered by vessels6. Without shipping the import and export of goods on the scale necessary for the modern world would not be possible.

A loss of this important economic sector would have extensive consequences to all areas of life, especially in the Western world. The attacks on the World Trade Center in New York on 11th of September 2011 and the attacks in Madrid in 20047 and London in 20058 show that terrorist organisations figure on attacking transportation systems. That is why the danger of terrorist attacks on trade-hubs such as big ports in the Western world is very high.

To prevent this part of the economy from terrorist attacks is the main task of modern port security.

The text at hand will illustrate and explain legal regulations and how modern ports deal with them. In the following we will try to answer the question if these regulations are useful, successful and sufficient. As an example of how modern port security works the port of Southampton and the port of Hamburg will serve.

At first we will present the port of Southampton and we will state how security is being provided at the port. Afterwards we will explain several standards and ideas of how modern port security is established and finally we will conclude this paper.

Please note that 'Port Security' is a very far-reaching topic which is important since the beginning of trading by vessels. This paper will concentrate on recent developments and the danger of terrorist attacks.

Today security is an important fact in everyone's life. Retrospective to terrorist attacks security determines our life. We - the three authors of this text - have been working in the shipping sector since August 2010. We choose this topic as we wanted to find out more about port security and how the shipping sector deals with this.

In the following we want to explain our understanding of the word 'security'.

When we are talking about port security there are mainly two aspects to think about: Voluntary measures and national and international legal regulations. Presently ports all over the world have to deal with an uncountable number of national and international regulations. The international regulations must be effectuated into national law by every country on its own. The problem is that the basic conditions for port security differs from country to country.

2 Port of Southampton

Southampton is a seaport town at the south coast of England. It is situated about 120 kilometres south-west of London and its population is about 240,000.9 The port is the most important economic sector for Southampton. About 12,000 people are currently employed there.10

illustration not visible in this excerpt

source: http://maps.google.com

For centuries it has been a very important port of England. Annually it handles about 42 million tonnes of cargo which makes about 7 percent of the United Kingdom's entire seaborne trade.11 Southampton is a natural deep-water port. The maximum draft for vessels is about 12 metres.12 Combined with the unique double tide the port allows unrestricted access for the world's largest vessels. This is a sweeping advantage to other ports in the world which face the problem of low water-depths. In consequence these ports are not able to serve the world's largest vessels.

2.1 Port Facilities/Commodities

All information in this chapter are mainly taken from www.abports.co.uk and a visit on 26 and 27th of October 2011 to the port of Southampton.

In international trade the majority of goods is transported in containers. The port of Southampton offers a 1,350m continuous quay with four berths for deep-sea container vessels and a fifth berth for small container vessels. In 2010 about 640 container vessels called the port. About 2.5 million containers were handled that year. 13

The expanding deep-sea car trade makes the port a popular location for wheeled cargo such as cars, pickups, vans, trailers, buses and wheeled machinery. Southampton is one of United Britain's leading ports for vehicle imports and exports. It handles about 664,000 vehicles with an estimated trade value of 6 billion pounds annually. The port is very experienced in handling all size of cargo, even heavy-wheeled vehicles. Famous shipping lines, for example 'Höegh Autoliners' or 'Wallenius Wilhelmsen' call the port of Southampton on a regular basis.

Southampton is one of Europe's most important ports for cruises. It is point of departure for more than 200 cruise ships annually and home of the most important and biggest cruise lines. The famous cruise ship 'Titanic', which sank in the North Atlantic on 15th of April 1912, started its maiden voyage from Southampton on 10th of April 1912.14,15

In the last few years the importance of Southampton as a cruise port is notably grown. The number of passengers has nearly doubled to 1.4 million .16 Due to this upturn the Port Authority of Southampton (Associated British Ports (ABP)) invested about £28 million for an improvement of the cruise terminals and facilities.

The port is also a growing force in the import and export of (dry) bulk cargo. A five hectare bulk terminal is situated at the western docks. It is dedicated to the handling of dry bulk] cargo and minerals, animal feed, scrap, fertiliser and aggregates. Bulk handling growth is set to continue as a £6 million investment has provided two new mobile cranes recently. The annual handling of bulk cargo is about one million tonnes.

Furthermore the port of Southampton is a very important hub for fresh produce and perishables trade. The terminal provides about 14,500 square metres of cool and cold storage. Each year the port handles about 80,000 tonnes of fresh produce and perishables.

According to all information given above you can see that the port of Southampton is a very important trade hub for the entire economy of Great Britain.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2.2 Port Security in Southampton

At the port of Southampton security is the most important thing to think about. The port authority and the local government developed and implemented a lot of security measures. In the following we will present how security is being provided in the port.

The security at the port of Southampton consists of three different sections: port security, ship security and cargo security.

2.2.1 Port Security

The port authority of Southampton arranges a safety and security meeting quarterly. Participants are members of the ABP17, members of the local government, members of the police, members of a special anti-terror group, and a representative of every dock office and shipping line operating in the port. This meeting is a very important element of security as essential issues concerning security are being discussed and new measures are being decided. All regulations serve primary the protection of human life. For example there is a regulation which states that every person working in the port must wear a glowing safety vest and safety boots.

Each port entrance is monitored by security guards. Each vehicle entering the port is being recognised by an ANPR-system.18 This system reads the vehicle's numberplate, takes several photos of the vehicle and the occupants and compares this data with a database. With help of this system the guards are able to stop suspicious vehicles and persons from entering the port area. These controls are reinforced when cruise ships are in the port, because the danger of suicide bombers is due to a high number of civilians at the port extremely high.

Furthermore the whole port area is being monitored by CCTV19. According to the port authority there are more than 300 surveillance cameras at the port area. Moreover, the entire port area is surrounded by a huge and strong security fence. This fence prevents unauthorized persons from entering the area. Besides there are many fences inside which separate the entire port area in different sections. The strongest fences may the found in the Ro/Ro-area20. Each shipping line and each automotive manufacturer has its own parking area. Due to some car thefts in earlier times the fences are reinforced by iron rails. By this way it is impossible to cut a fence and drive through the fence.

Another very important security aspect is the usage of signs. In the entire port area there are plenty of different signs which either lead the way or indicate security measures.

illustration not visible in this excerpt


No reversingwithout a marshall

sign with general and security information


1 Malcom McLean (14.11.1913 - 25.05.2001): American entrepreneur, inventor of the container and founder of the shipping line 'Sea-Land Corporation'

2 http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/keyfacts/, 19.10.2011 and

3 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/trnews/trnews246containerrevolution.pdf, 18.10.2011

4 http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/keyfacts/, 19.10.2011 and

5 derived from information on http://www.hafen-hamburg.de/en/content/total-port-container-handling, 18.10.2011

6 http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/keyfacts/, 19.10.2011 and

7 TEU: twenty-foot equivalent unit - international standardised size for containers

8 http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/keyfacts/, 19.10.2011 and

9 World Trade Organisation, 'World Trade Report 2007', page 2 et seq.

10 http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/keyfacts/, 19.10.2011 and http://www.imo.org/publications/documents/catalogue%20and%20book%20code%20list/english/catalogue.pdf (page vi), 19.10.2011

11 http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/11/newsid_4273000/4273817.stm, 21.10.2011

12 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/russell_sq.stm, 21.10.2011

13 http://www.southampton.gov.uk/living/statsresearch/southamptonpopulation/mye.aspx, 24.10.2011

14 see attachment no. 1

15 http://www.abports.co.uk/custinfo/ports/soton.htm, 28.10.2011

16 Associated British Ports, 'Tide Tables 2011', page 1 et seq.

17 according to Port Authority of Southampton

18 http://www.southampton.gov.uk/s-leisure/artsheritage/history/titanic/lifeonboard/default.aspx, 24.10.2011

19 http://www.southampton.gov.uk/s-leisure/artsheritage/history/titanic/, 24.10.2011

20 see attachment no. 1


ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
File size
1.3 MB
Catalog Number
Institution / College
European College of Business and Management (ECBM) London
London Shipping Logistics Port Security Port Security Sicherheit Hafen Hafensicherheit Southampton HHLA Hamburg Portsecurity safety IMO SOLAS AOE ANPR CCTV ISPS CSI Customs Griß Britannien Great Britain Britain England UK Cargo Ship vessel harbour




Title: Port Security - A successful Development?