Table of contents
2. Merchandising as a part of marketing
3. The business
3.1. Railworld Gera
3.2. Strategic planning in an experience society
3.2.2. Target group
3.3. The merchandising article
3.4. Action Plan
5. Table of figures
Every company has its entrepreneurial aims such as market share, increasing profit, growth, enhanced image, satisfied and loyal customers. In the leisure and tourism industry the satisfaction of customer’s needs and expectations through delivering benefits both tangibles and intangibles at a high quality is more important than anywhere else. The desires and expectations of the customers are changing very quickly. The number of competitors is rising. The competition for customers is getting harder and harder. In order to balance the customer’s expected benefits with the company’s economic goals there is the marketing department which is responsible for satisfied, loyal customers and profit generation by implementing a certain strategy and conducting diverse activities. On the fact of boosting sales one part of marketing becomes very important: merchandising. With the help of merchandising- knowledge a company can create extra-value to their products and services to “catch” customers and increase sales. This can be done by supporting promotional actions, special events, incentives or single products with a certain value.
In the leisure and tourism industry this is in most cases related to attractions and destinations. It offers the chance to give a tangible to the customer that will remind him of the experience he/she have just made. It can also help to attract new customers or to represent your business/ your attraction on fairs. We are living in an experience economy. Leisure and tourism products are experiences. Story-telling becomes a part of the marketing activities. That is why merchandising is situated in the broad context of selling experiences.
On the following pages a merchandising article for long-term and short-term sales increases for a selected attraction will be presented. Therefore it is essential to define merchandising and its position in the marketing-mix, first. Then the selected attraction will be introduced shortly. The questions of “Who is the target group the merchandising article is made for?”, “How can this article be implemented and promoted?” and in the end “Why is this a success-promising merchandising article?” will be answered.
2. Merchandising as a part of Marketing
Until today there is no clear definition of merchandising. As many books about merchandising and marketing there are, as many different definitions there are. That is why a number of definitions and explanations shall be given here. What is sure is that merchandising belongs to marketing, especially to the marketing mix. Auer / Diederichs see merchandising as the sum of all measures taken by a company to increase sales of a physical product. They state that in the US merchandising is most often understood to be the presentation of the product at the point of sale. They list the further use of the word merchandising to describe the transfer of brand to non-brand related products in order to make the brand better known. Often merchanding is seen as another word for sales promotion; for instance by Pflaum / Bäuerle / Laubach (2002, p. 402 - 405).They distinguish the promotion into the three types: staff-promotion, which is concerned with promoting the brand internally to gain buy-in from the employees, trade-promotion, which aims to get potential traders for a product to stock the product in their stores and consumer promotion, whose goal it is to get the consumer to buy the product. According to Pflaum /Bäuerle / Laubach sales promotion or merchandising has the task of increasing sales of a physical product by using all marketing instruments through an integrated brand communication concept. This is quite similar to an explanation of Bruhn and Mehlinger who state that it is the „comprehensive economical usage of a sign or brand for other purposes than the originally intended”. A further characterisation is given by Böll. She defines merchandising as follows: “Merchandising is understood to be the sum of all promotional activities of a producer at the retail level. Promotional products and give-aways (pens, firelighters, calendars and others) that sport the brand of the company and are given away for free or sold at cost-price in order to promote the brand belong to these promotional activities.” It becomes clear that merchandising is definitely positioned within the communicative part of marketing and it is directly linked to sales promotion. “It is the sum of all activities that are linked with continuous and systematic product positioning at the Point of Sales.” One of the main question merchandising has to deal with is, how can it be possible to navigate the buying behaviour of the customers in order to increase the volume of consumption. Above that merchandising means to transmit ideas to the visitor as well as making experiences tangible and providing high spirits. A case in point is letting the customer identify itself with the product, creating individual connections with personal experiences. According to Deapoli special services, well trained staff, differentiation to other suppliers and of cause added value and extra benefits for the visitors is essential for successful merchandising activities. Coincidently a positive image should be transferred to more ore less usable products. Another aspect is that merchandising aims at creating an own profit-centre. For being successful the merchandising- collection is essential. That means it is recommended to not only have one particular product but a series of articles with the same brand/ logo respectively to have a logo or a figure which can be used for several different articles. On the whole the quality of the product is the most important part because the article is sold together with the brand and therefore the quality of the product reflects the quality of the company and influences the its image. The company should try to emphasise the uniqueness of the product to make it something special. The meaning of merchandising can also be to sell merchandising products to employees, customers or third parties (trade partners). As far as the brand is put on the product it gets extra value (own added value). You can talk not only about rising the awareness of the brand in detail (in particular) but also of the promotion of the brand in general. In a broad sense merchandising means to manage a brand. The overall target group for merchandising articles is the end-user. Before creating and implementing an article the company has to consider the reasons for buying which can be: to be part of a successful company, to have an article with special, unique design or to profit from the exclusiveness of this article. You, as the company have to think about who your target group is, what your core product is you want to support by merchandising, what the customers’ expectation is and how this expectation can be transformed into a tangible product. That means you need to set targets, to do some market research about your customers, to implement a strategy and to evaluate the outcome in order to be able to respond to possible problems or dissatisfactions. Although respectively because merchandising is a technique “designed to stimulate consumer purchasing […] in the short-term, through temporary incentives and displays” collecting information and acting strategically is very important. The product you offer must fit a hundred percent to your customers, otherwise they probably would not buy it and the aim of merchandising would not be achieved. Every branch, company, destination and attraction has its own specific merchandising. This paper will apply the given definitions and characterisation of merchandising to a new attraction - “Railworld Gera” - which is not yet opened. In the following chapters the relevant activities for developing and implanting a product will be pointed out. With the help of this particular example it should be explained how the theories of merchandising can be put into operational business.
3. The business
3.1 „Railworld Gera“
The project „Railworld“ is a complete new attraction that shall be installed in Gera, a town in East- Thuringia with a long rail history. It will be an area where the whole world of railway with its single facets and sections will be represented. The passion for rail will be bundled at “Railworld”. It will get a new centre and platform. “Railworld” is going to be an experience-, information- and business park with indoor and outdoor sections. More detailed information about “Railworld” is given at the homepage www.railworld-gera.de. There will be extraordinary exhibitions, hotel industry & gastronomy, an area for model railway, a shopping mall and a children’s station. This attraction is favourable for creating merchandising articles. It is a real tourism and leisure attraction, it is unique, it aims at providing experiences and has several different target groups to choose one from. Moreover for a new product it is always important to think about reactions for economical critical situations. That means to implement actions for increasing sales if necessary, to make your brand popular and to conduct programmes for customer loyalty. All these considerations are part of merchandising. One has to mind that all the following strategies, plans and models are just examples how the implementation of a specific merchandising article can be proceeded. The product itself is fictive and there is no verified statistic data for numbers, target groups and expectations. The promotional objectives and activities only focus on the target “individual buyers”; in other words on the customer segment. Distribution networks and sales force are not regarded intently.
3.2 Strategic planning in the experience society
Every implementation of a new product needs a strategy and sophisticated planning in order to avoid failures and to be successful. The analysis of the business environment is essential before determining the single parts of the strategy. In this case the creation of the product is dependent on the character of the society and its specific needs. The experience society is just one description of our modern world. That means this society is highly marked by internal- oriented lifestyle. People are acting the way they want with the aim to be happy and content. Everything is concentrated on the subject; i. e. the focus lies on the individual. The action of the individuals is based on a phenomenon called “rationality of the experience”: through managing external circumstances they optimise the desired internal impact. Companies of the leisure and tourism business try to stimulate the external management by delivering appropriate product/ services/ benefits. This can or even shall be supported by merchandising because merchandise articles respond to the internal-oriented consumption. The products have to transfer happiness; they have to be innovative, creative to make life better. In order to meet customer’s needs you have to tell a good story, to give individual attention to the customer, to make the experience tangible. For exciting experiences where it is possible to actively take part customers are really willing to pay.
With this background the strategy has to be determined. The overall vision, mission and goals have to fit into this context. For “Schnauferl” this can be:
Vision: To be seen as the best choice for meaningful leisure activities for children.
Mission: Create favourable conditions for the “good experience” for children and their family and provide special memorabilia.
Strategic planning for merchandising covers three main parts: The objects, the target groups and the targets. First you have to decide whether you want to create a single product for supporting your brand and image or an entire company brand. Then you have to choose your target group(s) and in the end specific targets have to be set. On the one hand economical targets: what do you want to achieve when and how much regarding market share, profit, margin or reputation. On the other hand psychological goals should be fixed. This can be to increase and stabilise the level of awareness; to enhance/ change the image by transferring positive associations from the product to the customer; to up-date existing products or create extra- value; or to demonstrate quality by letting your customers know everything about your product and giving them a feeling of reliability and assurance. Next the objectives, target group and targets for the merchandising activities of “Railworld” will be explained more in detail.
When setting objectives you have to be sure that they are SMART. They must be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Result-oriented and Time-bounded. You have to define clearly what you want to achieve, when and how much. Measurements for these goals must be fixed and the targets must be adapted to the overall company strategy. What this can be for “Railworld’s” new merchandising article is explained as follows:
With the help of merchandising articles we want to provide special benefits to the customers in order to attract more of them and to increase sales revenue and to generate higher consumption per capita. More specifically the objectives are: attract more families/ children, increase sales, get a positive image, enhance the image to children/ family friendly company respectively attraction and create articles with special recognition and shift the timing of product purchases in order to respond to seasonal fluctuations. When objectives are becoming more concrete they are also called targets. For this business targets should be:
- Increase sales by 30%
- Generate 80,000 € additional revenue
- Achieve 75% customer satisfaction
- Welcome 35 % more families and children
Time-frame for these articles is the next year. (The concrete year cannot be directly defined because “Railworld” have not come into existence, yet.) The targets are clearly defined after the model: what – when – how much. But it has to be said that that these figures are only examples how the targets for merchandising at “Railworld” can look like because “Schnauferl” is not yet a product which came into existence and a deeper market research cannot be carried out within the frame of this paper. Nevertheless all the objectives and targets mentioned above could be achieved through the implementation of the merchandising articles.
3.2.2 Target group
The defined target group for this project are children and families. The age of the children is set between 5 and 12 years. But this could be broadened depending on the demand and acceptance.
What have to be declared now is why this target group is chosen and what the specials of these customers are. One reason is missing attractions for children in the region of Gera. There are only a few ones and the existing ones are mainly outdoor activities highly depending on the weather. That is why the merchandising article for “Railworld” should attract children all over the year. It should respond to their desires and needs best as possible to create a complete new value for this target group in that region. Therefore several aspects have to be taken into account. First: what do children want and what are they looking for?
- Playing/ action/ activity/ fun
Second: what are the main characteristics of children?
- Theme- oriented
- Want to have fun, to get to know other children, to be together with parents
- Full fantasy and dreams
Third: what is important for children at this age (mostly in the eyes of parents)?
- Be physically active and creative
- Spend time together
Another aspect is that children can affect the buying behaviour of their parents. They have a great influence on it; even more when they are on holiday.
3.3 The merchandising article
The core item of this paper is the article. The product, in other words the souvenir, is the main part of merchandising. After having set the objectives, targets and targets groups the question is “Which product does fit into the strategy, which article is appropriate for the customers?” As mentioned above children and their families are the target group. Therefore the product must fulfil their wishes. It should be something creative, something cute, and something the kids can identify with. In order to bring all theses aspects together a special figure, a mascot especially made for the children is created. The Locomotive “Schnauferl” is the core product where lots of other articles and incentives can be conducted from. There are two main parts for “Schnauferl”. First it should be a tangible memorabilia. For children a cuddly toy would fit best. You can take with you home, touch it, talk and play with it. Furthermore it is soft and ready for cuddling and taking with you to bed. Second, the Locomitive should be the stage for becoming an “Assistant Conductor” in one day. That means an old locomotive is needed which looks like “Schnauferl” (its colours, eyes, mouth etc.). On this locomotive the children can get to know the job of a conductor. A qualified, well-trained guardian is with the kids and shows them everything. The kids are shown what a conductor has to do, how the working day looks like, what may be difficult and so on. The kids will do this job together with their guardian. They will play the role of a conductor. This is a kind of event. The kids are playing, but learning a lot. They can test themselves; have fun together and in the end they get a certificate that confirms: “You are now an Assistant Conductor”. The paper for this certificate should be painted in the design of “Schnauferl”. Moreover the kids should get a typical conductor cap with the logo of “Railworld” and “Schnauferl”. Additionally they may get a little “soft toy-Schnauferl”. This way they have souvenir which can be taken home and which will remind them of the great day at “Railworld”. The personalisation of the figure makes it special. “Schanuferl” cannot really talk and move. But in the eyes of the children it can be seen as a person. “Schnauferl” as a figure can serve as a product for boosting sales in the long term. It can be sold always and everywhere. It is not only a souvenir for the guests but also a representative figure for the company. It can be taken to fairs, trades etc. for representing the meaning of “Railworld” for children and families. The event can boost sales in the short run. If business is not running very good and revenues are missing you could offer this attraction in order to get more customers and increase sales. Of cause the event could also be turned into a long term initiative for generating more revenue. Then the company has to think about the frequency of operation and special features in order not to become boring. Possibilities of seasonal additional attractions should be taken into consideration, such as “Christmas with “Schnauferl”, “Summer holidays with “Schnauferl”, “Fun at Easter with “Schnauferl” –just to mention some examples. On the whole “Schnauferl” can be turned into a special brand within the brand “Railworld”. It can be developed into a qualitative characterisation of “Railworld”. Hearing the name “Schnauferl” or seeing its design people could connect extraordinary experiences, family friendly service, special events for children, great holidays, interesting experiences, additional knowledge and fulfilling dreams. Furthermore with the figure and the design of “Schnauferl” a whole merchandising collection could be created. It would be possible to print the locomotive on t-shirts, bags, paper, folders and pens. Key tags, sticker and many other give-aways can be made of it. Above that the story of “Schnauferl” can be invented and printed in small books or prospects. It can even get its own song. This way CDs can be sold. Looking at the importance of the Internet, “Schnauferl” can get its own homepage with all necessary information, an online- game, quizzes, e-cards, downloads. What it is important is that there always have to be the common design and the logo of “Railworld”.
This merchandising product is adapted to the characteristics of the experience society we are living in. Subjective experiences are made tangible. Customers – in this case children – are not only entertained passively but involved actively. Extra value for visiting “Railworld” is created. The product responds to the children’s curiosity, their need for playing, learning and being together with other children as well as with parents and the aim of telling a good story can be achieved. During their time at “Railworld” the story of “Schnauferl” is told and at home personal stories about the day can be retold. Memories are made and reunified in the figure of “Schnauferl”. It can cover the need for a “good story”. Because it makes the kids laugh and fell good; it is personal related; it represents railway tradition in a new way and the knowledge of being a guard is realistic (the information is given to the children and their parents, they learn something real). A good experience contains several social elements, such as togetherness, memories, learning/ information, relaxation and making others envious. “Schnauferl”, especially the event of being a guard, covers more or less every of these attributes.
On balance the locomotive is a very flexible but specific product. It responds directly to the needs of the customers and balances their expected benefits with the company’s economic goals by applied merchandising activities.
3.4 Action Plan
The Action Plan is the executive part of the marketing strategy. It defines what has to be done to successfully implement and promote the product for achieving the predefined goals and objectives. Therefore the Marketing Mix is used.
The product is the core item of the marketing mix. It can also be defined as the benefit offered to the customer. In this case the product is the “Schnauferl” – the tangible soft toy and the intangible event. Here, only the main aspects should be listed because the whole product is described in point 3.3. Concerning the design one can state that it should look cute and friendly with big eyes and a happy mouth. The form is a real locomotive but in bright colours (yellow, green, blue, red). The locomotive for the event should look the same. But for the event some service components must be added, for instance a good organisation and competent employees. The article of “Schnauferl” should be of high quality. It should neither be a luxury product nor a low-cost one. A strategy how the quality can be guaranteed and observed must be included as well. Moreover “Schnauferl” will have its own logo so that it can be developed further as a brand. A further part of the strategy is the position of the product. “Market positioning gives a product a clear, distinctive, and desirable place in the minds of target consumers compared with competing products.” Where do your customers see your product? Where is the position of your product in the eyes of the customers considering the attributes of the product? Which characteristics and features come to the customer’s minds? The position should make clear that your products distinguishes from competitors, that it has special competitive advantage. Normally this is illustrated in a portfolio. For “Schnauferl” at “Railworld” this could look as follows. “Schnauferl” the soft toy is highly usable: the kids can touch it, can play with it, and cuddle it. It cannot get broken. The idea behind “Schnauferl” and the event of becoming a conductor is educational because the kids get some knowledge about the profession of a conductor and the working way of a locomotive. Furthermore taking part in this event or playing with a personalised locomotive can be really exciting for them. Last but not least “Schnauferl” can be seen as something entertaining.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
fig. 3.1. Product Positioning
Another positioning model is the experiencescape that “consists of how the senses are stimulated and what kind of emotions they evoke.”  It is divided into four parts: Entertainment and Aesthetics as parts for passive participation and Education and Escapist as parts for active participation. Moreover the features Absorption which stands for engaging the mind and Immersion for becoming part of the experience are included as illustrated in Figure 3.2. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
fig. 3.2. The Experiencescape
The product “Schnauferl” can be positioned on the right side because it is about active participation. To clearly define the product within one of the four positions is more difficult. Experiences like the “guard-day with Schnauferl” include all senses of the users, though. That is why it belongs both to “Education” and ”Escapist”. The children learn something about the profession of a guard and the function of a locomotive. Furthermore they take part in the action. They do not just listen but try the work on their own, bring in their ideas and wishes and partially create the day in a way they want. Especially when creating experiences for children it is important to build a “dream world” containing stages for a kind of role play. The locomotive for the event is the stage, the interior is the props and the kids can dive into this world of railway in a way similar to a theatre play. What they are doing inside is a kind of play where they will take the role of a conductor.
The second part of the marketing mix is the price the article is charged for (in the eyes of the company) or the cost (in the eyes of the consumer). The price for the product is of major importance because most customers are price-oriented, especially families. In most cases their budget is limited as well as the pocket money of children. Therefore the articles of “Schnauferl” must not be too expensive. For the correct price-finding a mix of customer- und cost- oriented method would be preferable. The question of discounts (when and how much) must be cleared; for example special offer when introducing “Schnauferl” or at the beginning of summer holidays.
Place in the marketing mix means the way of distribution. Where and how can the product be bought? Which channels will be used? “Schnauferl” can primarily be bought at Point of Sale. It will be distributed directly in the shopping Mall of “Railworld”, in the souvenir shop, where professional sellers are employed, and in the sector “children’s station”. It can be purchased online in the online-shop through an interactive system of shopping cart (as it is used for example by amazone). The online catalogue is a perfect mix of traditional and modern ways of distribution. Furthermore it can be distributed indirectly with the help of local/ regional tourist agencies such as “Gera Tourismus e. V.“ or “Thüringen Tourismus”. This would also be favourable for selling the event “Being a conductor” in advance.
Promotion is the communicative part of the marketing mix. It includes all activities which persuade the target customers to buy the product. Advertising is one point. “Schnauferl” can be placed on posters in the town, in schools or in the office of tourist boards. There should be flyers only for the event “Schnauferl”. Moreover you could promote it on the radio at the right time (when children listen). The website of “Schnauferl” is very important nowadays because even children are familiar with the internet. Press and public relation should not be forgotten because it is one the most cost effective way of promotion. Media coverage through articles in newspapers and magazines is always favourable. Sometimes you could organise special occasions for customers, for instance “Christmal with Schnauferl”. Maybe it will be possible to do some promotion with testimonials that means to invite a prominent person popular with children to make the experience more attractive and worth remembering. Direct Marketing through mailing or simply speaking to the visitors of “Railworld” can be helpful, too.
Although being a very complex and difficult topic merchandising serves as an essential part for a modern company. It offers lots of possibilities to generate more revenue and to attract more customers due to its great variety of action fields. The diversity of merchandising in the context of marketing communication is its great advantage. For the idea of “Schnauferl” everything points to the fact that merchandising allows the attraction to be experienced at a physical level. The children are actively involved with all senses in the event “Being a conductor” and can take physical artefacts home such as the soft- toy “Schnauferl”, a certificate or a cundoctors’ cap. The goal to promote the brand “Schanuferl” and to communicate the brand values –exciting- educational – usable – unique – can be achieved through profound market research, a well thought out strategy and a detailed action plan.
“Schnauferl” is a striking example for a merchandising article. It can be both a usable figure with physical evidence and a special event. It can be its own brand, it is a target group specific product and creates additional value for the customers. With the figure of a personalised locomotive a kind of cult can be developed so that “Schnauferl” is the main attraction and reason for children (and families) to visit “Railworld Gera”. They may only want to go there in order to get to know “Schnauferl” and to spend a day together with the locomotive. Moreover it can be distributed and marketed in lots of different ways. That is why this marketing instrument offers a great potential as a source of income for the company. With the specific brand identity and target group oriented realisation the product can serve as a method for increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. The entire image of “Railworld” can be enhanced by the implementation of “Schnauferl” because the article is adapted to the needs and desires of children in the experience economy. It forms the framework for a good story and a good experience. The experience being the product is the main challenge for today’s businesses in the leisure and tourism industry. With the help of merchandising you could succeed to make the intangible tangible.
5. Table of figures
Figure 3.1 Product Positioning 13
Figure 3.2 Experiencescape 13
Auer, M/ Diederichs, F.A.: Werbung – below the line. Verlag Moderne Industrie, Landsberg / Lech 1993
Biegel, Brigitta. Visual merchandising. Erfolgsstrategien zur Verkaufsförderung. Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main 1997
Böll, K.: Merchandising und Licensing: Grundlagen, Beispiele, Management.
Verl. Franz Vahlen GmbH, München 1999
Bürlimann, M.: Web Promotion – Professionelle Werbung im Internet. Midas Management Verlag, Zürich 1999
Depaoli, M. A.: Die Sprache der Ware. Zukunftsorientierte Produktpräsentation. Angewandtes Merchandising. Wirtschaftsverlag Carl Ueberreiter, Wien 1992
Kloss, I.: Werbung: Lehr- Studien- und Nachschlagewerk. 3.völlig überarbeitete und stark erweiterte Auflag. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag GmbH, München 2003
Kotler, Ph. et.al.: Principles of Marketing. The European Edition. Prentice Hall Europe Hertfordshire 1996
Middleton, V. T. C.: Marketing in Travel and Tourism. Butterworth and Heinemann, Oxford 2001
Nebert, M.: Praxishandbuch Werbeartikel. Clever briefen/ Einsparpotenziale nutzen/ Vertriebswege auswählen/ Effektiv streuen/ Erfolgskontrolle sichern. Redline Wirtschaft, Frankfurt/M. 2004
Pepels, W. (Hrsg.) u. a.: Verkaufsförderung. Oldenbourg Verlag, München 1999
Pflaum, D./ Bäuerle, F./ Laubach, K.: Lexikon der Werbung – 7. überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage. Redline Wirtschaft bei Verlag Moderne Industrie, München 2002
Schulze, G.: Die Erlebnisgesellschaft. Kultursoziologie der Gegenwart. 2. Auflage, Campus Verlag 2005
Shone, Anton/ Parry, Bryn: Successful Event Management – A practical handbook. 2nd edition, Thomson Learning TM, Typeset by Dexter Haven Associates Ltd 2001
Auerbach, H.: Service Marketing, script for LTM SS 07
Hartl, A.: Merchandising, script for LTM SS07
Karlowitsch, E./ Michaelis, M.: Merchandising als Marketinginstrument und Einnahmequelle – Eine ökonomische Analyse von Potenzialen von Klubs der 1. Fußball-Bundesliga. Arbeitspapier Nr. 7-1. März 2005. In: http://www.wiwi.uni-muenster.de/ctrl /md/content/publikationen /arbeitspapier _ 7_1.pdf
Montonen, H./Tanski, M. B.: The Factory Experience - Experience Marketing to the End Consumer, 2003; in: http://www.handels.gu.se/epc/archive/ 00003664/02/ inlaga _2003_31.pdf
 Auer /Diederichs 1993, p.123 ff.
 Pflaum /Bäuerle /Laubach 2002, p. 402 ff.
 Vgl. ebda., p.401
 Bruhn /Mehlinger 2003, p.534, in: Kloss 2003
 Böll 1999, p.4
 Kinnebrock 1999, p. 95, in: Pepels 1999
 compl. Deapoli 1992, p.53
 comp. Nebert 2004, p.33 f.
 comp. ebda., p.33
 comp. Karlowitsch/ Michaelis 2005, p.4, in: http://www.wiwi.uni-´ muenster.de/ctrl/md/content/publikationen/arbeitspapier_7_1.pdf, 27.06.07
 comp. ebda, p.92 ff.
 Middleton 2001, p. 265
 http://www.railworld-gera.de, 03.07.07
 Comp. Schulze 2005, p. 34 ff.
 Comp. Böll 1999, p. 113 ff.
 Comp. Böll 1999, p. 116
 Comp. Shone 2001, p.164 ff.
 Comp. Auerbach, script service marketing for LTM, SS 2007
 Comp. a research project carried out for Visit Denmark by Aalborg University in cooperation with CRT, in: Hartl: script merchandising for LTM SS07
 Comp. Kotler et. al. 1996, p. 96 f.
 Kotler et. al. 1996, p.95
 Montonen/ Tanski 2003, p. 43, in: http://www.handels.gu.se/ epc/archive/00003664 /02/inlaga _2003_31.pdf, 04.07.07
 Hartl: script Merchandising for LTM, SS 2007
 Comp. Nebert 2004, p. 116 f.
 Comp. Karlowitsch/ Michaelis 2003, p. 48; in: http://www.wiwi.uni-´ muenster.de/ctrl/md/content/publikationen/arbeitspapier_7_1.pdf, 27.06.07