The Role of Leadership Values in Creating Culture
How Training & Development Support it: The case of Indian BPO organizations
Wissenschaftliche Studie 2009 67 Seiten
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter #1 Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND RATIONALE
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Chapter #2 Literature Review
2.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: CONCEPTUALIZATION
2.3 LEADERSHIP ROLE IN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
2.4 LEADERSHIP ROLE IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Chapter # 3 Research Methodology
3.2 RESEARCH PURPOSE
3.3 RESEARCH APPROACH
3.3.1 Deductive method
3.3.2 Inductive method
3.4 RESEARCH METHOD
3.4.1 Quantitative Research
3.4.2 Qualitative Research
3.5 DATA COLLECTION
3.5.1 Primary Data
3.5.2 Secondary Data
3.6.1 Probability sampling
3.6.2 Non-probability sampling
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS
3.8 ETHICAL ISSUES
3.9 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Chapter # 4 Findings and Analysis
4.2 MAIN BODY
Chapter # 5 Conclusion
5.2 SUMMRY OF FINDINGS
This research was aimed at examining the role of leadership values in creating culture, with the focus on training and development support. The research has been conducted with reference to BPO organizations in India (Delhi and NCR). The research has achieved following objectives: to examine leadership role in creating culture in organizations; to make out and assess the various leadership role in creating culture in organizations; to examine how training and development support as role of leadership values in creating culture in organizations. For achieving the above specified objectives, 25 HR Managers working in five BPO organizations based in Delhi and NCR were interviewed through questionnaire. The major findings of the research are presented underneath.
In most cases, compassionate organizational culture is key to enhancing the performance of employees and organizational performance as a whole for BPO organizations in India. Behavioural norms and dominant ideology as elements of organizational culture constitute key to enhancing the performance of employees and organizational performance as a whole for BPO organizations in India. By and large positive leadership role is ‘on greater level imperative for creating compassionate organizational culture for BPO organisations in India. Generally adaptive leadership as form of leadership role would be comparatively more suitable for creating compassionate organizational culture for BPO organisations in India. Definitely successfully leading innovation should be the guiding principle of leadership role for BPO organisations in India. Generally for enabling compassionate organizational culture, leadership role facilitation should be comparatively more focused on employee involvement for BPO organisations in India. By and large development of positive organizational culture and elimination of negative aspects of organizational culture should be the focus of leadership role strategy for BPO organisations in India. On greater level training and development support as role of leadership values in creating compassionate organizational culture is highly effective for BPO organisations in India. Overall assessment of the need of training and development and evaluation of training and development as stages of training and development should be most emphasized by leaders for creating and sustaining compassionate organizational culture for BPO organisations in India. Generally motivation and skill development as components of training and development should be comparatively more focused by leadership role for BPO organisations in India.
Chapter #1 Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND RATIONALE
It is peculiar regarding a international or an organization of global repute that it centres round a joint philosophy and shared principles held by all the participants of the group or the organization. The global corporate world characterized by modern corporate ambience does not expect the leaders who are confined to the image of bosses; it expects them to develop a universe that attracts all the people. Given this scenario there is a need to resort to the various tactical plans to ensure fruitful administration to translate the philosophy into solid executions. How can people be enthused by the leader so as to provide leadership to a global institution to achieve popularity and identification? Which are the main attributes of a global leader who facilitates a greatly clear and effective paradigm? a global leader can be analysed into his approach to achievement in the domains like interactions, individual linkages, the components of culture and shift administration. Such leaders do not emerge on the business plane in a surprising manner and are usually observed to make a tough foray into an institution.
It is generally characteristic of the really influential leaders or administrators that they set shared hopes obvious, ensure that every member of the organization has no doubts regarding the aims and objectives , make them realize that they can effectively plan and communicate between the phase at a juncture when the squad is at present and when it is able to produce the response so as to help people to fulfill the set aims, however to offer them everything of their requirement so as to provide assistance to the leader or administrator and their co-workers, to ascertain that the benefits are identified not just outside but also inside the organization, to encourage and foster a feeling of organizational members’ self (Clutterbuck and Hirst, 2002, p53). It becomes mandatory for an institution to have an influential interaction strategy and plan so as to achieve an international status. In turn, it will boost the workers enthusiasm, output and competence, institutional shift, and business recognition. According to Darling (1999), interaction is of great significance for the members of an institution, It happens to be a key contingent of individuals giant or tiny can be focused on the principal aims and objectives of the organization. Achieving the needed and desired at all the planes is significant (Darling, 1999). It has its own advantages, i.e., greater dedication to the institution, more association inside the institution, facilitating harmony and concerted effort, eradication or minimization of false beliefs, lies and misconceptions that are harmful for the self confidence of the workers, and the workers realize their significance, recognition and they are responsive to the latest events occurring in other institutions.
Influential headship with regard to the ethnic communication and progress proves instrumental in the direction of ensuring fruitful leadership of the ambience. The tactical plan makes use of international leader in the distribution, comprehending and developing institution, ethnicity happens to be a significant element of competencies to steer the excellent leader of an excellent leader tracks. Comprehending the manner in which organizational culture on the outcome and success of the business can be recognized, enterprises have the opportunities their gains by recognizing all the components of their ethnicity, arriving at the judgment, in case they have the liking of what they find, to estimate if their conduct and activities for a culture and a complete assessment of the employees, they encompass the whole culture of their institution (Bliss, 2003). Obviously, a great challenge confronting the universe in this organization facilitates a good or constructive culture. With the aim to make effort in the direction of management of global repute, a future leader need to pay specific heed to the development and training of a constructive organizational culture, and eradicate the discouraging impact of culture. It is required of the institutions to furnish practical training scenarios for people in the development of leadership. The specialists of management still oppose the training schedules employing the doctrine of management instead of flow. Normally, the ambience contains a number of leadership specialists who hold that individuals need to tackle the scenarios existent at the workplace and it is not possible for them to achieve these competencies in scholarly get–together The most appropriate fashion to train the individuals in the soft competencies, it seems, on the grounds of communication and part playing. The institutions make efforts to develop these practical circumstances in their education and training schedules that demonstrative leaders exhibit and take the leading position in deliberations in the growth of competencies (Friedman, 2001). This facilitates trainees with the illustrations of practical hardships and practical panaceas. as per NASSCOM Report (2008), the existing HR practices inside the Indian Indian BPO sector indicate that present reach to talent is quite elevated nearly 80-90 % of the summated graduates however only 10-15 % of them possess the competencies for straightforward employment devoid of pre training. Of this, only nearly 50 % are interested participate the sector since Indian BPO institutions do no possess leadership worth in develop culture, where education and growth assistance can prove miraculous.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This research aims to examine the role of leadership values in creating culture, with the focus on training and development support. The research is conducted with case studies of Indian BPO organization. The research attempts to achieve following objectives:
- To examine leadership role in creating culture in organizations
- To make out and assess the various leadership role in creating culture in organizations
- To examine how training and development support as role of leadership values in creating culture in organizations
Chapter #2 Literature Review
The research in hand focuses on leadership. The main aim of the research is to look into the part played by leadership values in developing culture, with particular focus the training and development support. The study makes a special reference to the Indian BPO organizations. The literature review section of the study includes the following key topics and issues: Organizational Culture; conceptualization; leadership role in organizational culture; organizational culture, training and development. The summary section puts the main points in nutshell to enable one understand the theme in nutshell.
2.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: CONCEPTUALIZATION
Organizational culture happens to be a system grounded on the firm’s worth and standards, and organizational practices like its technologies, strategies, offerings, services and manifestation (Schein, 1992). The notion of a corporate culture is predominantly significant while trying to administer institution-wide shift. Notwithstanding the best-laid plans, institutional shift need to incorporate not just shifting structures and processes, but also shifting the business culture. The recently bygone years have witnessed a plethora of writings regarding the notion of organizational culture -- especially with respect to learning the manner in which to alter organizational culture. There is a misconception that organizational shift initiatives are not able to succeed most of time. Generally, this inability is on account of absence of realization regarding the powerful part of culture in institutions. It is one of the causes that a number of tactical planners presently laid utmost stress on recognizing tactical values since they are instrumental in mission and vision.. Excellently doing well institutions time to time conducts. Moreover, they usually resort to a sort of effort that needs regular standardizing and questing for most suitable trends not just inside and peripheral to the institution. Institutions having powerful and adaptive cultures encourage influential rise in the leadership positions. Mostly the culture not just develops successors but also facilitates change (Fathi El Nadi, 2008).
Organizational cultures do not just imply slogans and false assurances. A number of institutions prefer to withdraw those employees who do not ensure management as per the standards and conducts that other workers follow. Others fulfill the same aims in a more constructive manner. Workers at all the stages in an institution observe and cherish the components of culture. In form of owners, they inspect every management judgment to provide reward, promote and fire co-workers (Fathi El Nadi, 2008). The most significant notion of all key corporations such as GM, IBM, and Sears is that the individuals stressing institutional betterment, no matter they are peripheral dignitaries of boar, key investors, or high-level managers, need to tackle cultural and behavioral hurdles. Particularly, initiatives at institutional shift need to take into consideration significant attributes of institutional life the company’s culture, the headship or leadership of the shift initiative, and the present network of power. It is widely accepted notion that fulfilling the particular task requisites on a regular ground via on-the-job task presentation happens not just the significant element of worker’s efficacy (Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996). Several employees realize as if they are not treated appropriately at the workplace, since they fail to have an insight into the aims and tactics of trade, and in case they try to get such information, they are terminated or criticized. There is no clear-cut idea whether majority of management squads are knowingly roundabout regarding their tactical plans and ambition function, however it could be discouraging for a number of them to know what squads are supposed to do in compliance with the business aims and tactical plans. Really, several high-level executives do not have clear idea regarding their interactions. Possibly, they are not interested in being deemed to be responsible, or possibly they merely lack a tactical plan, and appear unclear regarding how the trade is managed. Usually, employee report lack of information or does not stand by the business policy. This significant premise that culture is responsible for workers’ conducts, but has not attained much practical attention (Tesluk, Hofmann, & Quigley, 2002). Organizational culture is on the whole a arrangement of common viewpoints that participants of the organization possess, which decides the manner in which an institution stakeholders work when entrusted with the decision making responsibilities. All individuals hailing from varied backdrops and lifestyles, however in an organizational culture, every one of them views the organization culture in the similar way, therefore, this viewpoint happens to be one of the common dimensions of an organizational culture. There happen to be in all seven dimensions of an organizational culture: focus on fact, novelty and risk shouldering, result focusing, constancy, people orientation, forcefulness, and team focus (Fathi El Nadi, 2008).
Defining the culture is the responsibility of these characteristics, it is usually a structure of common ideas that the members in a firm possess. Culture decides how the members will take action in dealing with managing the tasks. . Every organization, one can find the systems or patterns of values that are continuously growing. Understanding organizational culture and its blow on human actions in organizations is of significance. Enron, for example, provide the idea of how having the wrong organizational culture moves business failure. Enron’s high success oriented, industrial employees toughened the spirited “survival-of-the-fittest” culture of the company (Byrne, 2002). Each of these features has its own responsibility in imparting what the organizational culture is. Very often two cultures collide as people from various organizations observe things differently. The corresponding person is blamed if failure occurs as they are regarded as the one lacking ability.
The method in which the people act and work together and how the work is getting done is controlled by the organizations culture. It works on the organization's goals, behavioral norms, and dominant ideologies. The firms following in-house firmness such as large government organization inspires respect for following order and rule as proper behaviors in their employees to smooth the progress of performing on difficult tasks (Leavitt, 2003). Culture can also be expressed through the organization's tradition, heroes, legends, stories, language, resources, and services. The mission and strategies, the development of organizational success, and the managing of change (Samuel Olu Adeyoyin, 2006) is reached by the organizations culture. A corporate culture can work for an organization to progress or against it by obstructing in achieving of goals. However, this can be achieved by proper guidance and providing the better ideas for working towards the goal.
Organizational culture is the base that works towards the way work has to be got done (established through goals, plans, measures, rewards) and the infrastructure (systems, process and structures) gets used. Organizational culture lined with strategy is a great way for reaching competitive improvement and industry or sector leadership. Leadership is very important in running and maintaining an organization’s reason, values, and vision. Leaders should work towards the organizations values, behaviors, measures and actions. Values are futile without the other factors, such that organizations with undoubtedly codified and imposed cultures benefit from great employee and customer reliability. Corporate culture is something in which one invests (Samuel Olu Adeyoyin, 2006). The dynamics of the culture, what should remain, and what needs transformation, should be decided by the leaders, who are provided with the position. Successful organizations engage their people, build the teams and develop human competence at all the stages.
2.3 LEADERSHIP ROLE IN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
The research has focused on paying attention on the ability to use the skills on previous circumstances, which includes structure, context and leadership (Raisch & Birkinshaw, 2008). Research on structural background has paid attention on creating separate organization units and the use of official and unofficial organizing mechanisms to inspire modernized ambidexterity (Tushman and O’Reilly, 1996; Jansen, et al., 2006), whereas the study on context has paid attention on creating systems, processes, and beliefs that will facilitate and support the individuals to know how better they can split the time required for various modern activities (Gibson & Birkinshaw, 2004).
Study on leadership has paid attention on the function of top management teams (TMTs) in creating ambidexterity (Smith & Tushman, 2005). Lubatkin, et al., (2006), for example, has examined the incorporation of the activities of TMTs on ambidexterity, whereas other studies on TMTs has observed the impact of beginning teams’ before association on modern activities (Beckman, 2006).
In order to assist various types of modern activities different leadership styles are required (Vera & Crossan, 2004; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2004). These investigators have recommended that a participative form of leadership nurtures essential and alternating types of modern activities, whereas a reliable, top–down style of leadership helps to have incremental ideas. Interestingly, in spite of the importance attributed to leadership (Vera & Crossan, 2004, O’Reilly & Tushman, 2004), we are uninformed of any experimental investigation that has in particular has paid attention on the responsibilities of senior leadership style and its impact on encouraging modern activities leading to various types of improvement. Therefore the main purpose of our study is to investigate the responsibilities of the senior leadership styles in helping in building and implementing new ideas and modern techniques.
Leadership and the culture play a vital role in the organization for implementing modern techniques. Investigators have queried in regard to the role of the leaders and the culture which influence the activities (Raisch and Birkinshaw, 2008). Investigation is necessary to understand the interaction between the leadership and the culture in fostering the organizations activities (Raisch and Birkinshaw, 2008). Hence, a second reason of our research is to study the relations of leadership and an organization’s culture on the organization’s capability to promote modern ambidexterity.
Several researchers (Vera & Crossan, 2004; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2004) have given their opinion about “adaptive” leadership and “bounded delegation” leadership, which may acton encouraging various methods of modernization. An adaptive leadership style is described as leadership which aims on strategic thinking and organizational potential to become accustomed to changing situation and supports the business activities, whereas a bounded delegation leadership is defined as the leadership which helps and guides the employees in achieving the goal and the vision of an organization and also supports them and inspires their creativity.
The organization’s external environment is supervised by the leaders with an adaptive leadership style, they use the ideas to maintain the competitive environment and makes sure of repeated learning by adjusting to variations in the external environments (Boal and Hooijberg, 2000; Vera and Crossan, 2004). These leaders take up, appreciate, and incorporate new ideas are responsive to the requirements of various types of businesses and become accustomed to differences in the outside environments (Tushman, Anderson, & O’Reilly, 1997; Boal and Hooijberg, 2000).
On working in the organization’s external environment these leaders are helped to get hold of customer comments, find out of their customers’ troubles and requirements, and acquire market ideas, which they can inform to those working in the organization. In assisting in collecting the ideas, this type of leadership helps to promote incremental, but not fundamental product improvement (Ulwick, 2002; Damanpour, 1991). Unlike incremental improvements, radical improvement normally needs profound knowledge and the switch over to more ideas about particular and top technologies. As such knowledge can be gained by more interest in a particular area, it is improbable that the adaptive leaders not only manage the company but will be able to get to acquire more information which is required for implementing new activities.
These leaders are capable to relate the requirements and the troubles with the hardwork laid on the growth of a product within the organization, as these leaders work on providing means of expression for information between customers and the organization. Although the modernization is paying attention on meeting the customer needs and resolving the problems faced by the customers is reaching a great height in natural history. In contrast, fundamental improvement is encouraged by additional fundamental technical and scientific analysis and is paying attention on producing products which not only convince the needs of the customers, but they bring new innovative ideas into the marketplace (Tushman, Anderson, & O’Reilly, 1997).
On account of the adaptive nature of this leadership, with its center of attention on repeated modernism, we also quarrel that adaptive leadership will force on the organization’s talent to create in-house development modernizations. The adaptive leaders bring the ideas that they obtain from the external surroundings to the organization that provides a stage for improvement. These ideas can put across the information to the firm in regard to the requirement of getting the work done better and encourage in thinking about how the new process, workflows and structures may appear. Although adaptive leaders may have a direct control on improvement, we argue that leaders who show signs of “bounded delegation” style of leadership (McDonough and Leifer, 1986) have a circumlocutory consequence on modernization by functioning all the way through an organization’s customs. The assistants or the employees are allowed to choose their way to reach the goals (McDonough & Leifer, 1986). Leaders who use such a style are closely connected to the employees and helps in their success but restrict them in taking particular way in reaching their goals (McDonough & Leifer, 1986).
Investigation on what is called as bounded delegation style of leadership recommends that these leaders work towards the improvement by providing a clear goal and support for imagination (Amabile et al., 1996, Mumford et al., 2002). An articulated goal provides suggestion to followers about the value of innovation and can increase their understanding of the goal’s importance. Such behaviors are likely to promote creativity, search, and sharing (Amabile et al., 1996; McDonough and Griffin, 2000).
For the success and improvement of the organization, the ideas and the needs, the clear information and the opportunity to achieve the targets which involves providing proper support, time and freedom when needed for thinking and working together with other employees (Sosik et al., 2005; Jung et al., 2008) are essential. Therefore in order to achieve the organizations goals the employees should be provided with wide opportunities should not restrict individuals in planning their own to achieve the goals. Bounded delegation leadership helps to improve organizations culture that will assist innovation, rather than impacting directly on innovation.
Organizational culture is defined as the belief and trust necessary for an individual which is learned in an organization, that manages the group members’ opinions, thoughts, moods and actions, that are needed and typical meant for the group as a total (Sackmann, 2003). It signifies an intricate model of beliefs, expectations, ideas, values, attitudes, and behaviors shared by the members of an organization that develop over time (Trice and Beyer, 1984).
The research suggests that senior leaders’ support and participation are required for providing encouragement to develop innovation enabling culture (Uhl-Bien et al., 2007; Vera and Crossan, 2004). Farson and Keyes (2002), for example, suggest that encouragement in failure tolerance is essential and is an essential way to promote an innovation enabling culture. In order to overcome the leaders are required to show importance towards employees work by asking them relevant questions, provide support and feedback (Farson and Keyes, 2002).
Leadership plays an important role in developing the ideas by affecting the organization’s culture, within which individual behavior is manifested (Amabile, 1997; Farson & Keyes, 2002). Amabile’s research (1997), for example, suggests that leadership management is essential to provide the penchant for innovation in an organization. Leaders play an important role in developing an innovation-oriented company by supporting creativity through providing the needed resources, such as, sufficient time, training, coaching, and money and also encouraging the individuals in generating new ideas by providing the freedom to try new things. This way, creativity is the seed of innovation that requires watering by leaders, that is motivation by leaders. When the motivation is provided the followers’ efforts to approach old situations in new ways, the leader helps create entrepreneurial qualities among followers to facilitate values imaginative thoughts, adventuresome approaches, and novel work approaches (Jung et al., 2003; Jung et al., 2008).
Giving the chance to the employees to discover, examine and experiment, the bounded delegation leadership creates an entrepreneurial organization culture, which promotes modern activities (Sackmann, 2006; Anand et al., 2007). In an entrepreneurial culture, the members of the employee recognizes the opportunities and risks on the basis of their insight on the internal and external organizational environment, incorporate existing resources, and convey other individuals to facilitate them to use imaginative and modern project (Sternberg, Kaufman & Pretz, 2003; Chen, 2007). Bounded delegation leaders also promote innovation by creating a sharing culture which smoothens the progress of communication and information sharing between the individuals the organization Menzel et al., 2008). This communication and sharing of the information is a significant way of permitting the views and opinions of the members in an organization to be implemented and for information to be transmitted (Menzel et al., 2008). Damanpour (1991) also recommend that internal communication is useful for the organizations innovativeness, whereas McDermott (1999) highlights that it is necessary to build up the existing knowledge communities to smooth the progress of information sharing. A sharing culture makes interaction, communication, and knowledge transfer achievable (McDermott, 1999; Menzel et al., 2008), which in turn, supports probing activities and culture.
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND TRAINING and DEVLOPMENT
Organizational culture shapes, influences, and redefines training programs which, in turn, shape, influence, and redefine organizational culture. This idea of the organizational culture came into notice in the seventh decade of the twentieth century as organizations started moving from machine-like entities (where employees were seen as mechanistic pieces of a larger system) and toward understanding on how human factors affect organizational processes and development (Hawkins, 1997). Since the seventh decade of the twentieth century, organizational culture has been studied, researched, and conceptualized in a range of ways. Culture is usually recognized as a set of shared values, suppositions, artifacts, language, and rituals that direct interaction and operation within a society (Ngwenyama and Nielsen, 2003; Nutt, 2005). The over reaching matter in succession through most organizational culture literature is the concept of influencing and changing a culture to support with planned institutional strategy; this is an attempt that can be sustained by guidance and improvement activities (Sirianni and Frey, 2001; Zhao, 2005).
In contrast, the main idea of providing training to the individuals is the concept of meeting the goal of an organization or institution (Callahan et al., 2006); this attempt of providing the training may support in preserving the present organizational traditions (Carden and Callahan, 2007). Devoid of clearly pleasing into description the natural reciprocality of training and culture, trainers may find themselves replicating accessible structures and systems, regardless of their most excellent efforts headed for carrying out change in the way of life. Providing suitable guidance is a useful means in helping changing the way of life (for prevailing or significant standards); but, this is only possible when the human resource development experts implement a state of mind to further come across the suggestions on their effort. In this research, how the structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) can be implemented as a practical heuristic in assisting the trainers to generate programs which works on the common power of organizational traditions and instructions.
There are various steps in the process of training and development which includes evaluating the requirement of training or development, Purpose of training and the development programme, progress of training and evaluation methods used, using the selected methods for genuine training and/or development, and assessment of the training program (Arthur et al., 2003; Noe, 2008). For the better understanding, these processes are discussed separately in brief. First, evaluating whether there is requirement of the training programme by an organization to overcome the issues. In order to obtain the ideas in this regard, in general, this analysis consists of investigation of an organization as a whole (e.g. goals, objectives, support of training), the responsibilities of the jobs in question, and the employees performing the jobs (Noe, 2008; Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001). This includes judgment in assessing the trainees, willingness for the training program, which should be encouraging to find success (Seyler et al., 1998).
Second, planning the particular training and assessment methods to be used which involves the atmosphere which helps in training and developing the assessment methods that exactly imitate the efficiency of training (e.g. summative or formative assessment; Scriven, 1996).
Third, during the program a variety of training techniques can be used. Some of the traditional methods comprise of: speech, audiovisual, on-the-job training, simulations, case studies, business games, role plays, and behavior modeling (Noe, 2008). But, as the technology advances, newer methods come into use, such as the internet, laser discs, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and interactive videos.
Finally, the assessment of the training and development program refers to regular examining on how the program thrives (Noe, 2008). As Noe (2008) states, “assessment plays a key role in scheduling and deciding the method to be used, examining the training program, and to put forward the requirements in design process”. Therefore, continuous assessment is essential on how the training is developing, progressing, and working.
The analysis method of a program is controlled by organizational culture in a related way. For example, training and development program will most likely recognize, that is, the organizational member in charge of selecting a trainer selects the one having the values similar to the values required in an organization. Culture then plays an important role in training prior to the trainer comes across the members of the organization. In addition, any differing schemas, values, beliefs, and/or communication styles that the trainer has in disagreement to the organization may unintentionally be changed to absorb well with the organization (Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001).
The trustworthy and allocative power which the trainer has is used by the organization which in turn helps retain the power over the trainer by increasing the demands. Thus, the analysis stage of a program and organizational culture are instantaneously influencing each other’s policies and sources through communication/interaction, power structures, and sanctions apprehended by both the culture and the trainer. This significant reciprocity is synchronous and constantly enduring in both inherent and precise ways.
The design and development stages of a characteristic training and development program include the design of a learning atmosphere, making sure the shift of training, and increasing assessment plan (Seyler et al., 1998). There are different ways of influencing this training program. The intention of learning, the trainees’ learning styles and choices, and levels of trainees’ self-direction and teamwork plays an important role in creating a proper learning environment (Sadler-Smith, 1996). The trainees use these features in a way in which they are given importance by an organization. In contrast, an organization’s customs manipulates the learning atmosphere on account of the trainees’ learning methods, self-direction, and teamwork already together correspond to the organizational culture. In case if the organization encourages a highly unique customs, then little teamwork, high self-direction, and “diverger” or “converger” learning styles will mainly be highlight in the learning atmosphere (Noe, 2008); thus helping the program developer to manage training.
Another feature of the design and development process includes the transfer of the training. The environment (management support, opportunities to perform, and technological support (Holton, 2000) which is determined by cultural standards, ideas, and resources; trainee characteristics (inspiration and ability, that are in association with the organizational culture); training design (learning atmosphere) plays a role in transfer process. Having a good environment that is a learning atmosphere, the importance showed by the trainers, and the way they interact are known to influence the trainees. The transfer can be stopped by providing the management support and, consequently, less chances to use their training on the job (low signification, legitimation, and resources).
The proper training method has to be selected and executed which has to be followed throughout the process. This can be achieved by deciding the suitable method to engage the trainee during the process. Trainers decide what is right to be done (rightful) and impart that (signification) to staff in the course of managing the program (power). In contrast, organizational culture manipulates the method in which guidance is managed. Learning results and trainees’ learning styles have an important action on the choice (modality) of a training method (Riding and Sadler-Smith, 1997), which are greatly controlled by the organization’s customs. For instance, as discussed earlier, an organization lets the instructor know what learning results are required (conclusion guided by its organizational culture); similarly, organizational culture guides the organization’s hiring processes, thus the organization appoints members whose learning styles “fit” with the culture. Thus the customs of an organization is largely influenced on the process of training put into practice.
The last process in program planning is the assessment of the training and development program. In order to achieve success, the different types of the methods that is the design used by the program planner or the organization or other stakeholders of the evaluated program (Russ-Eft and Preskill, 2001) are important. The definition of “success” provides insight into the mutual association of training and culture. The trainer who runs the training program defines success as the one which influences the organizations success. Still, quite frequently, results of training programs are cleared in conditions of what is “in the best interest” of the organization. Therefore, this places value (legitimation and signification through expert authoritative and allocative resources) on particular results over others which are made clear to the trainees as the ideal way to imagine and proceed (legitimation). Thus success is achieved by the effort put forward by the organizational leaders and the trainer in order to achieve the goal and values of an organization.
2.4 LEADERSHIP ROLE IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
It is known that only 10 percent of training is carried out in the job process (Cheng and Ho 2001; Kupritz 2002), while there seems to be no proof for this calculations but there are proofs on the very low transfer of training (Kupritz, 2002). The managers think that even if the training is of high quality, the transfer results are variable. Montesino (2002) argues that HRD professionals have highlighted the use of state-of-the-art training method at the rate of transfer of training. In general low rates of transfer has given rise to lower planning, resources and the function have become the easy target to hold back when total costs are needed.
In reaction to the losing consequence of training and HRD, researchers, practitioners and business leaders in a similar way are working for a change in focus from viewing training as a separate class/event, to captivating the universal, long-term focus of supporting training and associated series to the planned focus of the organization. A recent study initiated high levels of self reported training movement associated with awareness of how united the training is with organizational plan (Montesino, 2002). Most researchers argue this standard shift is necessary to show the ROI and worth of training (Brinkerhoff and Gill 1994; Gilley and Maycunich 2000). As a consequence, the trouble in the transfer as considered by the assessment of training has been observed on a range of levels. The present models of training assessment, still, alone classified as taxonomies (Holton, 1996) and while there is progress we only know little about the factors which influence the transfer and how the process works to make the transfer easier (Bates, 2003). In conclusion, additional research and better practice in training transfer is needed (Bates, 2003).
Overcome the problem of the training transfer by investigating the internal characteristics (e.g. personality, motivation etc.) of the trainees, the process or the design of the training, the characteristics of the organizational atmosphere (Colquitt, LePine and Noe 2002). (The effect of the post-training environment on transfer has been the least observed (Cheng and Ho 2001; Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999) and there has evolved more better ways to be used in the post-training environment (Noe and Ford 1992; Tannenbaum and Yukl 1992). The main problem is the lack of the techniques that represent the ‘soft skills’ (Cheng and Ho 2001), interpersonal skills, which need a combination of attitude, cognition and behavior to be used efficiently. Marx (1982) states that organization is not excused from training transfer crisis, in spite of the variety of management and leadership courses which are known to be effective. A recent study by Santos and Stuart (2003) discovered that 64 percent of managers go back to their earlier approach after training and managers are still less likely than others to directly relate training at work particularly for developmental or soft skills training. These results are very important, specified that approximately 25% of training resources are used up on organization training.