Aborigines In Australia

Australien Ureinwohner

Essay 2010 7 Pages

Didactics - English - Applied Geography


Table of Content

1. Introduction

2. A long way
2.1 Aborigines in the past
2.2 Acceptance and rights

3. Culture

4.Social problems

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography

1. Introduction

The word `Aborigine ′ is english, it comes from latin origine and meant natives. It is the name for the inhabitants of Australia, who lived their at the time of the arrival of the Europeans and it was given to them by these `white ones`. The shortversion ‚Abbo’ is considered politically incorrect. The natives in the southeast called themselves ’kooris`, ’nungars` in the southwest and ’murri` in the south. Other related terms for Aborigines include indigenous peoples, aboriginal people, native people, first people, fourth world cultures and autochthonous.

2. A long way

2.1 Aborigines in the past

Scientists do not agree about when people first arrived in Australia, but current archaeological estimates generally range from 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. That proves that the roots of the aboriginal culture hand back even longer. At the beginning of the 80's only few of the 28,000 Aborigines lived in traditional communitys, so that the delivered culture is threatened in danger, even endangered. The total population at present the arrival of the white settlers was appreciated between 300,000 and 1,000,000. Originally the inhabitants of the continent were divided into more than 250 native tribes with several hundred different languages, which deviated among themselves strongly. Nowadays however only approximately 50 of these languages exists.

They used to trade constantly with the inhabitants of the archipelago Torres Strait (a waterway between Australia and New Guinea). From the northeast Melanesian groups had reached Australia with their canoes. The Melanesian introduced different goods like improved fishery devices, drums, songs and dream stories and contributed in such a way to increasing the population. From the northwest came the first seaworthy sailing boats, whose crew consisted of indonesian fishermen. They exchanged tobacco, iron and glass for the right to fish in the territories of the Aborigines. These contacts can be proven by works of art.

After the arrival of the European settlers in the eighteenth century, they started to colonialize the country. They confronted the natives with the property at land, which was completely unknown to the Aborigines. However confrontations or protests were missing, since at this time the settlers were satisfied with little. Indeed they began to increase „their“ land and concomitantly their money, that led to the further displacement of the Aborigines from their original habitats. The Natives were forced to live apart from the settlers and in inhospitable areas, so that their economic living conditions worsened permanently. This behavior pushed the process of ghettoizing. When the Aborigines began to resist a cruel genocide began on the part of the Europeans. Proper hunts on the natives were organized, the survivors were subjected and had to work for the Europeans. The age-old languages of the natives, their ceremonies and customs, were forbidden. Families were torn apart and the children were released for adoption.

2.2 Acceptance and rights

In 1976 the Federal Government issued commonly known as `Aboriginal country Rights act ′, which concerned the Northern Territory. In the 80's the resistance increased within the state government and in particular the mining companies in relation to the demands of the Aborigines. In October 1985 the Uluru (also Ayers Rock) was transferred officially to the municipality Mutijulu. 1988 the United Nations published a report, which accused Australia of, the manner of treatment of the Australian native population against the international human rights to offend. A report of a commission contained proofs for racist behavior of the police force and contained over 300 recommendations regarding the improvement of the inter+ethnic understanding and the right of self-determination of the Aborigines. In the June of the same year the government forbade permanently all mining industry activities at the historical place (Uluru) of the Aborigines in the Northern Territory.

With the generally known as `Mabo judgement ′ of 1992 it was specified for the first time that both the Aborigines and the inhabitants of Torres Strait must be recognized as actual and original owners of the continent. 1993 stepped the so-called `native one headline act ′ into force. Approximately up to 40 per cent of the entire national territory had to be returned to the Aborigines due to the requirements in the context of the`native one headlines act ′.

3. Culture

The culture of the Aborigines is very old and mystic and still alive this very day maintained. However it is ever heavier to keep their traditions and ceremonies upright. The dreamtime plays a very important role in the aboriginal history. It is also commonly known as creation time. In the languages of the Aborigines it is also known as `Altjeringa ′, `Tjurkurrpa ′ or `Palaneri ′. It has nothing to do with fantasy. Rather the time of the emergence of all things is to be marked by dreamtime. The Aborigines intends in many rites to this time, in which the life began, when `things ′ came from the inside of the earth or from the sky to the surface. The ceremonies held from the natives are to provide it with the energy of the ancestors, in order to continue the dreamtime. Further old dream paths of the Aborigines lead through completely Australia. On these paths they visit even today the holy places, which created their mystical ancestors, in order to structure and arrange the orderless world. In the conception of the world of the Aborigines individual geographical points mark mystic historical events. By the visit and the associated ritual, frequently only one picture was drawn into the sand, realises it their history and retains themselves so it is culture.

The Aborigines did not develop writing, therefore the verbal excessive quantity, by dances e.g. was of great importance. These rituals mediated life rules, important happenings and creation myths from one generation to the next.



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Title: Aborigines In Australia