India - from colonial power to Indenpendence

Pre-University Paper 2000 27 Pages

English - Miscellaneous





1. Ancient India
2. Oppression by the Islam
a) The invasion of Islamic rulers
b) The Mughul Empire

1. The Portuguese
2. The Dutch
3. The French
4. The English

1. The East India Company
2. The Expansion as a colony
3. Influence on India
a) Political
b) Economic
c) Social

1. The First Steps
2. The Struggle against the Oppression
-The National Congress
3. Important Men
a) Gandhi, M. K.
b) Nehru, J.
c) Jinnah, M. A.

1. The Declaration of Independence
2. The Partition into India and Pakistan
3. The Kashmir Conflict


1. Chronological Order
2. Maps
3. Photographies
4. Excerpt of the Independence Act
5. Notes
6. Bibliography


India with its enormous expansion of space as a sub-continent and its immense population of almost one milliard of people is an important factor in the world-policy of today.

To understand New India it is necessary to have a look at its past, which can be divided into three great epochs: the ancient time including the Mughul's domination, the colonial time and the liberation of the foreign rule. By means of the following explanations a closer look on these three periods shall be taken.


1. Ancient India

Like everywhere in the world the origins of Indian history melt one into another. First evidence we have of a civilisation is brought by the excavations in the Indus valley. The date of this culture, called after their most important cities Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, has been provisionally fixed at 2500-1750 B.C. This population in the Indus valley had reached a very high level of civilisation. They also traded extensively with their western neighbours, and many researchers take it to be very likely that there had been a direct influence of the early-Sumerian cities of the "two-river-land" between Euphrat and Tigris.

How this Indus culture was absorbed by the Indogermans, the Aryans (= the Nobles), who migrated into India about 1500 B.C. from Central Asia, is not exactly known to us. The survival of some of the Indus valley religious ideas in the Hinduism of today - acceptance of the Gods Shiva and Kali and the Linga/ Phallus-Cult -[1])shows clearly that it was not destroyed and has not wholly disappeared until now.

The Aryans were fair-skinned ‑ as they declared themselves in their holy books called Rig-Veda - and for the dark‑skinned, the native Dravidians, they only had contempt. When the Aryans' settlement expanded to the Indo-Gangetic plain, a new monarchy - that of the Bharatas, containing a much larger percentage of indigenous people ‑ rose. A struggle for supremacy between the two political systems was unavoidable and thus was fought as the great "Battle of the Ten Kings". The subjection of the dark-skinned non-Aryans led to perpetuation of racial distinctions between the twice-born (the members of the three upper classes: Brahmans = priests, Kshatriyas = warriors and Vaishyas = farmers/dealers) and the once-born (Shudras = artisans/workers). This was the beginning of the caste system named "Chaturvarnya" (= the four colours).

During the following centuries India was divided again and again into separate regions after the establishments of great empires. Nevertheless it continued to represent a cultural unity, based on a common social structure and on common religious roots.

2. Oppression by the Islam

a) The invasion of Islamic rulers

Before the time of the Islam India presented itself as follows: After centuries of peace and expanded trade great wealth had been heaped up. Politically however, any sentiments of patriotism and ideas of national unity lacked. This splitting up made it easy for Islamic rulers of Afghan and Central Asia to march into the land and finally led them to establish a permanent dominion.

In 712 Mohammed Bin Kassim managed to conquer a base in the North-West but couldn't extend farther - and for some centuries India enjoyed peace at its frontiers.

About 1018 it came to the annexation of the Punjab by Mahmud of Ghazni who pillaged the temples of northern India and established a number of fortresses in the Indus valley. He secured glory in 1025 by slaughtering 50.000 unarmed pilgrims.[2])

In the year 1206 Aibak set up the Sultanate of Delhi and from this new stronghold the Muslim rulers extended their dominion over the entire peninsula. Under the dynasty of the Tughluks (1320-1413) a great empire was erected. This meant the peak of Islamic power in India.

However, during the following years several Sultanates refused obedience. The Sultanate of Delhi decayed and was completely destroyed by the invasion and plundering by Timur of Smarkand (1398).

b) The Mughul Empire

The foundation of the Mughul Empire was ensued by Babur, the Afghan, grandson of Timur, in 1525. Babur's son Humayun (1530-1556), completely ruined of opium and alcohol, almost ran the risk of losing the empire.

More successful was his son Akbar (1556-1605), the great emperor, a man of wide political vision. He tried to achieve unity by human measures and diplomatic activity rather than by military means, abolishing each kind of discrimination between Hindus and Muslims. Due to the fact that he was married to a Rajputen-princess he achieved an alliance with the Rajputen, politically the mightiest power of northern India. The inheritance he left to his son was a firm empire, a devoted population, a considerable exchequer and an unbeaten army. And his political bequest was: preservation of the national state, compromise with the Hindus and unity of India.[3])

Among Akbar's successors Jahangir (1608-1628) and Shah Jahan (1628-1658), who devoted themselves to a peaceful consolidation of their inherited empire and to the furtherance of art, a new flowering time began. Today the famous Taj Mahal in Agra (sepulchre of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal) as well as the Red Fort and the Jami Majid (mosque) in Delhi testify for this prosperous time.4)

Aurangzeb (1658-1707), son of Shah Jahan, saw his vocation in restoring the Islamic spirit of the state. He burned down hundreds of temples, including the holiest shrines of the "unbelievers". Aurangzeb proved the folly of Akbar's dream: The two communities of faith would live forever apart. Because of arbitrary taxation and continual warfare the people became poor and began to hate the Mughul domination. Additional to the Sikhs in the north, a new enemy came up with the Marathas in the south. Besides the Mughul dynasty had lost the Rajputas as friends. The weak successors of Aurangzeb couldn't stop anymore the decay of the former great empire. The invasion of Nadir Shah, new ruler of Persia, finally left only a shadow of the one-time greatness of the Mughul Empire.


1. The Portuguese

Indian nations reserved for themselves the relatively minor coastel trade and accepted the Arab naval supremacy over the Indian Ocean without any question. This functioning division of territory and commerce came to an end upon the appearance of the doughty Portuguese.

In the early part of the 15th century the Portuguese were the leading European nation in maritime discovery. In 1498 Vasco da Gama cast anchor at the spacious harbour of Calicut. Portuguese ships swarmed everywhere and wealth poured into Portugal. At first the Indians in general had viewed these new-comers with calm, even with certain curiosity. But sooner or later a fateful conflict was bound to follow. The great geopolitical struggle took shape. An attempt to liberate the Indian seas of the invaders with help of the Sultans of Egypt und Gujarat was in vain. In 1509 the Portuguese inflicted a shattering defeat on the combined Arab-Egyptian fleet; that battle marked the end of Islam's naval supremacy over the Indian Ocean.

The Portuguese had come to stay. In 1510 they conquered Goa. They searched for trade monopolies and not for great empires. And, along with trade, they had a burning desire to stab Islam in the back, to destroy the hated Muslim civilization.

The Portuguese empire was based on a Lati-Catholic dynasty, and its decay in India was largely due to the fact that its spirit did not remain true to the tenets of Western culture. The missing sense of national discipline, mixed marriages with the inhabitants, a lazy enjoyment of unlimited luxuries finally diluted the barbaric energy of the Portuguese, who became completely absorbed by their oriental environment after a short while.

2. The Dutch

The Dutch didn't play an important role as colonial power. Neverthelesss they were the first European nation breaking the Portuguese's monopoly in India. They first attempted to proceed to the East Indies by the Arctic Ocean, but after three unsuccessful efforts a fleet of several ships doubled the Cape of Good Hope in 1595.

This voyage opened the way for regular commerce, because the Dutch could settle down in India despite of the Portugueses' resistance. Private companies for trade with the Far East were formed in many parts of the United Provinces, but were combined as "Dutch East Company" in 1602.

In India, however, the Dutch limited their dominion to the best islands of the Archipelago which they seized either by conquest from the Portuguese or by treaties with the native chiefs. In the course of time came the ruin of the Dutch Colonial Empire. Its fall resulted from its short-sighted commercial policy; so they failed to introduce their civilisation among the natives with whom they came into contact. The Englishman Robert Clive (1725-1774) put an end to the Dutch supremacy, when in 1759 he attacked the Dutch and forced them to an ignominious capitulation. During the French war in Europe from 1795 to 1811 England wrested from Holland all of its colonies.

3. The French

After the Dutch had lost their influence in India the French took up their position. A few decades ago they had envisaged founding a "French East India Company" as well, but this had not been realized until Colbert, minister of Ludwig XIV., organized it in 1664.

The French began late to extend their influence, but soon they achieved a position of great importance in India. Their principal settlement of Pondicherry was founded in 1674 and fortified a few years later.

When a fierce civil war broke out because of institution of the Nawab's (Deputy of the Mughuls) position, the French and the English intervened. After all the French, being victorious, gained prestige as a great military power and proceeded further and further with the help of the new Nawab.

But the task of raising the French power to its height was reserved to Marquis Dupleix, the French Governor of Pondicherry. Only when the European war between France and England broke out, times began to change: There was also war between the English and the French Companies in India. After a number of minor engagements a decisive battle took place in January 1760, near the fort of Wandiwash. The French army was after all totally routed and their fate in India was decided once for all.5)

3. The English

England had obtained considerable knowledge about Eastern countries and it observed the Portuguese and Dutch taking much advantage from commerce with them. So in 1600 an association for carrying on direct trade with India was founded in London. But the first trades of the English with India only came up to a very modest scale.

In 1612 they established their first trade centre in Surat after defeating the Portuguese, whose fleet of galleons was attacked and destroyed. Some years later the great Mughul emperor Shah Jahan gave them permission to trade with the rich province of Bengal. And subsequently, apart from the establish- ments of trade centres along the East and West Coasts, Madras was acquired in 1639, Bombay in 1661 and Calcutta in 1687. Sensing a favourable situation, the English extended their power; however the new enemy, the French, appeared and tried to gain authority in the land. Fightings were bound to follow and in the beginning it seemed that the English were driven out of the country by the French Governor Dupleix. But soon the situation changed in favour of the British when Clive managed to stop the French by attacking their fortress of Arcot in surprise.

After this great success the English proceeded everywhere in the country; Dupleix was to return to France and therefore the French affair deteriorated.

Among all foreign trading companies only the English were left to enjoy the fruits of a superior military skill and their unity of purpose pitted against a disunited India where a large number of independent states fought for supremacy and would not scruple even to fight one another with the help of the British.


1. The East India Company

"In 1599 an influential body of London merchants formed a plan for the foundation of a Company to monopolise the eastern trade".6)Queen Elizabeth I. incorporated these merchants into a company in 1600, under the title of the Governor and the Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies. This was the origin of the East India Company which was given the right of trading with India first for fifteen years.

In 1612 the Company gave itself a stricter organisation. In 1624 it became also authority for jurisdiction and acted now as a political power. Its first factory was founded in Surat with the agreement of Mughul Jahangir in 1612.

From there the company extended their trading operations inland and soon won Bombay, founded by the Portuguese. It became their best naval station at the Indian coast and a harbour of refuge from pirates.

In 1698 some merchants in London builded up "The London Company" with the same aims as the East India Company. These two Companies were rivals for several years. In 1708 they combined and became the famous "United East India Company". This new East India Company was a lucrative trading company and very important for the English economy. India represented an inexhaustible source of raw materials (such as cotton, silk, spices, calicoes and salt‑petre) which were paid by precious metals. On the other hand India also was an enormous market for English goods.

With the Regulating Act of 1775 the English Crown and the Parliament brought their influence to bear and thus limited the Company's independence. After the Sepoy Revolt (see p.15f.) the East India Company was finally abolished in 1858 and the Crown took over the Government of India.7)

2. The Expansion as a Colony

The colonisation of India was mainly possible because of the Indians allowing the foreigners to trade and to form an army for its protection. In the middle of the 18th century, 150 years after the establishment of the first English factory and the decay of the Mughul Empire after Aurangzeb, the political situation for the English pursuing expansion was favourable. Added to this, the Indian rulers were playing off against each other. And because of later prohibited economical practices and spatial expansion it came to martial arrangements.

In 1756 the Nawab tried to push away the English from the province of Bengal. But the Englishman Robert Clive defeated the Nawab in 1757 at Plassey and thus the English East Company came into possession of the richest province of India. Therefore it also became a sovereign power; Clive was elected Governor of Bengal. The population however had to suffer from his exploitation and had to pass a time of great misery like never before in its history.

After Clive's administration Warren Hastings (1774-1785) was appointed General-Governor for Bengal with Madras and Bombay. His nomination can be considered as the real beginning of the struggle for the English predominance in India.8)

As a shrewd statesman Robert Clive undertook energetically the completion of an English administration. Under the following General-Governor Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793) the basics for territorial dominion were created.

About 1860 the martial conquests were largely finished and England had achieved predominance in India. "Es entstand ein großes britisch verwaltetes Territorium, neben dem nur die indischen Fürstenstaaten bestehen blieben, die sich rechtzeitig mit den neuen Herrschern arrangiert hatten".9)

3. Influence on India

The period of a hundred years after the battle of Plassey testifies for considerable improvement in the system of administration and the social-cum-religious condition of the people, as well as for the spread of Western ideas through education - heralding what is called the "New Age" or "Renaissance" in India.

a) Political

With the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858 and the dismissal of the last Mughul Emperor the English Crown took over the Government of India. In 1877 ensued the proclamation of Queen Victoria to Empress of India. In India itself the General-Governor or Vice-King was at the top of the Government.10)

In 1861 Indians were admitted for the first time to the Legislative Council and the Central Legislative. The Morley-Minto-Reforms in 1909 enlarged the number of Indian members, especially in the provinces.

It also came to a separate representation of Hindus and Moslems for the first time.11)

The restoration of the unity of India and the restablishment of order were British achievements. The English system of law was introduced in India, and now courts of law rather than tyrannical will resolved disputes.

Going along with the English was the rise of western political structures, such as the foundation of a police administration and an army to grant the security of the British dominion against the Indian people.12)A very serious and problematic means of the British, however, was the arbitrary setting of frontiers. As they didn't care about separating ethnic groups there have always been trouble spots.

There has to be mentioned that the British had exempted India from any invasion during their dominion from 1859 to 1947. They did it both in their own interest as well as for India.13)

b) Economic

The first reform introduced by Lord Cornwallis was the new system of land revenue, known as the Permanent Settlement by which the British engaged themselves not to raise the fixed taxations.14)Nevertheless they were responsible for the decay of the old handicrafts, "driving an increasingly large proportion of the people ... to the brink of ruin and destruction".15) By means of importing cheap goods from England and production of Indian goods in their own land, the native handicraft had to suffer a lot.

What supported also a lot the distress which the people were reduced to was the oppressive land‑tax.- The British didn't spend much money in the land, but transfered their revenues to their mother‑land16)and were exercising in India an economical policy of"laissez‑faire".17)

Among other considerable investments the English created the Public Work Department: Big projects of road and irrigation canals were undertaken, the Electric Telegraph and an uniform mail system were introduced to improve means of communication and a credit and bank system was built up.

They lanced the construction of a ramified railway system which proved to be the basis for Indian economy at all. Due to this fact it was possible to solve the problem of famine by transporting goods into the afflicted regions, and the railway also set in motion the whole mechanical transport project. Thus the development of plantation and industry became possible, for coal could be furnished and the finished products could be distributed. A few results were the construction of cotton mills, the raising of jute, sugar, iron and steel and even of the chemical industries. Remains to mention the plantations of indigo, coffee and especially tea which led to the foundation of the Assam Tea Company.

In fact it can be said that the English made the development of commerce and industry possible and procured India a place within the new world economy.18)

c) Social

After the dissolution of the Mughul Empire the system of education was broken down, i.e. in 1835 only 8,3% of children between 5 and 14 years attended school.19)Under the British dominion a Department of Public Instruction was created and schools, colleges and universities were established, but mainly with regard to the English intention to reform the

system of administration and communication.

Thomas Macaulay, member of the Indian Civil Service (1834-1838) declared: "Die Regierung soll es unternehmen, die Kenntnis der europäischen Literatur und Wissenschaft unter den Einwohners Indiens zu verbreiten, und alle Mittel sollen angewendet werden, um englische Erziehung zu fördern."20)Thus the English made enormous efforts to introduce English as national language and a vehicle for Western ideas.

The English also conferred an everlasting benefit by making the female education fully recognized. The new government fought as well a very successful struggle against some of India's customs. One example was the abolition of "Sati" (the wife of a just died man who burned herself together with her husband).

Another cruel rite was the killing of infant girls, because the social conventions entailed heavy expenses and trouble for marriage of daughters. (It was estimated that nearly 20.000 female infants were killed every year in the State of Gujarat).21)

Another important reform was the legalisation of remarriage of widows, the abolition of slave trade and of the infamous murderer sect, called the Thugs.

But mention may also be made of the first fruits of English education. These were the creation of a prose literature and publication of a newspaper both in English and Bengali.


1. The First Steps

Men, like Ram Mohan Roy, Dwakanath Tagore (grandfather of the famous poet Rabindranath Tagore) demanded the participation of Indians at the legislation, the admission to the higher administrative service and the lowering of taxes already in the middle of the 19th century.22)But the new educated classes of Indians opposed as well against the foreign rule of the English. Another group was formed by the religious nationalism (Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda).

In 1857 a great rebellion of the Indian soldiers, the Sepoys, took place in Northern India, known as the "Great Mutiny". It was mainly caused by the annexion policy of the General-Governor Dalhousie who incorporated Indian principalities with the British-Indian provinces. The revolt soon spread to other parts of the United Provinces as well as to Central India. But neither the mutinous Sepoys nor the revolting local people, who rather took advantage of the absence of authorities to loot and fight among themselves, had any common plan of action. There also lacked the participation of the masses who feared a coming back of the former feudal dominion.23)So the British were able to put down the revolt in 1858.

One of the most important changes brought about by the Sepoy Revolt was the final abolition of the authority of the East India Company.

2. The Struggle against the Oppression ‑ The National Congress

The early claims for Independence continued to survive. This led finally to the establishment of the National Congress in 1885. Originally it didn't aim for the termination of the British rule, but only for a stronger Indian self‑government. The legitimacy of the English rule wasn't questioned.

The first success of the Congress was the "Indian Council Act" of 1892. As a result Indians were allowed to be elected into the Provincial Councils for the fist time. In 1907 the National Congress was divided: The Extremists tried to realize the old Indian traditions, praised as the "Golden Age", and demanded an independent India. Whereas the Liberals were in favour of developping India by means of a self-government within the British Empire. But the following constitutional reform of 1909 didn't fulfil one of their wishes.

The Moslems who felt discriminated as a minority, founded the "Muslim League" in 1906 for the defence of their Mohammedan interests in India. Their will for confessionally separated elections was given in by the Morley-Minto-Reforms of 1909, because the English were interested in a counterpart to the Congress.

Under the continuing pressure, the English introduced a parliamentary democracy in India; however with irremovable British officials in the most important domains like finances, police a.s.o. The removable Indian ministers only held responsibility for education, self-government etc.24)

The people practically had no influence on policy. "Die Verfassungsreform von 1920 hatte mit fünf Millionen Wählern etwa 2% der indischen Bevölkerung erfaßt" and "Das Ringen um einen indischen Bundesstaat und eine echte Verfassungsreform war von Runde zu Runde hoffnungsloser geworden."25)

In the Congress, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in 1919, it came to his notification of fight. His main reproach was: The British rulers are responsible for the bad conditions in India. He demanded self-government (freedom and independence) under the catchword "Swaraj", but at the same time renounced violence "Satyagraha". And in 1920 the National Congress embarked on a movement of "non-co-operation" (1920-1947) which was designed as a method of revolutionary mass action such as a boycott of English goods, schools and universities.

Only in 1935 a further constitutional reform, the "Government of India Act", took place, and the general elections in 1936 turned out the Congress Party which came off as the strongest one. Its election program contained a catalogue of basic rights and social demands.

Despite of many arrests of notable men by the English, new leaders came up again and again. They pursued the struggle for liberation which finally led to the Independence in 1947.

3. Important Men

a) Gandhi, M. K.

Gandhi (born in 1869) had studied law in England but was more a prophet for the Indian people than lawyer. His burning love for India caused to bring the old Hindu ideals back to his countrymen. He combined the qualities of a medieval saint and a modern political leader; therefore he was intended the honorary title "Mahatma" (Great Soul).

His first aim was an independent India, his message a simple one: India only had to rediscover its moral greatness ‑ its spirit of selflessness and sacrifice, its power of endurance, its dedication to truth and God, its ancient democratic institutions ‑ to find the strength to defeat the British. Therefore Gandhi first urged self-sufficiency: boycott of foreign goods called "Swadeshi (native articles) Movement", English schools and clubs. After Gandhi's campaigns of "Satyagraha" (non-violent, non-co-operation) and "Swaraj" (self-government) he organized his famous Salt March to the Arabian Sea in Gujarat in March 1930, where he picked up a handful of salt. His aim was to embolden his people to defy the British by refusing to pay their salt tax. Because of his intercession for Independence he was sentenced to imprisonment by the English in 1932 together with other major leaders. After his release in 1934 he dropped out of the movement, leaving the direction of the Congress to younger and less patient men like Nehru.

As the Government carried out mass arrests in 1942, Gandhi announced the "Quit India Movement", a massive program of civil obedience which, however, was unable to prevent repeated outbreaks of violence. In a last great fasting Gandhi pleaded against the separation of Pakistan, but a young radical nationalist shot him in Delhi the 30th of January 1948.

Because of his moral greatness Gandhi became not only an idol of the Hindus but also won the respect and admiration of the world.

b) Nehru, J.

With no doubt Nehru, born in 1889, was next to Gandhi the most important and popular leader of the Congress. In 1929 he became President of the Congress for the first time, the youngest one the Congress had ever had.

Nehru was an intimate friend of Gandhi. Despite of their enormous diversity they had a very close relationship. Nehru, son of a rich house, was an adherent of Western civilisation, socialist and - compared with Gandhi - even a materialist.

As well as Gandhi Nehru spent some time in prison because of his resistance against the English dominance. After the Declaration of Independence, at which preparation he had been mainly participating, he became Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary. He held this office until his death in 1964. His successor was his daughter Indira Gandhi.

c) Jinnah, M. A.

In 1934, Jinnah took over the leadership of the Muslim-League and managed to bring the League to considerable height. He came up with the idea of dividing an independent India into two parts: a Hindu nation, India, and an Islamic one, Pakistan.

Jinnah began his "Islam in danger" (by Hindus) campaign in the late 1930's, convincing Moslems that their safety could only be guaranteed by creation of a separate state. Following this aim Jinnah sabotaged one Independence plan of the National Congress after another. His demand for an independent Muslim State was realised in 1947 when the new state Pakistan was created and Jinnah became its first General-Governor.


1. The Declaration of Independence

There were many reasons which forced the British Government to grant Independence to India. Certainly the most important one was the strength of the national movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Another aspect was that Great Britain, weakened by World War II, found itself unable to keep India under its control.

The change in the House of Commons in February 1947 in London caused that the Government's intention now was to hand over power in India at a date not later than June 1948. The planned Independence was drawn forth because of apprehended riots. Lord Mountbatten, new English Viceroy, announced his scheme which was agreed both by the Congress and the League. On August 15th 1947 it was proclaimed and put down in the "India Independence Act" (excerpt see appendix p.29). The Act of 1935 was the base for the new constitution of an independent India. In 1950 this led to India's formation of a republic with Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its first President and Nehru as its Prime Minister.

2. The Partition into India and Pakistan

The most important provision of the Declaration of Independence was the partition of two independent and sovereign states "India" and "Pakistan". The Muslim majority areas in the West of India, consisting of Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and a part of the Punjab (= West Pakistan), and in the East, the larger part of Bengal (= East Pakistan), were now constituting the new state of Pakistan.26)Its creation as an Islamic state effected large-scale repercussions as it led to uprooting millions of men on both sides. An uncontrolled mass-riot took place; robbery and murder surmounted the worst expectations. Hindus fled from Pakistan to India, and Moslems vice versa. They all believed that they weren't safe enough as a minority in their previous native country.

England had tried until the end to preserve Indian's unity. However, weakened it wasn't able anymore to bear the burden of ruling the sub-continent India in danger of a civil war. Thus they agreed unwillingly to a partition into two countries.27)

Until 1947 there existed still about 560 princely states independent of the British territory. They were incorporated into India. However, the belonging of Kashmir was unsolved. In 1971 East Pakistan separated from the West and founded a state of its own (= Bangladesh). This was very favourable for India as the eastern clamp of Pakistan thus fell away.

3. The Kashmir Conflict

The conflict of Kashmir was caused by the partition into Pakistan and India and the fact that there wasn't any immediate arrangement for it.

The Maharaja of Kashmir ‑ a Hindu-dynasty with a Muslim majority ‑ in the beginning intended to create an independent state, but politically assimilated to Pakistan. As Pakistan tribal raiders suddenly attacked Kashmir in August 1947, the Maharaja asked India for help. The Indian troops came and stayed ‑ it was the first Indian-Pakistan war. In 1948 India agreed to a people's voting on their belonging carried out by the Security Office of the United Nations. This inconceivably ran aground because of Pakistan's stiff position.28)

In 1965, as already in 1947, armed tribal raiders arrived to induce the anti-Indian population to a rebellion. This caused the second war between India and Pakistan.29)The Declaration of Tashkent finally provided diplomatic and peaceful relations between the two states, executed in 1966. But in spite of repeated political meetings there hasn't been found an agreement for Kashmir yet. As long as India and Pakistan will not have found a satisfying solution for Kashmir, it will continue to be a burden for the relations of the two states and the quarrel will go on.


India has never been a political unity. A "...all-indisches Gemeinschaftsgefühl hat sich erst später entwickelt. Wohl entstanden auf indischem Boden große Reiche, aber sie dankten ihre Entstehung nicht dem Willen einzelner Völker zum Zusammenschluß, sondern dem Ausdehnungsdrang, der jede Großmacht beseelt".30)Therefore New India owed its political and economic unity to the former colonial dominion of England.


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


1) Cf. Panikkar, K.M., p. 18

2) Cf. Majumdar, R.C. 19793. Volume 5, p.20

3) Cf. Panikkar, K.M., p.209

4) Cf. Panikkar, K.M., p.210

5) Cf. Majumdar, R.C. 1977, Volume 8, p.335

6) Majumdar, R.C. 19842, Volume 7, p.511

7) Cf. Bhatta, K.A., p. 32

8) Cf. Panikkar, K.M., p.265

9) v. Pochhammer, W., p.429

10) Cf. Bhatta, K.A., p.34

11) Cf. Bhatta, K.A., p.35f.

12) Cf. Bhatta, K.A., p.112

13) Cf. v. Pochhammer, W., p.475

14) Cf. Rothermund, D. 19893, p.80

15) Majumdar R.C. 19883, Volume 9, p.373

16) Cf. Rothermund, D. 19893, p.82

17) Spear, V., p.261

18) Cf. Spear, V., p.265

19) Cf. Bhatta, K.A., p.89f.

20) Bhatta, K.A., p.91

21) Cf. Majumdar, R.C. 19812, Volume 10, p.275f.

22) Cf. Rothermund, D. 19893, p.88

23) Cf. Rothermund, D. 19893, p. 89

24) Cf. Rothermund, D. 19893, p.97f.

25) Rothermund, D. 1965, p.164

26) Cf. Rothermund, D. 1965, p.713

27) Cf. Rothermund, D. 1965, p.716

28) Cf. v. Pochhammer, W., p.766

29) Cf. v. Pochhammer, W., p.768

30) v. Pochhammer, W., p.857


Allan, J.; Wolseley Haig, T.; Dodwell, H.H.: "The Cambridge Shorter History Of India", S.Chand & Co., New Delhi 19693

Bhatta, K.A.: "Indien im Britischen Reich", Kurt Vowinckel Verlag, Heidelberg/Berlin/Magdeburg 1942

Ebree, A.T.: "Indien - Geschichte des Subkontinents von der Induskultur bis zum Beginn der englischen Herrschaft", Fischer Weltgeschichte, Band 17, Frankfurt/M. 1967

Fieldhouse, D.K.: "Die Kolonialreiche seit dem 18. Jahrh.", Fischer Weltge-

schichte, Band 29, Frankfurt/M. 1965

Majumdar, R.C.: "The History And Culture Of The Indian People",

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 11 Volumes, Bombay 1977 - 19885

Panikkar, K.M.: Geschichte Indiens", Progress-Verlag Johann Fladung,

Düsseldorf 1957

v. Pochhammer, W.: "Indiens Weg zur Nation".

Schünemann Universitätsverlag, Bremen 1973

Rothermund, D.: "Indische Geschichte in Grundzüge

Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 19893

Rothermund, D.: "Die politische Willensbildung in Indien 1900 - 1960",

Verlag Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1965

Schorowsky, M.: "Die Engländer in Indien 1600 - 1773",

Studienverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1978

- 32 -

Spear, P.: "The Oxford History Of Modern India 1740 - 1975",

Makhija at India Offset Press, New Delhi 19782

Smith, V.A.: "The Oxford History Of India", University Press Oxford 19705






File size
506 KB
Catalog Number
14 Points
India Indenpendence English




Title: India - from colonial power to Indenpendence