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Tracing the Origin and exploring the Causes and Consequences of Globalization

Term Paper 2007 22 Pages

Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics

Excerpt

Contents

Executive Summary

1 Conceptualization of Globalization
1.1 Globe, Global and Globalization
1.2 Pioneers of Globalization

2 Various Dimensions of Globalization

3 Origins of Globalization
3.1 Chronological and Geographical Contexts
3.2 Historical and Contemporary Globalization
3.3 Globalization 1.0, Globalization 2.0 and Globalization 3.0
3.4 Milestones of Contemporary Globalization

4 Assessing the Causes: What causes Globalization?
Assuming Globalization as dependent variable – Globalizing
4.1 America as Engine of Globalization
4.2 Information at Striking Speed
4.3 Free Flow of Information
4.4 Wide Reach of Information
4.5 Miscellaneous Causes

5 Assessing the Consequences: What are the Consequences of Globalization? Assuming Globalization as an independent variable – Globalating
5.1 Distribution of Wealth
5.2 Welfare System in Developed Countries
5.3 Autonomy of Nation
5.4 Convergence of World Economy
5.5 Globalization and Eradication of Poverty
5.6 Globalization and Resentments
5.7 Globalization helping both – The Creator and The Destroyer
5.8 Globalization and Creation of Multiple Identity Disorder
5.9 Globalization and Disillusionment

6 Concluding Remarks
6.1 Running with Gazelles, Eating with Lions.
Formation of a Global Risk Society
6.2 “Wake up and face the Flat earth”- Thomas Friedman

References

Executive Summary

The term globalization first appeared in 1962 as jargon.[1] Perhaps this is one of the most controversial terms in recent history. The Economist has called it “the most abused word of the 21st century”.[2] Globalization means different things to different people. Anthony Giddens rightly says “As an unpredictable and turbulent process, globalization is seen and understood very differently by observers.”[3] Globalization gurus are puzzled about the direction and consequences of globalization. Some appreciate it and believe that it would lead to universal peace and harmony- nirvana. Others condemn it, as they believe that it would lead to all kind of chaos and Unordnung. Unfortunately it is also true. Globalization has also contributed to recent terrorism.[4] In this work I make an impartial attempt to present an objective understanding of the term “Globalization”. Globalization is causing many structral changes and I admit that some of them are very cruel. Can globalization be stopped ? If, not then what strategy should be adoped to protect the masses. This work aims to find answers to several such questions.

In chapter one I begin with conceptualization of the term globalization. Chapter 2 briefly describes implications of globalization in various fields. Later part mainly deals with economic, political and communication dimensions of globalization. In chapter four attempt has been made to trace the origin of globalization. Several debatable and contradictory arguments are put forward on this aspect.

Assuming globalization as dependent variable, I proceed to elaborate on various factors, which causes globalization. Internet, bandwidth and flow of information without any hindrance have contributed to contemporary globalization. Such free flow of information has also occasionally led to divisions among humanity.Al Jazeera’s live broadcast of conflicts has created hindrance between Arabs and Israelis.[5]

Globalization is creating significant impact on welfare system in developed countries. Therefore, taking globalization as an independent variable I deal with it’s consequences in the forthcoming part. The discussion about globalization would be incomplete without mentioning contribution of America and also how globalization has led to terrorism. Chapter 6 deals with various such aspects. Globalization is reality and it comes with both advantages and disadvantages. Measures should be initiated to control negative impacts of globalization and positive aspects should be encouraged. Concluding chapter deal with certain surviving strategies.

At Last I would like to mention that I have taken utmost care to present unbiased approach on various aspects of globalization.

1 Conceptualization of Globalization

1.1 Globe, Global and Globalization

The term globe was first coined by German scholar Martin Behaim in 1492 .He built the first known globe as representation of earth.[6] In the same year Columbus landed on a Caribbean island. This discovery brought together two worlds. The reconnection was called as “Columbian Exchange” and is celebrated as a milestone in the history of globalization.

Even though the term globe was coined as early as in 15th century, common usage of term such as globalization did not begin until about 1960. In 1959 The Economist reported Italy’s “globlised quota”. Webster became the first dictionary to offer definition of globalism and globalization. In 1962 the Spectator recognized that: ‘Globalization is, indeed, a staggering concept.’[7]

Definitions suggested in various dictionaries are not exhaustive and very often say very little about globalization, such as ‘to render global’ or ‘the act of gloablizing’.Webster’s dictionary defines globalization as a process that renders various activities and aspirations “worldwide in scope or application”.[8]

Ronald Robertson is regarded as an expert of globalization and his definition of globalization is as follows:[9]

“Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression of the whole world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (…) both concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole.”

This definition is clearly resembles to the definition provided by Giddens, which runs as follows:

“ Globalization can ... be defined as intensification of the worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice-versa. This is a dialectical process because such local happening may move in an obverse direction from the very distanciated relations that shape them. Local transformation is as much a part of globalization as the lateral extension of social connections across time and space.”[10]

Malcolm Waters defines globalization as:

“A social process in which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social and cultural arrangements recede, in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding and in which people act accordingly.”[11]

Analyses of abovementioned definitions suggest that globalization is a process. This process is taking place since immemorable time. Globalization is intensification of worldwide social relations and suggests that human beings are integral part of and active players in this process. There has been sudden and recent increase in this process. Very often globalization is associated with economic, political, social and cultural activities.

1.2 Pioneers of Globalization

Historically there are four main reasons, which forced people to leave their place of origin: conquest (the desire to extend political power), prosperity (the search for better life), proselyzing (spreading word of religion) and human nature (curiosity, wanderlust etc.). Hence pioneers of globalization were soldiers, sailors, traders, preachers and adventurers.

[...]


[1] See Nayan Chanda, P. 1

[2] See Nayan Chanda, P. 1

[3] See Anthony Giddens, P. 58

[4] See Interview with Thomas Friedman, 2005, P. 4

[5] See Nayan Chanda, P. 4

[6] See Nayan Chanda, P.2

[7] See Malcolm Waters, P.2

[8] See Nayan Chanda, P. 1

[9] Malcolm Waters, P.4

[10] See Malcolm Waters, P. 4

[11] Malcolm Waters, P.5

Details

Pages
22
Year
2007
ISBN (eBook)
9783640793273
ISBN (Book)
9783640793877
File size
485 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v163906
Institution / College
Ruhr-University of Bochum – European Culture & Economy
Grade
2.0
Tags
Tracing Origin Causes Consequences Globalization

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Title: Tracing  the Origin  and exploring the Causes and Consequences of Globalization