Orthopaedic problems, physiologic disorders and disease with spine, arms and legs

Seminar Paper 2003 10 Pages

Medicine - Orthopedy


Table of contents

1. Introduction

2. Special aspects about spine problems
2.1 General aspects about the spine
2.2 Morbus Scheuermann
2.3 Scoliosis
2.4 Disk incident

3. Arm diseases

4. Problems about the legs
4.1 Feet diseases
4.2 Diseases at the legs


1. Introduction

In this work there will be discussed three different problems. The first and most difficult is about the spine. In this case there are many problems and problems have the most restrictive effects on humans life. The other part of the body, which is part of this work, are the arms. In this part of the body there can also be many diseases originated. But these have not such restrictive effects like problems or diseases with the spine. The reason is that the spine plays a more important role in the movement of the body. The third group of diseases or disorders are located in the legs. In this case the people have also a restricted life.

In every part of the body there can be the same basic problems. These can be fractures, muscle ruptures, problems with the ligaments and other cartilages problems. But these are all diseases with a strong effect coming from outside. On the other hand there are diseases which are coming from other aspects, e.g. due sport or other exercises. These can be overload damages.

But in every case doing sport can help to heal the diseases. So this work will also describe in which way the sport or special exercises will help people to heal the illness.

2. Special aspects about spine problems

2.1 General aspects about the spine

The spine has the most difficult bone structure in the human’s body. It consists of whirl bodies. It is split into three different parts, the loin spine column, breast spine column and neck spine column. In the hole the spine is bent. There are two concave inflections and two convex inflections. If the humans would not have a spine they couldn’t walk. That’s why the spine is so important for the humans. When people have problems with the spine there are physical, psychical and social changes in their life.

The structure of the spine is very difficult, and that is the reason why the diseases are very difficult. The spine consists of 24 whirl bodies. Between these bodies there are disks and cartilages. So the spine consists of moving parts.

The functions of the spine are to stabilise the body, to give it a straight position. On the other side the spine makes the movement possible.

2.2 Morbus Scheuermann

The first disease is the Morbus SCHEUERMANN. 30 % of the young people have this disease. It affects predominantly male teenagers.

The background is, that the spine grows in young years like the rest of the body and also the whirl bodies grow up. If there is different growing up or there is a grow disorder the problems began to start. So Morbus SCHEUERMANN is a growing disorder of the spine. The whirl bodies grow in the front faster than in the back part. In this context there were also build wedge whirls. A consequence of this is the formation of a round back. This is the typical picture and a symptom of this disease. Another consequence is that the rooms between the whirls become smaller and the disks don’t have enough space between the whirls. So these are points where the pain is biggest. In the worse case the disk room is breaking down and the whirls rub together.

For this disease there are different reasons. In the hole the reasons can split into two groups. The first group are the endogen reasons. These are e. g. genetic or hormone chances. The second group are the exogen reasons. For example, when a child does a lot of sport in the beginning of the life, maybe gymnastic, there can be faulty burdens. So at this way the child gets this disease. On the other side can be metabolic disorder a reason to get this illness.

The way to get this disease is described in three steps. The first step is the beginning phase. There is no pain but there can be lack of movement that means the people in this phase cannot move very well from time to time. The second phase is the floride disturbances. There is more pain then in the first one and the spine is getting crocked. The third phase is the end phase. Here there is the highest pain and there is a strong deformation.

The treatment can be from physiotherapy to an operation. It depends from the shaping of the disease. The topics in the physiotherapy should be to train the muscles, try to get a better posture and learn the movement especially in the sitting.

2.3 Scoliosis

The scoliosis is a faulty position of the spine. The name scoliosis is from Greece and means in English something like crocked. The spine is lasting crocked and there is torsion of the separate whirl bodies. In the hole there are four different types of scoliosis. These are thoracal scoliosis (located at the breast spine column), the lumbal scoliosis (located at the loin spine column), the thoralumbal scoliosis (located border parts between the breast spine column and the loin spine column) and the thoracal and lumbal scoliosis (located in both parts).



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Comenius University in Bratislava



Title: Orthopaedic problems, physiologic disorders and disease with spine, arms and legs