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Population Structure of the UK

Referat / Aufsatz (Schule) 2000 8 Seiten

Englisch - Landeskunde

Leseprobe

A Survey of the United Kingdom

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B Survey about the Population/ Development from 1801- 1999

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C Common features/ Reasons for development

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D Society

Contemporary British society is characterized by two dominant factors:

(1) traditional nation of Britain as a class-ridden society which is still the outstanding feature of British society

(2) more recent development of Britain from an Anglo- Saxon into a multi- racial society

(-> as a mirror of Britain’s imperial past)

(1):Historical aspects, which lead to the development of a class- ridden society Reasons for class distinctions and class consciousness can be traced back to the 19 th century:

a) Industrial Revolution -> Britain became the first industrial nation in the world

-> capitalists ( landowners, factory- owners)

-> mercantile middle class

-> proletariat ( industrial working- class; factory workers/ miners; no land + money)

moreover: -> destruction of the structure in villages

-> “creation” of new cities without infrastructure

-> great differences in the social system

b) II World War

-> decisive cut in the traditional concept of society ( common war experience, rationing of food after the war -> more egalitarian view of society)

c) Post- war

-> class differences were less obvious and social mobility ( movement from one class to the other) has become a characteristic aspect of contemporary Britain

d) Today

-> “class” has never disappeared and has remained fundamental to stratification (gesellschaftl. Schichtung); class redestribution ( Umverteilung der gesellschaftl. Schichten) has not taken place;

-> Britain is nowadays more socially divided than ever before; “steps”, that were taken to prevent this development failed ( e.g. 1945: reforms in the educational and school system)

-> people from the upper class don’t have as high promotion prospects as people from higher classes

Differences in social “background” and language

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”Classes”

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(2): Multi- racial/cultural society -> table and foil

Background:

- immigration started far back to the 16th century (e.g. Jews,..)
- important role for the development : colonial policies
- main stream of immigrants started in the 1950’s (-> indian subcontinent)

Positive aspects for Britain’s industry:

- cheap workers for manual and dirty work ( steel industry, transportation)

Development:

- many “waves” of immigrants, often bec. of politically persecution
- number of immigrants of former colonies is sinking (-> laws !)

Nationality Acts: ( attempts to deal with immigration and discrimination)

- 1914: Imperial Act. anyone born in the British Empire is a natural- born British
- 1948: British Nationality Act: condemn immigration; no difference between British residents and residents of the Commonwealth
- 1981: British Nationality Act: national status is subdivided into three groups

-> immigration rate dropped

Racial Problems:

- prejudices
- social discrimination

-> 1976: Race Relations Act: to stop racial discrimination and to help integration

Examples of ethnic minorities.

- life in common:
high unemployment low education
life in “ghettos” low wages

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A Percentage of the population in the UK ( Mid-1999 UK Population Estimates)

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B Development from 1801- 1999

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- urbanization: -> shifting from big cities into satellite towns and suburbs

-> danger of desolation of the city centre

C Society

Contemporary British society is typified by two prevalent factors:

(1) traditional notion of Britain as a class-ridden society which is still the outstanding feature of British society

(2) more recent development of Britain from an Anglo- Saxon into a multi- racial society ( mirror of Britain’s imperial past)

(1):Historical aspects, which lead to the development of a class- ridden society can be t raced back to the 19th century:

a) Industrial Revolution -> Britain became the first industrial nation in the world nation was split up into:

-> capitalists ( landowners, factory- owners)

-> mercantile middle class

-> proletariat ( industrial working- class; factory workers/ miners; no land + money)

moreover: -> destruction of the structure in villages
-> “creation” of new cities without infrastructure

-> great differences in the social system

b) World War II and Post-war

-> decisive cut in the traditional concept of society ( common war experience, rationing of food after the war -> more egalitarian view of society)

-> class differences were less obvious and social mobility ( movement from one class to the other) has become a characteristic aspect of contemporary Britain

c) Today

-> “class” has never disappeared and has remained fundamental to stratification (gesellschaftliche Schichtung); class redestribution ( Umverteilung der gesellschaftlichen Schichten) has not taken place;

-> Britain is nowadays more socially divided than ever before; “steps”, that were taken to prevent this development failed ( e.g. 1945: reforms in the educational and school system)

-> people from the lower class don’t have as high promotion prospects as people from higher classes

-> number of homeless people is rising

Differences in social “background” and language

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”Classes”

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(2): Multi- racial/cultural society

Background:

- immigration started far back to the 16th century (e.g. Jews, Irish, French)
- 20th century: Jews from Germany
- after World War II: immigrants from British colonies
- main stream of immigration started in the 1950’s: West Indies (especially from Jamaica) and Indian Subcontinent -> cheap workers for manual and dirty work (steel industry, transportation, National Health Service)
- immigration in the ‘80s: especially from Iran (-> politically persecution)

Development:

- many “waves” of immigrants, often because of political persecution, economic differences
- number of immigrants of former colonies is dropping (-> laws !)

Nationality Acts: ( attempts to deal with immigration and discrimination)

- 1914: Imperial Act: anyone born in the British Empire is a natural- born British
- 1948: British Nationality Act: no differences between British residents and residents of the Commonwealth
- 1962: Commonwealth Immigrants Act
- 1971: Immigration Act
- 1981: British Nationality Act: national status is subdivided into three groups ( British, Dependent Territory Cit., British Overseas Citizens)

-> immigration rate dropped

Racial Problems:

- racial prejudices and social discrimination

-> 1968: Race Relations Act: incitement to racial hatred is culpable

1976: Race Relations Act: to stop racial discrimination and to help integration

Examples of ethnic minorities.

- life in common: high unemployment low education life in “ghettos” low wages

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Details

Seiten
8
Jahr
2000
Dateigröße
360 KB
Sprache
Deutsch
Katalognummer
v103107
Note
11 Punkte
Schlagworte
Population Structure

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Titel: Population Structure of the UK