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Appreciative Inquiry as an instrument for the Human Resource Management

Essay 2003 32 Pages

Business economics - Personnel and Organisation

Excerpt

Table Of Contents

List Of Shortcuts

List Of Figures And Tables

Introduction

1. The Appreciative Inquiry Basic Model
1.1. Definition And History Of Appreciative Inquiry
1.2. AI-Assumptions
1.3. AI-Purposes
1.4. The 4-D Process
1.4.1. The Discovery-Step
1.4.2. The Dream-Step
1.4.3. The Design-Step
1.4.4. The Delivery-Step
1.5. Fields Of AI

2. Influencing Factors For AI
2.1. The National/Regional Cultural Context
2.2. The Organizational-Field Context
2.3. The Organizational-Culture
2.3.1. The Values
2.3.2. The Beliefs
2.3.3. The Paradigm
2.4. The Functional-Cultural Context

3. The Use Of AI As An Instrument In The Human Resource Management
3.1. Meaning And Benefits Of Discovery And Dream-Steps
3.1.1. Meaning And Benefits Of Discovery-Step
3.1.2. Meaning And Benefits Of Dream-Step
3.2. Creating The Discovery- And Dream Steps
3.2.1. The Creating Of The Discovery-Step
3.2.2. The Creating Of The Dream-Step
3.3. Boundaries From AI As An Instrument For The HRM

Conclusion

List of Literature

List of Hyperlinks

List of Shortcuts

illustration not visible in this excerpt

List Of Figures And Tables

Figure 1: The typical AI-circle, page By Mellish, Liz, Limerick, Brigid; Figure: The typical AI-circle, in: Appreciative Consultation: The Consulting Perspective - Reclaiming Our Imaginative Competence: Appreciating People's Contributions to Organising

Figure 2: Frames from an individual, page By Johnson, Gerry; Scholes, Kevan; Exploring Corporate Strategy; Financial Times and Prentice Hall; sixth edition; London 2001, page

Figure 3: The cultural web, page By Johnson, Gerry; Scholes, Kevan; Exploring Corporate Strategy; Financial Times and Prentice Hall; sixth edition; London 2001, page

Figure 4: An AI-summary, page Composed by author

Tables

Table 1: Dimensions of AI-practice from the main AI-authors, page 10 Composed by author

Table 2: The AI-meaning and benefits matrix, page 15 Composed by author

Table 3: Matrix for preperation the creating-process, page 18 Composed by author

Table 4: Matrix for dimensions for creating, page 21 Composed by author

Table 5: AI-boundaries-matrix, page 22 Composed by author

Introduction

The main object in this essay will be the method “Appreciative Inquiry”, (in following as AI) basis model from David L. Cooperider and Sirvah Sirvasta as an instrument in the Human Resource Management (in following as HRM). AI is a new method for analysing and gaining processes in organizations. It is the opposite from the traditional way, because AI looks only at the positive things and tries to improve the strengths in an organization for doing thingsbetter. I.e. problem solving through weakness reduction is not an element of AI.

For using AI as an instrument in the HRM in organizations three steps are necessary: First, the whole understanding of AI, second the understanding of organisations and third, the issues and restrictions for an application. This essay will look into this essential steps in a theoretical way. This will be happen with the intention to gain the capability for an individual adoption from AI in different cases with different needs.

In chapter one the history and the actual situation of the AI basic model from the developer David L. Cooperider from the late eighties will be explained. This chapter will include also the assumptions of AI, because they are the basic for every AI-process in an organization. However, this chapter will include the purposes of AI to show the degree and character of AI as a new way of thinking and analysing. Also, it will be explained every AI-step, called “D”-step. In this paper only the dream- and discovery-steps will be the main parts for the following chapters. At last the different fields of AI, i.e. the possible levels of application will be shown.

In chapter two the influencing factors are the main part. This facts are important to understand the whole and complex influencing frameworks and links in an organization. For the intention of this essay are these theoretical issues very important, because an AI-practice can start, a well preparation should be included all the individualities and needs. Chapter two will conclude particular the influencing factors for an individual. In relation with this, it will be included also the influencing factors for the paradigm of an organization. Each single influencing factor has got a different strong impact on the individual and the organization. From this point an completely overview will be necessary.

In chapter three the helpful issues for an AI-practice will be shown. These will be linked with the facts from the first two chapters to gain a theoretical view about the framework for a AI-practice. This includes the meanings and possible benefits from the Discovery and Dream-steps. the necessary preparations for a single adjustment and adoption in each step and the needs of an individual practice of AI as an instrument for the HRM will be shown. This includes also the boundaries of AI to review, in which cases AI is not helpful.

In the conclusion will be concluded the answer from the headline from this essay. This will be done with an overview about the main steps understanding the whole AI, understanding from organizations and the notes for an AI-practice. Finally, in a summary will be showed the complete picture about the main points, which could be interesting for an individual adoption from AI for a practice in different cases.

In compare with the limited space for this type of essays at the HWP it is not possible to explain the other steps from AI, i.e. design and delivery. From this reason it is also not possible to give any kind of examples, even for the single chapters and also not for the complete overview.

Introduction

The main object in this essay will be the method “Appreciative Inquiry”, (in following as AI) basis model from David L. Cooperider and Sirvah Sirvasta as an instrument in the Human Resource Management (in following as HRM). AI is a new method for analysing and gaining processes in organizations. It is the opposite from the traditional way, because AI looks only at the positive things and tries to improve the strengths in an organization for doing thingsbetter. I.e. problem solving through weakness reduction is not an element of AI.

For using AI as an instrument in the HRM in organizations three steps are necessary: First, the whole understanding of AI, second the understanding of organisations and third, the issues and restrictions for an application. This essay will look into this essential steps in a theoretical way. This will be happen with the intention to gain the capability for an individual adoption from AI in different cases with different needs.

In chapter one the history and the actual situation of the AI basic model from the developer David L. Cooperider from the late eighties will be explained. This chapter will include also the assumptions of AI, because they are the basic for every AI-process in an organization. However, this chapter will include the purposes of AI to show the degree and character of AI as a new way of thinking and analysing. Also, it will be explained every AI-step, called “D”-step. In this paper only the dream- and discovery-steps will be the main parts for the following chapters. At last the different fields of AI, i.e. the possible levels of application will be shown.

In chapter two the influencing factors are the main part. This facts are important to understand the whole and complex influencing frameworks and links in an organization. For the intention of this essay are these theoretical issues very important, because an AI-practice can start, a well preparation should be included all the individualities and needs. Chapter two will conclude particular the influencing factors for an individual. In relation with this, it will be included also the influencing factors for the paradigm of an organization. Each single influencing factor has got a different strong impact on the individual and the organization. From this point an completely overview will be necessary.

In chapter three the helpful issues for an AI-practice will be shown. These will be linked with the facts from the first two chapters to gain a theoretical view about the framework for a AI-practice. This includes the meanings and possible benefits from the Discovery and Dream-steps. the necessary preparations for a single adjustment and adoption in each step and the needs of an individual practice of AI as an instrument for the HRM will be shown. This includes also the boundaries of AI to review, in which cases AI is not helpful.

In the conclusion will be concluded the answer from the headline from this essay. This will be done with an overview about the main steps understanding the whole AI, understanding from organizations and the notes for an AI-practice. Finally, in a summary will be showed the complete picture about the main points, which could be interesting for an individual adoption from AI for a practice in different cases.

1. The Appreciative Inquiry basic model

The basic Appreciative Inquiry[1] model was developed as new method for analysing and improving the positive potentials in institutions and team-work, such as companies and non-profit organizations. This model has made a huge impact on the traditional way of thinking and analysing. This will be explained in this chapter with the definition and history of the model, it’s assumptions and purposes. In this chapter also the whole AI-process-model, called the “4-d-process” will been shown. Further the possible fields for using AI will be introduce.

1.1. Definition And History Of Appreciative Inquiry

AI was developed by David L. Cooperider, Diana Withney and Suresh Sirvasta in the late eighties while Cooperider’s writing his doctoral thesis at the Case Western Reserve University.[2] AI is the whole process of analysing of social systems with the purpose to improve the analysed object trough motivation and improving the own strengths. On the other hand AI could be also a common basic from an organizational culture; it is a philosophy and a possibility for improving the cultural-field.[3] The basic for this paper is the original definition from Cooperider:[4]

AI is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations and the world around them. It involves systematic discovery of what gives a system “life” when it is most effective and capable in economic, ecological and human terms. AI involves the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen a system’s capacity to heighten positive potential. In AI, intervention gives way to imagination and innovation; instead of negation, criticism and spiralling diagnosis there is discovery, dream and design.”

AI is based on a positive and strengths-oriented focus. This kind of analysing and thinking is the opposite of the traditional way of viewing and thinking.

1.2. AI-assumptions

In the traditional view the weaknesses and problems are focused and these problems have to be fixed. The traditional view is based on the assumptions that each social organization, e.g. companies and teams, have weaknesses and problems. For problem-fixing it is necessary to minimize the weaknesses and mistakes. In compare to this AI is based on a simple premise. Organizations tend to grow into this way, the direction of interest and their attention is. This basic paradigm is the basis for AI. It shows the way and the view of Five general assumptions for the use of AI in an organization can be made:[5]

- The first assumption of AI is, that organizations are more effectively , when their focus is on the issues of what they intent, not of what they intent do not. A target and vision-orientation is more successful than a problem-orientation.
- The second assumption is, that the intention needs to exists already within the organization even if only in small quantities. I.e., that AI is only helpful, if the realization of the targets is visions are possible and not only a far vision.
- The third assumption is, that it is easier to create changes by amplifying the positive qualities than by trying to fix the negative qualities.
- The fourth assumption is, the social reality will be created through the inquiry act I.e., that the focus is influenced by the own and individual meaning and the understanding of the social reality.
- The final assumption is: If people are inquired each other for the best examples of what already exists on own momentum towards more positive organizations can be achieved.

These assumptions are the basics of AI. I.e., if they do not exist, AI does not work. This is important for the following essay and specially for analysing about the boundaries of AI..[6]

1.3. AI-purposes

AI could be a method for analyse social systems in specific issues and particular times. The idea of AI could be also a permanent term in the way of communicating and thinking in an organization. In this case it is a kind of shared values and thinking, like a common philosophy in an organization.[7] Depending on the using of AI, the purposes of AI could be different. In this paper the meaning is as a method for analysing of social systems.

The main and basic purpose of an AI-process in the described meaning is to show what gives life to an organization and when it is at its best. But this is not a statistical process with facts and dates, like a correlation-analysis or other kind of statistical methods. An AI-process is a process in which information will be acquired through communication between the invited people. So in an AI-process positive motions have a fundamental meaning. The effects of this positive motions are also the main and basic purpose of an AI-process. Examples for the positive are improving and increasing the motivation, inspiration and innovation from the included people in the organization.[8]

Generally speaking the information-gaining process and the positive effects are mutual and so the gaining this main purposes an AI-process is devited in more layers of purposes. Each step in a whole AI-process is an elementary part of gaining for the main purposes. Each AI-step is well-defined trough the individual purposes. The steps are arranged in a logical and helpful order, called “4-D” process.[9] The “4-D”-process is the assumption for a successful practice of AI in a social system. A successfully practice means here, that through an AI-using the showed purposes are gained. A concrete formulation of AI-expectation has to be included, that through AI it is not possible to gain a concrete statistical goal, such cost-saving or something like this and that the focus is on what want more, not less.

What the “4-D”-process includes and what each step stance for exactly, will be shown in the subsequent chapter.

[...]


[1] In following: AI

[2] Zur Bonsen, Matthias; Maleh, Carole; Appreciative Inquiry (AI): Der Weg zu Spitzenleistungen, 1. Auflage, Weinheim, Basel, 2001, page 21, (in following as: Zur Bonsen, Matthias; Maleh, Carole; 2001)

[3] Cooperider, David L.; Whitney, Diana; A positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry; 2000, page 3 (in following as: Cooperider, David; Whitney, Diana; 2000)

[4] Cooperider, David L.; Whitney, Diana; Appreciative Inquiry, Collaborating for Change, 1999

[5] Cooperider, David L.; Srivasta, Suresh; Appreciative Inquiry in organizational life; in: Organizational change and Development, Vol.1, pages 129 – 169, 1987; (in following as: Cooperider, David; Srivasta, Suresh, part II, 1987)

[6] See chapter 3.3., page 22

[7] Whitney, Diana; Schau, Carol; Appreciative Inquiry: An Innovation Process for Organization Change; from: Employment Relations Today, Spring 1998; John Wiley & Sons Inc., (in following as: Whitney, Diana; Schau, Carol, 1998, page)

[8] Cooperider, David L.; Srivasta, Suresh; Appreciative Inquiry in organizational life; in: Organizational change and Development, Vol.1, pages 129 – 169, 1987, part II (in following as: Cooperider, David; Srivasta, Suresh, part II, 1987, page)

[9] Cooperider, David L.; Srviasta, Suresh; part II, 1987, also in Whitney, Diana; Schau, Carol, 1998 and in most of Appreciative-Inquiry literature

Details

Pages
32
Year
2003
ISBN (eBook)
9783638189248
ISBN (Book)
9783638642774
File size
565 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v13223
Institution / College
University of Hamburg – Business
Grade
1,25 (A)
Tags
Appreciative Inquiry AI HRM Unternehmenskultur Unternehmensorganisation Business corporate culture organisation organization

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Title: Appreciative Inquiry as an instrument for the Human Resource Management