Analysis of the Implementation of Horse Applications within Forestry Operations in the German-Polish Border Region

Bachelor Thesis 2006 67 Pages

Forestry / Forestry Economics



1. Introduction and Aim of the Theses

2. Methodology and Material
2.1. The Questionnaire as an Approach for Empiric Studies
2.1.1. Empiric Studies
2.1.2. Empiric Social Research
2.1.3. The Questionnaire
2.2. Configuration of the used Questionnaire
2.3. Implementation of the Questioning
2.3.1. Investigation Area
2.3.2. Target Groups
2.3.3. Compilation of the Addresses
2.3.4. Test-run of Questionnaire
2.3.5. Shipping of Questionnaires
2.4. Data processing

3. Results
3.1. Return of Questionnaires
3.1.1. Rate of Returns
3.1.2. Time of Returns
3.1.3. Charges for the Return
3.2. Results of Questioning

4. Discussion
4.1. Methodology
4.2. Returns
4.3. Evaluation of Results
4.3.1. Structure of the Enterprises
4.3.2. Current Practice of Horse Applications
4.3.3. Caretaking of the Horses
4.4. Perspectives of Horse Applications

5. Abstract

6. Podsumowanie

7. Zusammenfassung

8. Bibliography

9. Annex

10. Acknowledgement

List of Abbreviations

EU - European Union

GDR - German Democratic Republic

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization

FSC - Forest Stewardship Council

PEFC - Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification

DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung

SPSS - Statistical Package for the Social Science

ZŁ - Złoty

KWF - Kuratorium für Waldarbeit und Forsttechnik

IIASA - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

WHFF - Wald- und Holzforschungsfond

List of figures

Figure 1: Borderland Germany/Poland (Haack Gotha, 1988)

Figure 2: Days on which returns were received

Figure 3: Classification of the interviewed companies

Figure 4: Orientation of the interviewed companies

Figure 5: Operational range of the interviewed companies

Figure 6: Years in which companies were founded

Figure 7: Employment in interviewed companies

Figure 8: Company size compared to annual timber movement

Figure 9: Percentage of harvested/skidded wood for self-supply

Figure 10: Certification of German and Polish companies

Figure 11: Practice of skidding actions

Figure 12: Company owned skidding means

Figure 13: Application used for pre-skidding

Figure 14: Application used for skidding

Figure 15: Mean of transport used for on-road timber movement

Figure 16: Number of horses kept by individual companies

Figure 17: Duties fulfilled by horses in interviewed company

Figure 18: Caretaker of animals

Figure 19: Average assignment of horses per day and year

Figure 20: Evaluation of future for horses

Figure 21: Opinion about horses as modern approach

Figure 22: Opinion about horse applications

Figure 23: Relation of annual timber movements and employment (including seasonal)

Figure 24: Horse supported felling.(Whff, 2002)

Figure 25: Skidding team made up of machine and horses. (Koch, 2002)

Table 1: Returns of questionnaires

1. Introduction and Aim of the Theses

Various countries, especially in humid regions of Europe and North America apply horses in forestry since centuries (Beyersdorff, 2005). Its potential and ability for the labour in the forest is respectable (Koch, 2002). Although of its suitability for the extraction of timber, the meaning of horses has changed over the last decades and in most cases it got replaced by professional machines of high capacity. Especially within the management of the nowadays widely spread monotonous timber plantations, horse applications are supposed to be not competitive towards engaged machinery resulting in the their displacement (Jasper, 2005). In Germany, only a few companies stayed at their horses and have them still in use.

But over the last years a rising interest on traditional approaches is visible, including horse applications (Vieh, 2005). Today’s forestry is influenced by transitions caused through new environmental standards according to the EU, the promotion of sustainable forest management, the trend of certification as same as the awareness of the public for the forest. According to these circumstances, there is a demand of alternatives to the current applied approaches of forest utilization, availing the implementation of horse logging.

This issue is not only of importance in Germany, forestry in all European countries is influenced. Especially for the new member of the European Union in Eastern Europe this is a challenge they have to face.

Poland, as one of the new members and direct neighbour to Germany has a long tradition in forestry as well (Roering, 1999). The border region of Germany and Poland is in its landscape and structure quite similar. Also the development in the time of communism is comparable with the former GDR. But since 1990 and the breakdown of the Eastern Block, both countries had to take their own ways.

Today, they are reunited in the EU, offering new possibilities in trade and competition (Bury, 2004). The development over the last years as same as the current trends and perspectives in the individual countries will have an influence about the establishment on the market.

Horse applications in forestry might have an impact on it as well. Possible variations through the implementation of horse logging in both countries can have a positive influence on further development and competition.

The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to gather information about the current implementation of horse applications in the border region of Poland and Germany.

Though the national development of both countries varied over the last years, the circumstances of forest management is still comparable for this region due to the similar structured forests and site conditions (Roering, 1999). In order to receive a valuable amount of data, a written questionnaire was handed to bodies of interest. Collected and evaluated data is supposed to describe the current situation and to visualize upcoming trends concerning the issue within horse loggers and other firms on the private, communal and state sector related to forestry. Further, efficiency of horse applications compared to machines shall be evaluated and questions of the suitable approach situated on individual site conditions will be viewed. Similarities as same as differences on both sides of the border will be out pointed and evaluated in order to draw a picture of the future of horse applications in this region of the two countries.

2. Methodology and Material

2.1. The Questionnaire as an Approach for Empiric Studies

2.1.1. Empiric Studies

The term “empiric” means by definition: based on experiment, observation or experience, rather than on theory (Allwords, 2003).

In all fields of science theses initiate research. To prove or disprove theses, data is needed, which will be received through experiments, observations or experiences because no theses can be evaluated just by a theory. In this way the theses don’t have proved base and can’t be seen in a scientific context.

Due to that, a scientific work always needs empiric studies with its diverse methodologies, to have a source of data.

To receive data out of empiric studies, first of all the object of interest must be analysed in the way of, what should be surveyed, why should it be surveyed and how should it be surveyed. With no clear aim, success in scientific research will be denied. For that reason, the planning of the research methodology with the evaluation of approaches for survey is probably the most decisive phase for the success of a study.

2.1.2. Empiric Social Research

Empiric social research is the systematic recording and interpretation of social appearances (Atteslander, 2000). That means, current situations of certain issues will be recorded in a systematic way through approaches of empiric studies, to interpret and evaluate the actual state as same as drawing conclusions for the future.

Such studies can be conducted through a variety of methods for the collection and evaluation of data: oral, written or by phone interviews, qualitative questions, systematic survey approaches, content analyses of texts, approaches of sampling procedure, attitude ranking and scaling, randomized-response-technique and not reactive approaches, experimental and quasi-experimental longitudinal and cross sectional studies and more (Diekmann, 2001).

Results of empiric social surveys provide important information about social development and demands. They offer a view on the current situation at the market and the possibility to suggest upcoming trends to industry and economy. Political parties, associations, unions, companies and committed residents need and use results of empiric social surveys to make decisions, to coordinate their actions and to follow trends.

2.1.3. The Questionnaire

The questionnaire is the fixed written strategy of a structured questioning (Atteslander, 2000). This approach of empiric surveys is commonly used within social studies and is made up by a written questioning. There exist three different procedures to utilize questionnaires: the written questioning via mail or e-mail, the written questioning within a group under supervision of an instructor and the written questioning accompanied by a phone interview.

Effort and expenses of questionnaires, sent by mail or e-mail, are generally lower than personal or by phone interviews (Diekmann, 2001). Besides, the interviewed person has more time to think about the questions and their answers, which insures a more firm answer. Behaviour and appearance of the interviewer has no influence on the interviewed. Due to the not accruing costs for travelling, expenses as same as time effort is kept on lower scale through this approach.

Possible problems by using the questionnaire method are the misunderstanding of a question and the missing interviewer for further explanation. Aside from, the questionnaire has to be clearly structured, self-explanatory and should consist of an attractive design.

Additional problems within postal questionnaires arise from the incertitude if the questionnaire is answered by the addressed person of interest or if others influence the answering person. Another problem to deal with is the fact that not all contacted persons will answer, which sometimes leads to low number returns and endangers the survey due to insufficient participators for a representing amount.

2.2. Configuration of the used Questionnaire

Within the survey conducted during this bachelor thesis, a written questionnaire for postal spread has been developed. For that purpose, it has been tempted to keep the questionnaire short, to verbalize questions in an understandable way and focus on the main aim, to receive useful information about the current situation of horse-skidding in the trans border region of Germany and Poland.

The questionnaire contains four sections: the company profile, skidding technique and method, horses within the business and evaluation of the horse as a suitable skidding approach with 22 questions in total.

To contrast the results of the survey in Germany and Poland in a proper and easy to visualize way, all questions, besides number 15 and 22, are closed questions with partly multiple answer options. Closed questions have the advantage that the interviewer formulates all answers. They focus on his interest and what kind of information he wants to draw out of the survey. But to ensure useful information, the interviewer need to be aware of all possible answer options which could be given by the interviewed in relation to the topic. Questions with direct ranking or scaling have been avoided due to possible confusing within not carefully worded categories. Nevertheless, to receive an evaluation for certain topics, a weighting has been given in related answering possibilities.

The arrangement of the questions within the single sections have been tried to get arranged in the by Diekmann (2001) so called Trichterfragen (funnel questions). There, the interviewed gets asked step by step from the general questions up to specific ones. This approach provides the interviewer an easy access to the questionnaire because the first questions are easy to answer and the interviewed won’t get appalled by too complex questions in the beginning, which sometimes lead an interviewed to leave the questionnaire aside at all.

Section three, dealing with horses in the interviewed business has been noted to skip if the business doesn’t own horses.

2.3. Implementation of the Questioning

2.3.1. Investigation Area

The trans border region of Germany and Poland in central Europe has been chosen as the area of survey for this bachelor theses (Figure 1). Meaning the Eastern regions of the German states Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian and the Northeastern region of Saxony. In Poland the Western regions of the provinces Zachodniom Pomorskie and Lubuskie and the Northwestern part of Dolnoslaskie were the area of investigation.

Natural borders of the area are the Pomeranian Bay as part of the Baltic Sea in the North of Germany and Poland, the Lusatia Mountains on the German and the Izerskie Mountains on

Polish site in the South. Between these two countries the rivers Oder and Neisse, draw the political border.

The region is of plain shape with sometimes-hilly interruptions because of glacier activities during the Ice Age. Elevations are only infrequent much higher than 100 m a.s.l., aside from the mountainous regions of the very South. Further on, glacial valleys, outwash plains and wetlands characterize the postglacial sites.

The whole region is classified as Central European Beech Forest Region (Rubner, 1960 in Blossfeld, 1964) within its natural forest cover. In detail, the Northern part is defined as Baltic beech forest and beech-oak forest with sub atlantic and sub continental climate. These forests are dominated by Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica partly mixed with Fraxinus excelsior, Acer sp. and Ulmus sp. and on very poor soils Pinus sylvestris. Today most of the former wooded sites are used for agriculture with partly high proceeds. The more Central and Southern regions are defined as pine-oak forests characterized by sub continental climate with annual precipitation less than 600 mm. Main tree species are Pinus sylvestris, Quercus petraea, and Betula sp.. Forest of Alnus sp. occurs along the streams, but these more fertile regions are nowadays mostly used for livestock farming and market gardening. The dry conditions and the mainly sandy soils in most parts of this region are not suitable for efficient agriculture. In result, forests, mostly pine monocultures are dominating the countryside. At the edge of the investigated area in the very South, beech and beech-oak forests of the pre-mountainous zone begin. The precipitation is on a rise; the annual mean temperatures decrease and the soils change from the glacial influenced soils to clay layers above solid bedrock. The occurring tree species are Fagus sylvatica and Quercus sp., mixed with Carpinus betulus, Tilia sp., Acer sp. and Ulmus sp.. Today, the woods lost ground to one fourth of its origin range due to agricultural utilization of the sites.

The area in both countries can be considered as rural regions with a low human population density compared to other parts of Central Europe. In some areas live even less than 25, and at the maximum only 150 persons per km² (Iisa, 2002). No huge urban areas can be found besides cities of medium size like Szczecin, Frankfurt/Oder and Cottbus. Almost no heavy industry is located in the region expect some small-scale chemical plants and the dockyards of Szczecin. In the former socialistic times, mining had a high economic value. Today agriculture, forestry, services and tourism mostly in the outdoor recreation sector are the most important sources for living. Also subsistence gardening and livestock keeping play an important role. But unemployment due to the political and economical changes in both countries is a challenge people of the area have to face in a variety of economic sectors.

2.3.2. Target Groups

To receive an overview about the current situation of horse applications within forestry of the surveyed area in all situations and fields, directly to the issue related stakeholders have been defined as target groups. This means in general the private, state-run and communal forest enterprises of the region including forest service providers and agricultural businesses with a relation to forestry.

The importances of the target groups vary in Poland and Germany. In Poland, the State Forests (Lasy Państowe), which administrates 78,4 % of Poland’s woods (Lasy Państowe, 2003) is the main forest owner and the group, which demands the main focus on. In Germany, 46 % of the forest is in possession of private people (Fao, 1997), which would define them as main target group. But differences in ownership, management contracts and service providing in both countries have to be taken into consideration.

In general it is difficult to declare a group of interest as the main target group. Nevertheless it has been tried to get all stakeholders involved in the survey during this bachelor theses.

2.3.3. Compilation of the Addresses

The search for addresses has been done mainly via Internet. For the German state-run forest enterprises the homepages of the three states located in the surveyed area Saxony, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian were used. There, the departments of forestry were searched for enterprises in the eastern regions and addresses were gathered. Besides, FSC and PEFC Germany homepages were conducted, to search in the member list for private and communal forest companies in the region of interest. In addition regional yellow-pages were investigated to reach small-scale local businesses.

As a matter of the lack in Polish language skills a compilation of addresses for Poland turned out to be very difficult. Because of that, only the state-run forest enterprises could get located over the homepage of State Forests (Lasy Państowe). To reach at least the private service providers, the state-run companies were asked to pass on the questionnaire to cooperating private firms within their operation area.

2.3.4. Test-run of Questionnaire

After compiling addresses and creating a suitable questionnaire, the efficiency of the questionnaire needed to get tested by an unbiased evaluator with knowledge about the topic and profession. For that purpose a German state-run forest enterprise was chosen to conduct the test-run. To ensure that all questions are answered with the supposed expertise, the drafted enterprise is in possession of horses and has gathered experiences with this application over several decades.

The questioning was held on March 25th. 2005 together with the interviewer. During the interview the asked identified some minor difficulties. Some questions were not clearly asked and lead to confusions. Therefore, changes in formulating the questions needed to be done.

A couple of answer possibilities to some questions turned out to be too obvious, especially concerning the issue of the economical advantage, e.g. horse versus machine. This could have led to adulteration of actual thoughts or even to the loss of interest for the questionnaire by the asked.

Besides, the interviewed gave advice for additional answer possibilities, as done by question number 21, to visualize the broadness of the topic.

2.3.5. Shipping of Questionnaires

Shipping was done by different ways for Poland and Germany. The German questionnaires were mailed directly by Deutsche Post AG in DIN L envelopes on April, 1st 2005. Letters contained pre-paid envelopes charged only by use for the return consignment, in order to encourage the interviewed to return the questionnaire. Postal charges of 0,95 € each were payable for the 93 mailed letters, with a sum of 88,35 € for shipping in Germany.

Questionnaires for Poland were handed to a Polish contact person who commuted between Poland and Germany. In order to guarantee minimum costs for shipping, the letters were sent from a Polish post office (Poczta Polska) on the 5th of April 2005, as well in DIN L envelopes containing pre-paid envelopes for return, charged only by use. Postal charges in Poland were 2,20 ZŁ (0,54 €) each and 138,60 ZŁ (33,48 €) in total for the 62 sent questionnaires.

Total charges for Germany and Poland only for the shipping of the questionnaires to the interviewed, were 121,83 €.

2.4. Data processing

To gather the received data and to have the possibility to work with it in a proper way, all answered questionnaires were digitized. For that purpose, the program SPSS 13.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Science) was used.

The SPSS 13.0 application allows handling a huge amount of data in form of a databank, further on to have the possibility of processing the information through evaluation, comparison and graphing.

Operation of SPSS 13.0 demands a coding of the data. This means in practice, the questions of the questionnaire were insert in the data mask as variables. All possible answers received a code. Questions by which the interviewed was able to choose more than one answer needed to be divided into different variables. There, each option for answer is defined as individual variable and the code just elected if the option was chosen or not.

In order to present the results in a suitable way for this paper, additional graphing was done with Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. These diagrams are due to their standardisation a proper way to present data to a huge range of audience.

3. Results

3.1. Return of Questionnaires

3.1.1. Rate of Returns

The total amount of useable questionnaires returned through this research reaches 36,1 %.

Distinguish between Germany and Poland, more useable returns were received from German interviewed firms. Though, the number of companies owning horses was higher in Poland (Table 1).

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Table 1: Returns of questionnaires.

A few of the received questionnaires were not suitable for the interpretation of the collected data. Within returned questionnaires from German and Polish side some were not fully answered, sections were skipped for no understandable reason. These samples were taken out of the survey.

3.1.2. Time of Returns

Through the letter accompanying the questionnaires to the interviewed, the 30th of April 2005 was declared as deadline for returning. Most answered very quick and the returns arrived in a couple of days. Only some answers were received a few days later as supposed, but still included in the evaluation (Figure 2).

In general, the German answers were received a few days earlier as the Polish.

But it has to be taken into account that questionnaires for Poland were send to the interviewed with a few days of delay, due to the fact that they were first passed to the Polish contact person who took them to Poland and shipped them from there.

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Figure 2: Days on which returns were received.

3.1.3. Charges for the Return

Resulting in the use of pre-paid envelopes, to encourage the interviewed in returning their questionnaires, additional costs appeared.

For Germany, in 35 cases of the 45 returns the pre-paid envelopes were used with a charge of 1,46 € each for that service and 51,10 € in total. The other ten addressed paid the postal charges by their own.

From the 18 returns on Polish side, 16 used the option of the pre-paid envelope. The Polish postal service (Poszta Polska) doesn’t take any extra fees for that service provision, so that the price for the returned envelopes equals the price for shipping of 2,20 ZŁ (0,54 €) each and 35,20 ZŁ (8,54 €) in total.

3.2. Results of Questioning

Question 1: How can your company be classified?

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Figure 3: Classification of the interviewed companies.

Most answers received from German forest companies were state-run businesses, with 24 out of the total 42 representing over 50 % of all interviewed (Figure 3).

The majority of Polish returns is made up by private companies, though all addressed interviewed were state-run businesses. This results to the request of passing on the questionnaires to private forest service providers, cooperating with the said companies.

Question 2: How is the orientation of your company?

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Figure 4: Orientation of the interviewed companies.

In both countries, the direct forest related businesses are dominating and the agricultural enterprises are only of little importance. The option to name other types, as the three given was not used at all.

But the difference between the two countries is clear majority of forest enterprises in Germany, representing 69 % of the surveyed German firms (Figure 4). In Poland, forest enterprises and service providers are almost equal in numbers.

Question 3: How far does the operational range of your company reach?

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Figure 5: Operational range of the interviewed companies.

In both cases the local businesses are dominating (Figure 5). In Poland, besides one business operating international, no company passes over the 50 km range. On the German side, less than one third of all enterprises are operating over the 50 km range and none international.

Question 4: In which year was your company established?

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Figure 6: Years in which companies were founded.

Summits in formation of businesses can be found related to historic events with political changes happened in Poland and Germany.

The year 1945, end of World War II, as same as the early 1990’s with the brake down of communism in Eastern Europe point out to be times of reestablishment in economic fields and changes in ownership. Resulting foundation of forest enterprises as well.

But also the mid 1990’s play a role in the formation of businesses, especially within the sector of private forest service providers in Poland (Figure 6).

Question 5: How many employees are salaried in your company?

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Figure 7: Employment in interviewed companies.

The average number of employees in Germany varied between one and 100 hundred, in Poland between one and 85. But in the average there are more persons under contract in Polish than in German companies (Figure 7). Further, in most Polish companies additional seasonal worker, which partly represent more than 50% of the total occupated people, are employed. While seasonal employment is not an issue in Germany.

Question 6: What is the annual timber movement through your company?

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Figure 8: Company size compared to annual timber movement.

As mentioned, the average size of companies in Germany passes the Polish. Most businesses in Poland have an annual timber movement between 1 000 and 5 000 m³, the ones in Germany between 20 000 and 50 000 m³ (Figure 8). These amounts classify the dominating companies of small and medium size. Huge companies with more than 80 000 m³ of timber movements per year are exceptions in the area.

Question 7: What percentage of that amount is needed for self-supply?

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Figure 9: Percentage of harvested/skidded wood for self-supply.

Utilization of timber for self-supply, with averages of the annual timber movement of 3,8 % in Germany and 0,8 % in Poland, are not of a major role (Figure 9). But still, once in a while a company processes the harvested wood by their own facilities on larger scale. One German company even does it with 80% of the annual timber utilization.

Question 8: Is your company certificated?

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Figure 10: Certification of German and Polish companies.

The majority of German companies are certificated, dominated by the principles towards PEFC including all state-run enterprises (Figure 10). A few private and communal companies have the for Germany not so common FSC certification and less than one third of German companies have no certification.

All in all, certification by private companies in Poland is not so popular yet. Resulting, no private Polish enterprise has any certification. Only the state-run companies are endued with certification, dominated by the there very popular FSC system (Jakubowicz, 2004).

Question 9: Are skidding actions always done by your own possibilities?

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Figure 11: Practice of skidding actions.

The practice of skidding is mostly done in combination of company owned means of transport for timber and hired forest service providers (Figure 11). Also skidding done only by own possibilities was chosen quite often. But firms doing so mostly represent the forest service providers.

Only German companies chose the case of skidding exclusive done by hired forest service providers.

Question 10: What kind of skidding means does your company own? Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 12: Company owned skidding means.

The German companies without own facilities for skidding are the same who mentioned before all skidding actions done by hired service providers (Question 9). In Germany, the tractor is with 26 % still most common (Figure 12). Forwarder and skidder, as more specialized machines are following and almost equal in ranking with horses.

In Poland, the horse is with 29% the most common owned skidding facility, followed by the tractor, cable winch and skidder. But, it is to mention that Polish companies owning horses, in a lot of cases have modern and heavy machines as well. In Germany it is mostly either one or the other.

Question 11: which pre-skidding application your company usually implements,

from the location of logging until skidding road?

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Figure 13: Application used for pre-skidding.

Logger and horses are still common for pre-skidding in Germany. But other applications as done by hydraulic loader of skidders or no pre-skidding at all are in use quite frequently as well (Figure 13). Though the tractor has been named as the most common owned application in Germany (Question 10), it is not frequently implemented for pre-skidding.

In Poland, loggers were not mentioned at all and the use of horse is still the most popular technique for pre-skidding. But more advanced machinery is operated as well, dominated by cable winches with 19% and the skidder with 15% of the total pre-skidding. A visible difference in the custom of pre-skidding in Poland, besides the wider implementation of horses, are that skidder were mentioned only occasional through German firms and cable winches not at all.

Compared to the percentage of owned horses (Question 10), there can be observed in both countries a rise of about 5% in the content of using them for pre-skidding operations.

Question 12: Which application is usually in use by your company for the skidding from skidding trail to the forest road/timber storage place?

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Figure 14: Application used for skidding.

Heavy machines are dominating the field of the actual skidding actions in Germany, especially the forwarder with 51% (Figure 14). Also usual tractors are still common and representing almost 25 % of all, followed by the more specialized skidders. Buncher skidder and horses were mentioned only in some cases, but in Poland three times more than in Germany. Further, the amount of operated cable winches is through the actual skidding equal with the horse applications. Besides the cable crane, which wasn’t, mentioned at all, the heavy machines, as buncher skidder, tractor, forwarder and skidder are almost equal through the ranking in Poland, with positions between 15- and 20% of usage.

Additionally, sometimes four-wheel-drive trucks were used for skidding in Poland as well but not on large scale.

Question 13: If your company transports the timber from the forest to the customer, which mean of transport is in use?

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Figure 15: Mean of transport used for on-road timber movement.

Most companies don’t do the transport by their self. It is either organized by the customer or managed by a transport agency (Figure 15).

Firms, who do it self-directed, have mostly trucks and sometimes a tractor in combination with trailers in use. Horses almost play no role in this field anymore.

Question 14: How many horses does your company keep?

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Figure 16: Number of horses kept by individual companies.

Although the amount of interviewed companies and received answers by Germany is much higher, more horse keeper could be investigated in Poland. Also the number of horses per owner exceeds the ones in Germany (Figure 16). The nine acquired companies in Poland, owning almost five horses on the average reaching from one to fourteen horses by the individual firm. In Germany, there could get only nearly two horses on the average and not more than four horses by a individual firm investigated.

Question 15: Which breed do you keep?

In both countries, carthorses of local breeds are in use. Neither in Germany nor in Poland was specific breeds named.

Question 16: Are your horses exclusively used for transport of timber? (skidding and on-road)

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Figure 17: Duties fulfilled by horses in interviewed company.

More than 60% of German and about 40% of Polish horse keepers apply their animals for other jobs in the forest as well (Figure 17). Tillage actions, transport of material and worker, furthermore support during logging is mentioned as additional tasks.

More companies in Poland (42%) are specialized on timber transports compared to Germany (22%). Resulting in a partly more multiple use of the animals for other purposes like hauling on local waterways and carriage trips for tourism purposes as mentioned ones through interviews in Germany.

Question 17: How is the caring for the horses organized?

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Figure 18: Caretaker of animals.

Through an amount of 44%, in Poland the owner is in most cases in charge for the care of his animals himself (Figure 18). In Germany only 33% of the owners are concerned with this duty by them self, but it is still the most frequent situation as well. Further, the animals are under supervision of trained person as same as professionals at equal times in Germany. Polish owners prefer professionals at the working site but are satisfied with trained persons engaged with the caring besides the operations.

Question 18: How intensive is the use of your horses as individual animal?

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Figure 19: Average assignment of horses per day and year.

The amount of working hours per day and annual days of action differ not too much seen in the average for both countries (Figure 19). But individual use of 7 hours per day and 300 days per year as maximum in Germany, were not investigated in Poland.

One Polish company, owning horses additionally to machines, even uses their horses as little as 2 hours per day and 60 days over the year.

Question 19: How would you evaluate the future of your horses in the company?

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Figure 20: Evaluation of future for horses.

Over 50% of both, German and Polish horse owners will make use of their animals by same intensity as current (Figure 20). This means mostly in addition to machines. But also a less intensive use and the annulment of horses are taken into consideration. Thoughts of the annulment are with 30 % more widely spread through German horse keeper compared to the 11 % of Polish horse owner.

However, a few Polish companies also think about extension of horse applications through their firms. Behaviour not observed through German companies.

Question 20: How would you evaluate horse applications as up-to-date approaches?

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Figure 21: Opinion about horses as modern approach.

The majority seems to see the horse as medium for special tasks under certain circumstances driving it to be the best choice for the job. Which means on their mind, horses are not suitable for the fulfilment of all kinds of work in the forest anymore due to economic reasons.

Significant is, that one third of Polish horse keeper consider the horse as an efficient alternative towards machines. In contrast, German none horse keeper have partly a more positive opinion about the efficiency of horse applications as the horse keeper them self and compared to the Polish. But also the thought about no room for horse applications in modern forestry is widely spread (Figure 21).

Question 21: Which qualities to your opinion qualify horses as suitable alternative towards heavy machines?

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Figure 22: Opinion about horse applications.

Current opinions about the role of horses in forestry force it to be an application for special tasks under circumstances profiling it to be an option that can be taken into consideration.

In both countries the utilization of horses during operations in difficult terrain are the most chosen option throughout the horse keeper (Figure 22).

Aside, horse applications applied for duties in natural stands and due to conservation aims were proposed in Germany quite often. Seen from the economic view, in Germany horses are evaluated only as possible alternative for pre-skidding, small assortments and amounts of wood.

Financial contribution handed over by EU and the nature conservation lobby would rise attractiveness of horse applications and further on could help keeping up traditions and employment in that field, as mentioned by some firms in addition.

The situation in Poland differs a little bit. There, the flexibility of horses in different fields of forest work is still very appreciated. But the opinion of horses as no alternative towards machines or just for operations in certain terrain is rising as well, especially through the none horse keeper.

Question 22: Any comments?

Comments were given only by German companies. Most were about site conditions on company intern production area. But a few interviewed gave a statement to the topic, some may listed:

It is difficult to find a good trained and skilled horse operator. Besides, horses always cost money, even when they are not in use. (German state forest enterprise)

Always needs to be seen in total; hoof pressure seen at direct impact is higher as by skidder, total costs and time effort, special laws and insurance, danger of accidents. (private service provider, Germany)

Horses kept due to tradition, use of them in broadleaf stands with wet grounds. But economically irresponsible! (German state forest enterprise)

Good experiences within pre-skidding, but high economical pressure. (private forest enterprise, Germany)

Without no new (old) approaches, horse applications are not efficient. (German state forest enterprise)

4. Discussion

4.1. Methodology

The chosen approach of a written questionnaire spread via mail, was concerning the circumstances of the survey a proper choice. Due to the limitations in expenses and time, it was the best method to reach the supposed amount of candidates for the survey in a short period of time and with a minimum of costs. Expenses for travelling, resulting from personal interviews would have exceed the financial possibilities of the interviewer. Besides, the interviewers inadequate knowledge of the Polish language would have made a personal conversation with Polish companies only possible with an interpreter. According this fact, a by phone interview was not practicable as well.

The option of handing the questionnaires to the interviewed via e-mail would have avoid the expenses for shipping, but was not suitable for this survey due to the fact that less than 50 % of the candidates had internet access or a e-mail address.

To use pre-paid envelopes for the answers in order to encourage the interviewed due to for him not occurring costs, was an offer which came off well. Through the German answers, 78 % and within the Polish even 89 % of the total used this offer. It might have helped to receive the needed answers for a statistically assured survey. But still, it was not enough to comfort all of the interviewed. Unfortunately, especially the German lobby of small-scale horse skidders didn’t answer in most of the cases. Maybe a by phone interview would have been more efficient to reach these important representatives of the horse skidding community. But due to the lack of time, it was not possible to do so during this study.

The test run ahead the shipping to the addressed was an essential step in order to ensure the success of the questionnaire. Confusions within the formulation, as same as dispensable questions and the missing of important facts about the issue could get avoided. But still, though the proofing through a test-run, it was not possible to prevent all non-conformities. Resulting in difficulties especially by the Polish interviewees. Through the four Polish questionnaires, which were not suitable to be evaluated, section four about the horse’s adequacy for skidding was skipped. A reason could be in the non-articulate request to leave section three about horses in the company aside, if they are not in possession of them. It could have lead to the presumption that the remaining questions are only of interest for horse owner.

Contingently, the positioning of this section for horse keeper at the end could have brought these four interviewee to fully answer the questionnaire. This would have arisen the number of useable returns by 7 % to 29 % in total. Further, a higher number of returns from Poland could have been reached by informing the state-run companies not just passing on the questionnaires to the service provider, but to answer it as well.

Separate from the possible higher rate of returns, the information received from the answers can be considered as adequate and allow to draw conclusions and at least to form up assumptions about the current situation of horse applications and further to compare the countries Germany and Poland in this field.

4.2. Returns

The rate of returns during this survey can be considered in comparison to other questionings of this kind, as capable to draw conclusion about the current situation of horse applications in forestry of the chosen region.

Studies through questionnaires usually have success in their returns of about 20 % (Diekmann, 2002). The total amount of useable questionnaires returned through this survey reaches 36,1 %, a number ensuring conclusion representing the average. Also, the separation of answers received from Poland and Germany pictures a representing average for such investigations. With useable returns of 22,6 % for Poland and even 48,6 % for Germany out of the total, the minimum rate of return is reached.

But considering the general low sample size, a higher number of useable returns would have ensured more firm results. Though the results are satisfying, some results are not as meaningful as they could have been through a higher number of returns. Especially the low number of horse owner, with only seven in Germany and nine in Poland, may have an influence on the informational value of these representatives. Further surveys need to find a way to include more horse keeper in order receive information direct from the operating experts.

The reason why on German side the state-run businesses and through the Polish answers the private companies are dominating, is linked to the way of compiling the addresses. Most addresses for German enterprises were received by the state forest administrations. Resulting, the majority of German addressed and returned questionnaires is made up by the state-run businesses.

Though in Poland were due to the difficulties in locating private firms only state-run businesses addressed, almost all returns are by private firms. This results to the request of passing on the questionnaires to private forest service providers, cooperating with the said companies. Unfortunately the questionnaires were mostly just passed on and didn’t get answered by the state companies as well.

Due to these facts and the overall little time frame for the data collection and processing, the survey is limited in an adequate description of the current implementation of horse applications in the German-Polish border region. It can be seen only as a rough overview, suited as a base for further surveys.

4.3. Evaluation of Results

Viewing the issue of horse applications demands to differ between the two investigated countries as same as the structure and kind of companies.

First of all there must be differed between enterprises just having horses in use for certain applications through service providers and enterprises owning horses. Besides, the function and status of the horse in the company needs to be analysed and evaluated. Further on, the prospects of horse utilization for the coming decades through the current horse keeper need to be viewed.

4.3.1. Structure of the Enterprises

The four representatives of the Polish state-run companies are with averages in permanent employment of 66 people and annual timber movements of approximately 53 000 m³ huge in size. All of them practice their skidding actions in combination with own possibilities and service providers. Compared to the German state-run companies, which are much smaller, all of the Polish firms are also in possession of heavy machines like skidder and forwarder. German state-run enterprises in most cases do not own machines for skidding operations, resulting in the commission of forest service provider to carry out the skidding actions. Due to that, although the general employment through German companies is lower than in Poland, but the annual timber movement in relation to the number of employees is higher (Figure 23).

Horse keeping companies in Poland distinguish of them in Germany, especially in the number of owned horses. No investigated company in Germany owns more than four horses. The average number of horses is even as little as two. But the surveyed Polish firms not only exceed the number of horses owned by companies, with almost five as average and even fourteen as highest individual number, also the amount of companies owning horses is generally higher as in Germany.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 23: Relation of annual timber movements and employment (including seasonal).

The sometimes low extraction of timber compared to the number of employees through Polish companies result in the young stands and reforestation sites of one state-run firm. Further, the combined agricultural companies offering services in forestry have a high number of employees by low timber movements due to their other duties.

In addition, a reason for the general higher employment in Poland can be the lower expenses for wages and taxes compared to Germany. Though, it needs to be considered that around

30 % of the surveyed Polish firms are not occurring in this comparison due to the lack of information about their annual timber movements Significant is the fact that 60 % of all companies from Germany, and except one international operating firm all companies from Poland, whether state-run, private or forest service provider are operating within the 50 km range. Of course forest enterprises managing their owned woods are limited in their operation range passing the property, but in the context of the forest service providers it underlines the importance of forestry for the local economy of the surveyed region.

Certification of the companies is according to individual trends in both countries different. Firms surveyed in Germany are mostly certificated towards the PEFC principles. Some private firms prefer the FSC certification. In Poland are the state-run companies certificated after FSC. The system that is with accreditation of 85 % of the Polish State Forests as main forest owner the most common (Jakubowicz, 2004). Through the private businesses in Poland, no certification was located. The trend of certification by private firms is so far not very distinct, which might change through the next years due to the rise of international trade within the new EU members in Eastern Europe.

But currently no relation between certification and the motives of horse keeping or commission could be investigated neither in Poland nor in Germany.

4.3.2. Current Practice of Horse Applications

The horse is a “base machine” with a wide range of use (Sidbäck, 1993). Due to that, there are approaches existing to include horse applications in modern forestry. Of course, the horse by far does not play such an important role as it did in the forests of the early 20th century and will never be applied in such amounts anymore. No doubt about that within huge harvesting operations and due to high expenses for the enterprises, machines will be in most cases the preferred and probably the more efficient approach. But also under today’s circumstances horse applications have their eligibility.

According to the results of the evaluated questionnaires, it can be said that horses are still in use through applications in forestry. But distinctions in the adoption of horse applications through the different companies and the two countries are visible.

In Germany, the horse keepers are mostly either state-run enterprises or private one-man companies.

Others are applying horse skidding as well, but by having horse keeping service providers as subcontractors in their duties. Private firms make up the majority of Polish horse keeper. State-run companies having horses in use, but only through commissioning service providers. Today there are still 3000 – 3500 horses implemented in the Polish forestry and agriculture, 500 of them are in possession of the State Forests (Kosiniak-Kamysz, 2001). In contrast, within German forests are only 1180 horses on duty yet (Kwf, 2003).

Viewing the development of forest technology over the last decades confirm these outcomes. In both countries, machine processing within the skidding started to take place in the 1950’s. In Germany, during the year 1955 machines, mostly agricultural tractors did already 50 % of the skidding. In 1965, horse applications fulfilled just 20 % of the skidding anymore. Since 1985, in Germany the machines almost fully replaced the horses due to the development of professional forest skidder and the rising costs compared to the financial benefits (Ham-berger, 2003). In Poland, the implementation of professional forest skidder took place much slower and on a smaller level, especially within the private sector. Resulting that at the end of the last decade still 40 % of all skidding actions in Poland was performed by horses (Roering, 1999).

According the results of the survey, horses are mostly appreciated for pre-skidding in both countries. They have the ability to pull huge weights for short times and about 10 – 15 % of their own weight for long time periods. Further on, a horse is versatile and in its all-terrain mobility superior to a number of machines. This fact, in combination with the horses smaller dimensions, flexibility and personal behaviour result in small turn-around areas, demanding less space and leaving more production ground in the forest (Waibler, 2005).

In general the stand structure and condition, as same as the management aim is responsible for the implementation of the skidding facility. Most German companies attending the survey apply machines for their skidding actions. If there are no machines implemented within the pre-skidding, mostly the forest worker themselves perform the primary movement of the logs. Though, sometimes horses are implemented too. The horse still has a minor meaning in the field of pre-skidding, but lost almost its qualification for the actual skidding and is applied by German firms only in some cases for small assortments or the utilization of selective logs.

For the investigated Polish operators, the horse is still the first choice for pre-skidding. It is interesting, that cable winches are mentioned a lot of times as well, a application attractive in price insuring gentle movement of logs with no need of extra forest aisles. This application could get into competition with the horse skidding in the coming future due to its economic efficiency (Grammel, 1988).

For the further skidding actions, from the skidding trail to the forest road or timber storage place mostly machines come into action. Nowadays, in both countries horses are of little importance for such operations and mentioned only once in a while. Alike is it with the road haulage. In most cases the customer himself organizes the transport from the forest to the production plant or further distributive trades. Timber provider who do it self-directed, are having modern means of transports like trucks in use. Horse trailer are seen not competitive anymore in this field due to its limitations in tonnage, distance and speed. Sometimes the local distribution of fuel wood by horse trailer has a regional meaning in Poland, but not on large scale. In Germany, one forest service provider also performs the traditional hauling on local waterways. But he is also limited in his distances and possibilities to competition.

Though the meaning of the horse for general transport outside the forest is almost gone, most of the horses included in the survey fulfil other tasks related to forest work. German as well as Polish horse keeper uses their animals frequently for the transport of equipment and worker to the logging site. There, the horses are a useful support for the logging action through horse including approaches (Figure 24). Attributes of the horse like its flexibility and compared to machines less space demanding operation at the site, is appreciated. Further on, the pre-skidding of logs can be done right after. Resulting, during harvesting actions in dense stands of difficult terrain, especially within selective cutting, horses are preferred. Besides, there is no need of additional forest aisles as it is necessary within the use of machines, resulting in a saving of costs for such cases. But it needs to be considered, that this is only suitable for harvestings small in size. On a huge logging site with distances to the timber storage place longer than 500 m, this approach would not be competitive according to Sidbäck (1993) and the surveyed horse keeper.

Other frequently performed duties are tillage actions. Forest service providers of both countries offer ploughing through their services in some cases. In Germany, also two of the state-run companies are doing so. Tillage operations if supposed before plantings or mowing in plantations and nurseries are a chance to involve horses due to their suitability for agricultural jobs in the forest. Further it is a possibility for farmer and agricultural service providers to offer their knowledge and having additional occupation aside the farming season (Koch, 2002).

Aside from the current applied horse operations, horses are able to fulfil a number of various tasks in the forest.

Usually a machine takes over the load from the horse at the skidding trail. But with adequate forwarding equipment like a bogie wagon with a grapple loader, a pair of horses can be an attractive alternative for timber movements to the storage places (Sidbäck, 1993). Besides the movement of logs, horses are an attractive approach for the dispersion of lime via pulled applicator as it has been demonstrated at the KWF Symposium 2004 in Groß-Umstadt/Germany.

In general, the application of horses in forestry is lucrative due to its meaning for public relations. A horse in the forest always promotes suitable forest management to the outstanding audience, a fact of importance within today’s forestry and should be considered by the choice of the approach (Forbig and Encke, 2004).

In order to operate horse economic efficient, assignments of 400 to 600 hours per year as minimum need to be fulfilled (Feldmann et al., 1995). With an average of 1242 hours in Germany and 950 hours in Poland, both countries reach these numbers. Expenses are covered and proceeds of a positive financial statement ensure efficient operation. But this calculation does not consider the competition to other applications.

Explanations for the differences in the amount of hours are maybe caused by the different structures of the companies. The surveyed companies in Germany are only in possession of a few horses and mostly have no additional machines. Which means that they have not the possibility to spread the duties of one job over several mediums. Polish companies with a high number of horses are more flexible in this division and able to substitute their animals more frequent.

4.3.3. Caretaking of the Horses

The caring and guiding of the horse is as important for its performances as its natural features and behaviour. A horse is only as capable and suitable for the job as his operator. Due to that, there is a need of motivated and skilled operators in order to work with horses in an efficient and adequate way (Verton and Merting, 2004).

On German as same as Polish side, only a small number of companies have a professional horse keeper in their service responsible for the care of the animals. Further on, no German or Polish firm is having a certificated professional operating the animals at the working site. This situation results in the high economical encumbrance for enterprises of small and medium size through extra employment of a professional horse keeper. Usually the owner who takes care for the animals as well operates the horses. Even when in most cases, in Germany as well as in Poland, the owner is not certificated; he has knowledge about the subject and suitable handling of the animals. They are skilled by experiences received from the tradition of horse keeping over generations. Because, a horse keeper of the present days is a horse operator of the past, coming from farming. Back in the time, farmers were reliant on the occupation of them and their horses in the forest during the wintertime when no duties were on the fields. Horse skidders of today are usually the succession of these farmers (Koch, 2002), insuring professional knowledge also by the missing of a craft certificate.

In order to ensure the suitable care and operation of the horses for the future, the current horse operator is handing his knowledge to an employed worker who will be responsible for the horses after his retirement. Resulting currently is no trend visible to additional employed certificated professionals responsible for the horses within the firms.

4.4. Perspectives of Horse Applications

Forestry is under the influence of world trade und markets, resulting economic pressure in all the business affecting fields. Further on, competition, demands of costumers as well as policy, force forest and timber related firms to apply approaches enabling them to stay competitive and to satisfy such requests. The choice of the suitable application for a certain operation is affected by its efficiency, the management and marketing aim of the enterprise, as well as the operator’s responsibility towards ecological and social issues. Resulting different opinions and applications in use throughout the companies, as well as varying thoughts about perspectives and future trends in forestry.

Today, old and traditional applications are reintroduced in order to fulfil current demands as same as the invention of new approaches and modern machines rising the efficiency. The issue about horse operations in the forest is a very well affected topic and evaluated in different directions.

The new challenge forestry has to face is a chance for horse skidding. But the common horse applications need to be adapted to the new demands in order to be a competitive and attractive alternative towards the implementation of machines.

Sustainable forest management and utilization as it is promoted in Germany and Poland (Sieder, 2003, Rutkowski, 2000), drives the companies to evaluate an application according to its suitability. Sub-aim systems of forest technology help to consider an application according to its economical, ecological and social qualification in order to insure sustainability (Erler, 2000). But such evaluations cannot be done for an approach in general. The site condition, terrain, current development on the market as same as employment expenses need to be viewed. Resulting in an individual calculation for every job concerning both, horse and machine applications.

The horse has a huge meaning within ecological and semi-natural forest management. Horse logging is an essential component of gentle forest utilization (Bode and v. Hohnhorst, 1994). A statement, which is shared by most of the surveyed companies in both countries.

Aside from the features resulting in its biology, like no need of fuel, no exposure due to noise and self reproduction, the impacts to the forest is evaluated in the context of sustainable forest management more positive compared to heavy machines (Waibler, 2005). Especially within the problem of ground compression, horse applications are of huge potential. Though, the direct pressure of a horse is with 5 kg per cm² around twice as much as through skidder, no wide spread soil compaction occurs. Besides, additional soil injuries resulting through the wheel slipping of skidder are not an issue within horse applications (Feldmann et al., 1995). Such attributes need to be considered, especially in Germany since the enforcement of the law for soil protection in 1999. Also, the principles of the certification systems recommend permanent skidding trails with fixed separation distances between each, offering the horse to operate between. Further on, damages of trees remaining in the stands after the harvesting can be reduced with horse applications. A horse always takes the best way out of the brushwood and compared to skidder realizes when obstacles are crossing the lane and sidesteps such (Bode and v. Hohnhorst, 1994).

Although of these positive features, a number of primarily German firms are not comfortable with horse applications because of the high costs compared to the performance.

Some of the interviewed companies would promote more intensive implementation of horse logging by financial encouragement of the government. An issue discussed in Germany but so far not enforced (Ebert, 2003). But by state supported horse operations would not be an economic sustainable way for a long period. Horse logging need to be independent efficient and will be by the compliance of a few principles. Short distances to the working site, constant working load, implementation of new approaches and the combination of applications including horses and machines are required in order to operate horses efficient (Waibler, 2005). In Germany, mostly the small one-man companies with not more than two horses are not able to stay competitive. Larger firms, owning several horses and machines enabling them

to combine their means and to react more flexible to the client’s short-term orders (Schroll, 2003). The majority of the surveyed companies in Poland fit to this profile and allow them operate efficient.

Due to the limitations of horse applications and the need of an enterprise to operate efficient in the ecological, social and economical way, only the combination of machines and horses (Figure 25) is a long-time option for competitive and modern applications of sustainable forest utilization.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 25: Skidding team made up of machine and horses. (Koch, 2002)

5. Abstract

Horse applications always had a huge meaning in forestry. Its suitability for the labour in the forest and the ability to fulfil multiple tasks made the horse to the human’s main support for the utilization of forests. Before the development of machines, able to operate in the forest, horse applications were indispensable for the extraction of timber. But with coming up of professional machines for forestry purposes and the rise of expenses for operators in the 1970’s, the horse lost its major role for logging in Germany.

This study is supposed to clarify the current role of horses in forestry and to compare the development and trends of the border region of Germany and Poland. Differences in the implementation as same as the evaluation of the horse as suitable application should be pointed out. For that purpose a written questionnaire was handed to forest enterprises and service providers in the border area of both countries.

The evaluation of the questionnaires turned out a more intensive implementation of horse applications in Poland. There, private forest service providers are the main horse keeper. In contrast, through German firms the state-run businesses are mostly in possession of horses. Further, the numbers of animals owned by individual firms are much higher in Poland than in Germany. In both countries the most common utilization of the horses are pre-skidding operations. There, horse applications are under certain circumstances appreciated and seen as an efficient approach for the extraction of timber by horse owner as same as none horse keeper of both countries. Additional occupations are the support during felling, little transports in the forest and tillage actions. Most horse keeper will stay at their animals and use them with the same intensity. But a few horse owners also take into consideration the annulment of their horses, thoughts that are more widely spread in Germany as in Poland. Further, in both countries the purchase of new horses is in most cases not an issue. Though, within the German interviewed companies the implementation of horse applications are generally more accepted by none horse-keeping firms as it is through Polish firms of the region. A fact, which can at least secure the employment of the current German horse logger of the region for the coming years.

Horses are seen as a suitable approach for sustainable forest management due to its qualities and behaviour. This guaranties also future occupation within the semi-natural forest utilization, but with lower intensity. The horse has its limitations in the context of efficiency, resulting in a replacement by machines in a lot of fields. But a possibility to be competitive and conform the principles of sustainability, offers the combination of machines and horses as a firm option, which is applied in both countries of the investigated region.

Though, by interpreting the results need to be considered the low number of received questionnaires, especially the only few horse keeping interviewees. Due to that, the results are limited in their representing of the overall situation and can be seen only as a general overview to the issue.

Future surveys should focus directly on the horse owning companies and the agricultural businesses due to their meaning for the service profession in this field. Further, personal interviews are recommended in order to reach the small private enterprises as well.

6. Podsumowanie

Zastosowanie koni miało w zagospodarowaniu lasu zawsze duże znaczenie. Możliwość wszechstronnego zastosowania koni do najrożniejszych zadań w lesie czyniła je niezbędnym środkiem pomocniczym. Przed wprowadzeniem wydajnie pracujących maszyn, uzyskiwanie drzewa użytkowego bez użycia konia było wykonalne w znikomym stopniu. Z początkiem lat pięćdziesiątych rozpoczęło się wyparcie konia przez nowoczesne wydajne maszyny. Później, wraz z rozwojem specjalistycznych maszyn leśnych, jak również z powodu wzrastają kostów przy zmniejszających się zyskach, z początkiem lat siedemdziesiątych przegrywał koń swoją dominującą rolę w gospodarstwie leśnym Niemiec.

Jednak na podstawie nowego przeświadczenia dla długotrwałego zagospodarowania lasu, jak również zmiana polityki na rzecz mniej inwazyjnych technik obróbki leśnej spowodowały, że powracają dawne i tradycyjne metody postępowania.

Niniejsza ankieta powinna wyjaśnić obecną rolę koni w gospodarstwie leśnym, jak również przyszły rozwój w sąsiadujących ze sobą krajach –Niemczech i Polsce.

W tym celu ankieta była rozsyłana listownie do gospodarstwa leśnych w niemiecko-polskim obszarze przygranicznym.

Ankieta wykazała intensywniejsze użycie koni w Polsce niż w Niemczech. W Niemczech końmi rozporządzają państwowe gospodarstwa leśne, natomiast w Polsce konie są własnością prywatną. Także liczba koni, które są w posiadaniu pojedynczych przedsiębiorstw jest o wiele wyższa w Polsce niż w Niemczech.

W obu krajach konie są używane głównie do prac pociągowych jak również do uprawy ziemi. Przyszłość obecnie używanych koni może być oceniona pozytywnie. Większość posiadaczy koni chce je nadal w przyszłości wykorzystywać do pracy, natomiast niektórzy zastanawiają się nad zlikwidowaniem koni w pracach leśnych-przy czym trend ten jest silniejszy w Niemczech niż w Polsce.

Poza tym ankieta wykazała zarówno w Niemczech jak i w Polsce, że nie idtnieją przedsiębiorstwa biorące pod uwagę nabycie nowych koni. Zalety koni są cenne dla długotrwałego zagospodarowania lasów. Dlatego też będą one w przyszłości odgrywać rolę przy bliskim naturze zagospodarowaniu leśnym, chociaż z mniejszą intensywnością.

Koń ma bez wątpienia pewne granice wydajności, dlatego dziś w wielu pracach został zastąpiony przez maszyny. Poza tym istnieją sposoby ekonomicznego wykorzystania siły koni i wydajności maszyn, które gwarantują długotrwałe leśne użytkowanie. Ta nowoczesna droga powinna zarównow Polsce jak i Niemczech znaleźć zastosowanie.

7. Zusammenfassung

Der Einsatz von Pferden hatte in der Bewirtschaftung des Waldes stets eine große Bedeutung. Die Möglichkeit zum vielseitigen Einsatz für verschiedenste Aufgaben im Wald machte es zum unentbehrlichen Hilfsmittel. Jedoch mit der Entwicklung von Forstspezialmaschinen sowie steigenden Kosten bei sinkenden Gewinnen seit den 1970ern, verlor das Pferd seine vorherrschende Rolle in der Forstwirtschaft.

Diese Untersuchung soll Aufschluss über die momentane Rolle von Pferden in der Forst-wirtschaft, sowie die Situation und zukünftige Entwicklung in der Grenzregion der benachbarten Länder Deutschland und Polen geben. Unterschiede im Einsatz sowie der Bewertung des Pferdes als geeignetes Arbeitsverfahren sollen ermittelt werden. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein schriftlicher Fragebogen an Forstbetriebe und forstliche Dienstleister im deutsch-polnischen Grenzebiet versandt.

Bei den beantworteten Fragebögen ergab sich eine höhere Anzahl von Pferdebesitzern im polnischen Teil der Region, was für die Länder insgesamt auch durch die Literatur bestätigt wird. Bei den polnischen Pferdebesitzern handelt es sich vornehmlich um private Dienstleister, wogegen in Deutschland auch noch viele staatliche Forstbetriebe über Pferde verfügen. Des Weiteren ist auch die durchschnittliche Anzahl von Pferden je Unternehmen in Polen weitaus höher als in Deutschland. In beiden Ländern werden die Pferde hauptsächlich zum Vorrücken verwendet, wo sie unter bestimmten Vorraussetzungen sowohl von pferdehaltenden wie auch nicht pferdehaltenden Betrieben beider Länder stets als effektive Alternative zum Maschineneinsatz in Erwägung gezogen werden. Weiterhin werden sie zur Unterstützung bei Fällarbeiten, für kleinere Transporte im Wald sowie zur Bodenbearbeitung eingesetzt. Die Mehrzahl der Pferdebesitzer will auch zukünftig an ihren Arbeitspferden festhalten. Allerdings denken auch einige Besitzer über die Abschaffung der Pferde nach, ein Trend der in Deutschland weiter verbreitet ist als in Polen. Darüber hinaus fanden sich weder in Deutschland noch in Polen Unternehmen, die eine Neuanschaffung von Pferden in Betracht ziehen. Daher sind die Chancen einer weiteren Ausweitung des Pferdeeinsatzes in der Region in nächster Zeit limitiert. Allerdings wird auf deutscher Seite des Untersuchungsgebiet der Pferdeeinsatz von nicht pferdehaltenden Forstbetrieben generell etwas mehr befürwortet als dies unter den befragten polnischen Forstbetrieben der Fall war, was zumindest die zukünftige Auftragslage der deutschen Pferderücker in der Region sichern könnte.

Pferde sind aufgrund ihrer Eigenschaften für die nachhaltige Bewirtschaftung von Wäldern geschätzt. Dadurch werden sie auch in Zukunft eine Rolle bei der naturnahen Waldbewirtschaftung spielen. Jedoch ist das Pferd in seiner Effizienz limitiert, weshalb es

heute in vielen Bereichen durch Maschinen ersetzt ist. Allerdings können Verfahren die Pferde- und Maschinenkraft kombinieren wirtschaftlich attraktiv sein und eine nachhaltige Waldnutzung garantieren. Ein moderner Weg welcher sowohl in Polen als auch Deutschland eingeschlagen wird.

Bei der Bewertung der Ergebnisse ist allerdings die geringe Anzahl von zurückgesandten Fragebögen, insbesondere die geringe Teilnahme von Pferdehaltern zu beachten. Dadurch besitzen die Ergebnisse nur eine beschränkte Aussagekraft und haben dem entsprechend nur einen orientierenden Charakter.

Zukünftige Untersuchungen sollten daher besonders Unternehmen, die im Besitz von Pferden sind, einbeziehen. Darüber hinaus sollten auch vermehrt landwirtschaftliche Betriebe aufgrund ihrer Bedeutung im Dienstleistungssektor berücksichtigt werden. Insbesondere für eine intensivere Einbeziehung der kleineren privaten Betriebe wären persönliche Interviews von Vorteil.

8. Bibliography

Allwords, 2003: term empiric, (Download: 15.07.2005, 10:29 am),

http://www.allwords.com/query.php?SearchType=0&Keyword=empiric&goquery=Fi nd+it%21&Language=ENG&NLD=1&FRA=1&DEU=1&ITA=1&ESP=1&v=620169 67.htm

Atteslander, P., 2000: Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung, de Gruyter, Berlin/New York

Beyersdorff, U., 2005: Arbeitstiere in der Waldwirtschaft – ein internationaler Vergleich, Bachelor-Arbeit, FH Eberswalde

Blossfeld, O., Haasemann, W., Reichel, H. 1964: Baum – Wald – Holz, VEB Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig

Bode, W., v. Hohnhorst, M., 1994: Waldwende – Vom Försterwald zum Naturwald, C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, München

Bury, H.M., 2004: Auswirkung der EU Osterweiterung, (Download: 04.01.2006: 07:23 pm),

http://www.auswaertiges- amt.de/www/de/laenderinfos/laender/laender_ausgabe_archiv?land_id=98&type_id=3&a_ty pe=Reden

Diekmann, A., 2001: Empirische Sozialforschung – Grundlagen, Methoden, Anwendung,

Rowolth Taschenbuchverlag, Reinbeck bei Hamburg

Ebert, K., 2003, Neue Chancen für Holzrückepferde, Starke Pferde Nr. 26, Starke-Pferde-Verlag, Lemgo

Erler, J., 2000: Forsttechnik, Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart (Hohenheim)

Esser, F., 2000: Der Forstwirt, Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart (Hohenheim)

Fao, 1997: Forest Ownership – Germany, (Download: 17.07.2005, 10:53 am), http://www.fao.org/forestry/foris/webview/forestry2/index.jsp?siteId=5081&sitetreeId=18927&langId=1&geoId=0.htm

Feldmann, A., Degreif, E., Weiland, I., 1995: Arbeiten mit Pferden, (Download: 19.08.2005, 01:42 pm) http://www.g-e-h.de/geh-pfer/arbeiten.htm

Forbig, A., Encke, B.-G., 2004: Tagungsführer zur 14. KWF-Tagung 2004 Groß- Umstadt/Hessen, KWF, AFZ-Der Wald, Groß-Umstadt

Grammel, Rolf, 1988: Holzernte und Holztransport, Paul Parey Verlag, Hamburg und Berlin

Haack, Hermann, 1988: Atlas für Jedermann, Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt, Gotha

Hamberger, J., 2003: Wie Mechanisierung und Umweltvorsorge die Forstwirtschaft veränderten, (Download: 22.11.2005, 05:37 pm) http://www.waldwissen.net/themen/forsttechnik/technikfolgenabschaetzung/lwf_entwicklung_holzerntemaschinen_2003_ghost_DE

Iiasa, 2002: Demography – Europe’s population density, (Download: 15.07.2005, 11:23 am), http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/ERD/DB/mapdb/map_9.htm

Jakubowicz, P.-P., 2004: Forest Certification in Poland, Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw

Jasper, 2005: Rückegeräte und Rückeverfahren, (Download: 05.01.2006, 10:12 am), http://www.kooperative-pferde.de/forstwirtschaft/INFO2.html

Kirchhoff, S., 2003: Fragebogen – Datenbasis, Konstruktion, Auswertung, Leske und Budrich, Opladen

Koch, M., 2002: Traditionelles Arbeiten mit Pferden – in Feld und Wald, Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart (Hohenheim)

Kosiniak-Kamysz, K., 2001: Der Gebrauch von Arbeitspferden in der Land und Forstwirtschaft in Polen, Starke Pferde Nr. 19, Starke-Pferde-Verlag, Lemgo

Kwf, 2003: Fortstechnische Informationen, 7+8/2003, Forsttechnik – Stand, Bewertung, Bedarf, Entwicklung, Groß Umstadt

Lasy Pa Ństowe, 2003: The State Forests in Tables and Diagrams, State Forest Information Centre, Warsaw

Mischka, R. A., 1993: Zugpferde Heute, Erich Degreif Verlag, Oberteuringen

Nick, L., 2003: Veranstaltungsbericht – Stand, Bewertung, Bedarf, Entwicklung, KWF Forsttechnische Informationen, Groß-Umstadt

Roering, H. W., 1999: Die Forstwirtschaft Polens, Arbeitsbericht Nr. 4/99, Institut für Ökonomie, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg

Roth, E., 1995: Sozialwissenschaftliche Methoden, Lehr- und Handbuch für Forschung und Praxis, Oldenbourg Verlag, München/Wien

Rutkowski, A., 2000: Staatliche Forstwirtschaft Staatsforsten, State Forest Information Centre, Warschau

Schroll, E., 2002: Holzrücken mit Pferden- Teil 1: Die ersten Schritte, Starke Pferde Nr. 24, Starke-Pferde-Verlag, Lemgo

Sidbäck, H., 1993: The Horse in the Forest – caring, training, logging, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Research Information Centre/Forestry, SLU/INFO/Skog, Garpenberg

Sieder, P., 2003: Waldbau zur Jahrtausendwende – Rückblicke, Nachdenklichkeiten, Ausblicke, Band 4, Shaker Verlag, Aachen

Verton, S., Merting, B., 2004: Pferdeeinsatz im Wald – Sichere Arbeit der Gespannführer, Immer Grün, Nr. 4, Landesforst Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schwerin

Vieh, 2005: Pferde, (Download: 14.12.2005, 02:28 pm), http://vieh-ev.de/Rassen/pferde.html

Waibler, F., 2005: Zugtierarbeit Heute, (Download: 19.08.2005, 01:14 pm) http://www.mf-tech.de/html/zugtierarbeit.html

Whff, 2002: Technisches Merkblatt 0211, Das Freibergerpferd im Dienste der Forstwirtschaft, Wald- und Holzforschungsfond, BAFU, Bern

9. Annex

Correspondence – Germany:

Stephan Hoffmann 06.04.2005

Frauenstraße 44

06567 Bad Frankenhausen

Befragung zum Einsatz von Pferden bei der Waldarbeit im

deutsch-polnischen Grenzgebiet

Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren,

über die letzten Jahre hinweg unterliegt die europäische Forst- und Holzwirtschaft einem stetigen Wandel. Neu erschlossene Märkte im In- und Ausland, politisch bedingte Veränderungen im Bereich der Unternehmensstrukturierung sowie im Wettbewerb als auch Richtlinien und Verordnungen der EU bedingen diese Veränderungen.

Im Rahmen meiner Bachelorarbeit im Studiengang International Forest Ecosystem Management an der Fachhochschule Eberswalde, soll mit Hilfe des beiliegenden Fragebogens Auswirkungen dieser Veränderungen auf den Einsatz und die Rolle von Pferden in der Waldarbeit untersucht werden. Dabei sollen die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede dieser Thematik in den beiden Nachbarländern Deutschland und Polen verglichen werden.

Bitte füllen Sie den Fragebogen aus und senden ihn mit dem beiliegenden adressierten Umschlag, durch welchen für Sie keine Kosten entstehen, bis zum 30. April 2005 zurück.

Sämtliche von Ihnen preisgegebenen Daten werden vertraulich behandelt und gehen unter Gewährleistung der Anonymität in die Auswertung ein.

Bei eventuell auftretende Fragen oder Anmerkungen kontaktieren Sie mich bitte umgehend, e-mail: shoffmann@fh-eberswalde.de.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen

Stephan Hoffmann

Questionnaire - Germany:

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Befragung zum Einsatz von Pferden bei der

Waldarbeit im deutsch-polnischen Grenzgebiet

I [a1] . Unternehmensprofil

1. In welche Kategorie lässt sich Ihr Unternehmen einordnen?

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2. Wie ist die Betriebsausrichtung Ihres Unternehmens?

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3. Wie weit erstreckt sich der Operationsbereich Ihres Unternehmens?

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4. Seit welchem Jahr existiert ihr Betrieb? seit

5. Wie viele Arbeiter sind in Ihrem Betreib beschäftigt?

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6. Welche ungefähre Menge an Holz wird durch Ihr

Unternehmen durchschnittlich im Jahr gerückt? fm (m³)

7. Wie viel % der gerückten Holzmenge

dient der Selbstversorgung mit Holz? %

8. Ist Ihr Betrieb zertifiziert?

Ja, nach (Bitte Zertifizierer benennen):


II. Rücketechnik und Verfahren

9. Führen Sie alle Rückearbeiten in Ihrem Betrieb selbst aus?

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10. Über welche betriebseigenen Holztransportmittel verfügt Ihr Unternehmen?

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11. Mit welchem Verfahren erfolgt in Ihrem Betrieb für gewöhnlich das

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12. Mit welchem Holztransportmittel erfolgt in Ihrem Betrieb für gewöhnlich das

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13. Falls Ihr Unternehmen den Transport des Holzes vom Wald zum Käufer bzw.

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III. Pferde in Ihrem Unternehmen

(Falls Ihr Betrieb nicht selbst über Pferde verfügt bzw. kein Mitglied Ihrer Betriebsgemeinschaft Pferde besitzt, bitte diesen Fragenkomplex überspringen.)

14. Über wie viele Pferde verfügt ihr Unternehmen?

15. Welche Rassen kommen in Ihrem Betrieb zum Einsatz?

16. Verwenden Sie Ihre Pferde ausschließlich zum Transport von Holz

(Vorrücken, Rücken und Straßentransport)?

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17. Wie erfolgt die Betreuung Ihrer Pferde?

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18. Welche ungefähren Leistungen erbringen Ihre Pferde bzw. wie intensiv werden sie eingesetzt? (Bitte beziehen sie sich dabei auf ein einzelnes Tier.)

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19. Wie bewerten Sie die Zukunft der Pferdearbeit in Ihrem Unternehmen?

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IV. Einschätzung des Pferdes als geeignetes Holztransportmittel

20. In wie fern glauben Sie dass der Einsatz von Pferden noch zeitgemäß ist?

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21. Wann, bzw. welche Eigenschaften glauben Sie macht den Einsatz von Pferden

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22. Eventuelle Bemerkungen:

Correspondence – Poland:

Stephan Hoffmann

Frauenstr. 44

06567 Bad Frankenhausen


Ankieta o zastosowaniu koni w pracach leśnych w niemiecko-polskim obszarze przygraniczanym

Szanowni Państwo,

W ostatnich latach europejska gospodarka leśna ulega stałym zmianom. Nowo powstałe rynki, w kraju i za granicą, polityczne zmiany w strukturze, rywalizacja, zarządzenia w Unii Europejskiej powodują te zmiany.

W ramach mojej pracy w czasie studiów międzynarodowego ecosystemu leśnego chciałbym znaleźć odpowiedź w jaki sposób zmiany te wpływają na zastosowanie i rolę koni w pracach leśnych- Przy tym chciałbym znaleźć podobieństwa i róźnice w tej tematyce w obu naszych sąsiadujacych krajach – Polsce i Niemczech.

Jezeli na terenie dzialania Panstwa nadlesnictwa uslugi transportowe wykonywane sa przez firmy zewnetrzne uprzejmie prosze o przekazanie zalaczonych ankiet tym firmom, wykorzystujacym konie do prac lesnych.

Proszę bardzo o wypełnienie tej ankiety i wysłanie mi w zalączonej kopercie do dnia 30. kwietnia 2005.

Wszystkie przez Państwa wysłane dane są poufne i bedą wykorzystane anonimowo.

W przypadku ewentualnych pytań lub wątpliwości proszę o kontakt osobisty

e-mail: shoffmann@fh-eberswalde.de.

Z serdecznymi pozdrowieniami

Stephan Hoffmann

Questionnaire - Poland:

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Ankieta o zastosowaniu koni w pracach leśnych w przygraniczanym obszarze polsko-niemieckim

I. Profil przedsiębiorstwa

1. Do jakiej kategorii zaszeregowane jest Państwa Przedsiębiorstwo?

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2. Jaki jest profil Państwa Przedsiębiorstwa?

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3. Jak daleko rozciąga sie obszar działania Państwa Przedsiębiorstwa?

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4. Od którego roku działa Państwa zakład? od

5. Ilu pracowników jest w Państwa zakładzie?

stale zatrudnionych: okresowo zatrudnionych:

jednoosobowy zakład

6. Jakie ilości drewna, w przybliżeniu, są przeciętnie

w ciągu roku przez Państwo przewożone? (m³)

7. Jaki procent przewoźonego drewna jest przez

Państwo samodzielnie wykorzystywany? %

8. Czy Państwa zakład posiada certyfikat?

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II. Techniki transportu

9. Czy wykonują Państwo wszystkie prace transportowe w Państwa zakładzie samodzielnie?

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10. W jakie własne środki transportu zaopatrzone jest Państwa przedsię biorstwo?

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11. Jakimi metodami wykonywany jest u Państwa zrywka?

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12. Jakimi metodami wykonywany jest u Państwa transport z drogi leśnej (drogi

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13. W przypadku trasportu drewna z lasu do kupującego lub składu drewna, jaki

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III. Konie w Państwa Przedsiębiorstwie

(w przypadku, gdy Państwa lub zakiad współpracujący z Państwem nie dysponują końmi, proszę

pominąć te pytania)

14. Iloma końmi dysponuje Państwa przedsiębiorstwo?

15. Jakie rasy są używane w Państwa zakładzie?

16. Używają Państwo koni wyłącznie do transportu drewna?

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17. Jak wygląda opieka nad Państwa końmi?

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18. Jak intensywnie wykorzystywane są Państwa konie:

Ilość godzin pracy dziennie: ilość dni w ciągu roku:

19. Jak oceniają Państwo przyszłość wykorzystywania pracy koni w Państwa przedsiębiorstwie?

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IV. Ocena koni jako właściwego środka trasportu drewna

20. Jak sądzą Państwo, jak długo będą jeszcze wykorzystywane konie?

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21. Kiedy i w jakich okolicznościach użycie koni może być alternatywą w stosunku do cieżkiej techniki?

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22. Ewentualne wnioski:

10. Acknowledgement

There, I would like to thank everybody who enabled me to pen this theses. Such an work never has been the achievement of an individual person. But rather the result of the editor in composition with a number of accomponists.

Thanks to my whole family, who supported me in all things related to my studies due to there possibilities. Also I appreciate the services offered to me by Mrs. Lammert and Mrs. Sokolovska, which were enabled by my father. Without them the communication to Poland would not have been possible in the way as it was.

Many thanks to my supervisors. Prof. Dr. Michael Mussong who not only supported me through this theses, who also offered me a lot of possibilties within my time in Eberswalde. My second supervisor, Prof. Dr. Tomasz Zawila-Niedzwiecki for the all-time assistance in the context of data collection concerning the Polish issue of the theses.

Special thanks to Christoph Vosshenrich, who offered accomondation to me through my visits in Eberswalde and was a great and very welcomed support durring the shipping of all the questionnaires.

Analysis of the implementation of horse applications within forestry operations in the German-Polish border region.

University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde, Faculty of Forestry

Declaration of Authorship

I certify that the material contained in this degree dissertation is my own work and does not contain any significant amount of unacknowledged work of others.

1. Where I have consulted the published work of others this is always clearly attributed.
2. Where I have quoted from the work of others the source is always given. With the exception of such quotation, the work of this dissertation is entirely my own work.
3. This dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any tertiary institution. Stephan Hoffmann Eberswalde, February 2006 matriculation number: 520217


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Analysis Implementation Horse Applications Forestry Operations German-Polish Border Region



Title: Analysis of the Implementation of Horse Applications within Forestry Operations in the German-Polish Border Region