TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
List of Figure
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Review of Related Literature
Definition of Terms
Limitations of the Study
V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
A: Sample Questionnaire
B: Cross tab/Chi-Square Test
The researcher is indebted to some fine people that he wishes to thank ---
To Sir Popoy Reganit, the thesis adviser, for his constant guidance, patience and
To Ma’am Marilyn Regondola, for her openness and referral to the adviser of the
To Ma’am Tonette Rodriguez, Ma’am Lynette Mendoza, Ma’am Ops Gareza, Ma’am
Suzette Ortua, Ma’am Leny Torres, Ma’am Nonette Saavedra, for the constructive criticisms and ideas
To Ma’am Cathy Bobis and Sir Danny, for their understanding
To Tito King and the brothers and sisters in YFC, for their prayers
To Psyche people: Amy, Pidoy, Dahls, Tatz, Mhars, Dalen, Deck, Vince, John, Hannah,
Jo, En-En, Bong and all APSANS, for their encouragement
To Mama, Tatay, Kim, Ate, Ditse, Diko, Sanse, and Darling, for their moral and financial
To Wani, who decided to join me in my intellectual journey
And most especially to Him whom all I owe
List of Tables
1 Distribution of samples by the level of their academic performance
2 Over-all contingency table on the level of academic performance and the qualities of an effective teacher
3 Relative frequency distribution and ranking of the ten qualities of an effective teacher by 57 students with high academic performance
4 Relative frequency distribution and ranking of the ten qualities of an effective teacher by 189 students with average academic performance
5 Relative frequency distribution and ranking of the ten qualities of an effective teacher by 24 students with low academic performance
6 Summary table of the ten pferred qualities of an effective teacher
List of Figure
1 Conceptual Paradigm
Background of the Study
Excellence is what universities inspire and inculcate to their students. What connect universities to their students are teachers. For the students, the teachers are the faces and images of excellence. Thus, what makes teachers exemplary of excellence as perceived by students? If students perceive their teacher as excellent and effective, does this perception impact on their academic performance?
The Ateneo de Naga University seeks to imbue students with the desire to strive for excellence in every sphere and activity in life. Bolstered by achievements of alumni, ratings in national professional examinations, and on the belief in the Jesuit education program, college enrollment is unceasingly rising. Today Ateneo de Naga University is considered as the pmier school in Bicol region as well as in the Philippines. It is known for its thrust for academic excellence among students .
While the importance of excellence is stressed and the number of population increasing, the school is faced, however, with problems catering each need of the students with limited resources, competent teachers, and modern facilities.
To draw the line from the excellent and mediocre academic performance of students, academic probation status was introduced and instituted. Since its introduction, there was an increasing number of students who were put under academic probation status because they could not simply reach the required Quality Point Index (QPI) of 1.5 for the regular students. For two semesters of the School Year (S/Y) 1994-1995, the combined number of student under academic probation status was 757 students. The average number of total enrollment for that school year was 3,165 students. What is alarming then was that in the first semester of school year 1995-1996, there were 564 students or 14% of the 4,007 total students enrolled who ended up having a QPI lower than the required 1.5.
Knox et al. (1992) used measures such as academic achievement of students, attrition rates to assess the success of colleges and universities. Tinto (1975) have been paramount in using attrition rates or dropouts as an indicator of relative failure of educational institution. Indeed the figures would show that the school failed to stop the growing number of students placed in academic probation status.
Practically, having more students means having sufficient number of faculty members to do the teaching task. With a steady increase of students each year, the school has to hire new teachers to cater to the need of the students for knowledge and skills. In school year 1994-1995, the school hired 14 new teachers and for 1995-1996, the number surged to 42 new recruits as faculty members. The number of the said new faculty, however, did not indicate whether how many were and new-timers and re-hired as college teachers. Cortes (1993) in her observation on these beginning teachers was that they can hardly cope with the reality of teaching-learning in a new environment. This observation is not only true to new teachers but also to come backing teachers who finished their masteral or doctoral studies. It is to be noted that Ateneo de Naga offers scholarship to teachers for further studies to earn masteral or doctoral degrees. Through its Faculty Development Program, the school aims to further boost teachers’ effectiveness in the classroom and mastery of their subjects taught in school. However, having missed the teaching task for years, these comebacking teachers are usually masteral-level or doctoral-level experts in their subject field far more than they are experts in enabling students to learn (Katz and Henry 1988). Hence students are left with their own effort to seek knowledge for themselves.
Although learning ideally occurs when an individual wants to learn, it still depends on what an individual does which makes him learn, not so much of what the teacher does (Palma, 1992).
However, teachers have a responsibility to teach what is stated in institutional and program objectives (Erwin (1991). It is incumbent on the teacher to meet the requirements of the curriculum efficiently and effectively in his teaching task. “The success of a learning situation depends to a large extent on the teacher” (Palma, 1992) .
To invite learning, Cortes (1993) cited five skills a teacher should manifest: fluency and proficiency in the language of instruction, skills in the use of teaching methods appropriate for the class and activity, mastery of subject matter or discipline taught, skills in maintaining order and discipline in class, and skills in evaluating students’ achievement. She further enumerated the essential qualities of an effective teacher; must be a master of his subject matter, must be an effective communicator, must be enthusiastic about his subject matter, must enjoy working with both young and adult learner, must be committed to achieve and retain intellectual excellence, and must be persistently curious about knowledge.
If teachers meet these necessary characteristics, they are considered good and effective teachers. To further assess their effectiveness, systematic student ratings are being used by most colleges and universities. Kinney and Smith (1992) believe that classroom teaching was the single most important factor in evaluating overall teachers’ performance since classroom instruction universally commands more than 50% of the teachers’ time. Braskamp (1984) added that these students’ ratings provide an important and unique perspective because students are the primary recipients of instruction. In 1995, Ateneo de Naga had a Faculty Evaluation Tool that serves as the students systematic ratings for teachers.
On the use of teachers’ performance ratings or any systematic ratings as the measure of teachers’ effectiveness, Cortes (1993) asked what these instruments really measure. Kinney and Smith (1992) pointed out that a number of studies have identified the factors beyond the control of instruction that influence students’ ratings. Although the results were not always consistent, the reliability and stability of students’ ratings in assessing teaching effectiveness could be generalized. Some of the generalizations were that students tend to give higher ratings to teachers of humanities, fine arts, language than the teachers of sciences; higher ratings are also given to teachers in which students have strong interest; and better ratings are given as the teacher’s age.
In truly evaluating teachers’ effectiveness, Cortes (1993) suggested strongly that the criterion variables should be the school outcomes. She related that majority of studies on teacher’s effectiveness focused on the teachers themselves as a unit of analysis, individually or collectively; very scarce are the studies relating teachers’ characteristics with students’ achievement and other school outcomes. The latter points to a research need on the matter.
Taking the suggestion of Cortes (1993) that the criterion variable for evaluating teachers’ effectiveness should be the school outcomes, the psent study is the first to be conducted in Ateneo de Naga in relating the teachers’ characteristics with the students’ academic performance.
Statement of the Problem
The psent study investigated the pferred qualities of an effective teacher in Ateneo de Naga for school year 1995-1996. Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions:
1. What are the pferred qualities of an effective teacher in Ateneo de Naga as perceived by the students?
2. Is the students’ pference on the qualities of an effective teacher related to their academic performance?
Review of Related Literature
Presently there exists a certain agreement regarding what qualities an effective teacher should possess. A survey of related literature and studies were reviewed to prove this.
Gregorio (1983) specifically identified twelve outstanding qualities a teacher should have in order to be effective, (1) a good knowledge of subject matter, (2) knowledge of the nature of the child, (3) knowledge of the goals of education and the methods of achieving them, (4) a scientific attitude, (5) patience, (6) sympathy and love for children, (7) pleasant personality and a happy disposition, (8) freedom from any physical impediments that would interfere with the teacher effectiveness, (9) capacity to think and speak clearly and logically, (10) altruism and ambition, (11) right attitude toward teaching, and (12) a spirit of cooperation. There seemed to be common points and qualities on the choice of an effective teacher that kids, students, parents, teachers and administrators would agree in one way or another. Through the years, everybody has learned to value these qualities of what could be an effective teacher.
In the hope of improving the learning of the students and facilitating the task of the teachers, most educational researchers have focused on the identification and definition of what is an effective teacher. Anderson (1989) explains that this effort of identifying and defining and effective teacher would mean the development of a curriculum that is linked directly with the students’ academic performance. Goals and intended outcomes of a curriculum must be based on the capacity of the students to achieve those goals. As an effective teacher, this must be deliberately thought beforehand.
Berliner (1987) defines effective teacher as one who can successfully share the skills and knowledge judged to be appropriate for the students. The success of the relay of skills and knowledge from the teachers to students depends upon the quality of the teacher-student relationship. An effective teacher maintains a light atmosphere in the classroom whereby students can speak for themselves, and there is a room for fun moments.
Assessing teaching effectiveness, Bennet (1987) stated that there is a need to consider the quality of learning of the students. He viewed the teachers’ performance as the casual factor in regard to students’ academic performance.
In the study of Morrow et al. (1985), the findings correlated positively the knowledge of the teachers on the subject matter with the students’ academic performance. Also with the classroom management skills, skills in diagnosing student learning difficulties, and selecting appropriate instructional technique, these skills were correlated positively with the students’ academic performance.
The teacher traits were closely related with students’ achievement except teacher’s educational attainment which was seen to be apart from any motivational factors was found by Cardano (1991).
In the review of McNeil and Wiles (1990) of forty-two correlational studies developed by Rosenshine and Furst, they found out that there were eleven teachers’ variables that consistently related to student achievement than the rest. The five variables were: clarity of teacher’s psentation and the ability to organize classroom activities; enthusiasm expssed through movement, voice inflection, facial expssion; task-oriented; and student-opportunity to learn.
Belgica (1989) studied the learner’s attributes and teaching factors related to achievement in secondary girls, and found out that there was no significant relationship between teachers’ behavior and the level of achievement of the students.
However, a study in Grade V and VI pupils by Padua (1986) showed that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ factors, educational training, teaching experience, number of techniques used, sex, age, and the reading achievement of the pupils.
Rodriguez (1995) found out that the students’ perception of an effective teacher is a teacher who has the following qualities: mastery of the subject matter, having personal concern for the students, being able to communicate ideas effectively, having skills in classroom management, having varied teaching strategies, being able to motivate students to perform well, a good role-model, having masteral or doctoral degree, approachable, patient, kind, and striving to grow professionally. She also found out that the perception of an effective teacher by the students was dependent on the course and gender, and was not dependent on year level.
The review of different literature and studies reveals that teachers have a great hand in the learning process that reflects in the academic performance of the students.
The studies mentioned cited the important teacher factors in the learning process of the students. Similarities and differences with the psent study were identified such as, common variables were used like the teacher traits and the academic performance though different respondents were approached.
The psent study made us of the same teacher variables by Rodriguez (1995) having some similarities also with the studies of Morrow et al. (1985), McNeil and Wiles (1990), Cardano (1991), Belgica (1989), and Padua (1986) in variables.
As far as the other variable is concerned, the psent study correlated these teachers’ variables with the academic performance of the students like the study of Morrow et al. (1985), McNeil and Wiles (1990), Cardano (1991), and Belgica (1989). And Padua (1986) correlated these teachers’ variables with the reading achievement of her respondents. While Rodriguez (1995), these teacher variables were ranked according to the importance of the variable and the perception of the respondents.
The respondents of the psent study were all college students like the study of Rodriguez (1995) and Cardano (1991). Studies of Belgica (1989) and Padua (1986) had different respondents having secondary girls for Belgica and Grade V and VI pupils for Padua.
This study is based on the social learning theory of Rotter. Rather than innate or biological, this theory explains the development of personality in terms of experiences. It also assumes that personality is learned just as anything else. Most of the experiences of the teachers and students happen in school. Somehow both share commonalities in this respect. Especially the students in the course of the development of their personality, school policies, rules and regulations reinforce their actions; some behaviors are rewarded while some are punished, depending in the congruence of the behavior to the standing rules and regulations of the school (Freedman, 1982).
In every case, behaviors are more likely to occur if positively reinforced, and less likely if punished. Academic performance manifests how the students behave and fair with the curriculum developed by the teacher. Hence, the teacher decides whether a student deserves a high or low grade according to the set of criteria of the school on grading system.
Rotter further cited two concepts underlying in social learning theory – expectancy and value. The concept of expectancy states that individuals are socialized to expect certain outcomes in certain situations and that these expectations lead to certain behaviors (p. 374). There is always an expectation on the part of the students to regard their teachers as those who have the mastery of the subject matter, as a role-model, concerned with the students’ well-being, and so on. With these expectations, the students are motivated to perform well. Likewise these expectations help the students set their direction and goals in life. On the other hand, the value concept states that individuals are socialized to value certain things more than others and that these values lead to certain behaviors. Through the years, students learn to value certain qualities on their teachers which have made them to perform well in the past. These values which the students have formed directly influence their pference or perception of an effective teacher.
In school, teachers make the students learn in their capacity to teach a subject, and students learn differently due to different values and expectations the students have on their teachers. Students value certain qualities on a teacher that they expect the teacher to possess in their course of interaction. These values and expectations lead to a certain outcome which is favorable to the students and the teachers as well.
 QPI is the average grade of all courses enrolled. The grade ranges from 4 as the highest to 1 as the lowest.